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  • 1. Chen, Xiao
    et al.
    Wang, Zhongqiu
    Zhu, Guoying
    Nordberg, Gunnar F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Jin, Taiyi
    Ding, Xiaoqiang
    The association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population2019In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 435-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone is one of the target organs for cadmium toxicity. However, few studies have shown the association between cumulative cadmium intake and prevalence of osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the present study, we evaluated the association between cumulative cadmium intake and osteoporosis and risk of fracture in a Chinese population. A total of 790 subjects (488 women and 302 men) living in a control area and two cadmium-polluted areas were included. The cumulative cadmium intake was estimated by a food survey. The bone mineral density was determined by using single-photon absorptiometry. The cumulative cadmium intakes were 0.48, 2.14, and 11.00 g for men, and 0.42, 2.11, and 11.12 g in women in control, and moderately and heavily polluted areas, respectively. In women, the odds ratios (ORs) of subjects with a cadmium intake between 2.21 and 10.63 g and >10.63 g were 1.30 (95% CI: 0.58-2.94) and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.14-5.16), compared with those with a cadmium intake < 0.58 g after adjusting to the confounders for osteoporosis. The ORs of subjects with a cadmium intake >10.63 g were 2.34 (95% CI: 1.23-4.38) for all of the women and 2.62 (95% CI: 1.02-5.58) in women ≥ 60 years old, compared with those with a cadmium intake <10.63 g after adjusting to the confounders for bone fractures. In men, similar trends were observed, but no statistical significance was found. In addition, those subjects with renal tubular dysfunction showed high risk of bone fracture. Our results indicate that a high level of cumulative cadmium intake is associated with an increased rate of osteoporosis and fractures among women.

  • 2. Eriksson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenkvist, Dag
    Bellander, Tom
    Pershagen, Göran
    Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps2013In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital noise maps produced according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END) could provide valuable exposure information in noise and health research. However, their usefulness in epidemiological studies has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate Swedish END maps for assessments of residential traffic noise exposure. END maps from three Swedish cities were used to assess residential traffic noise exposure for a population sample of 2496 men and women included in a national Environmental Health Survey. For each subject, we assessed noise levels manually and automatically at three geographical points, using survey data to locate dwellings within buildings. Cohen's kappa coefficient (kappa) was used to assess agreement between the noise estimates. To evaluate the maps, we compared the observed and predicted proportions of annoyed residents as a function of noise exposure using survey data and already established exposure-response relationships. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) was used to assess the precision of observed estimates. The agreement between the noise estimates ranged from kappa = 0.4 to 0.8. Generally, there was a high correspondence between observed and predicted exposure-response relationships for noise annoyance, regardless of method and if data on dwelling location within building were used. The best precision was, however, found when we manually corrected the noise level according to the location of the dwelling within buildings (r.m.s. = 0.029). Noise maps based on the END appear useful for assessing residential traffic noise exposure, particularly if combined with survey data on dwelling location.

  • 3.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI, Research Department, Air quality.
    Pershagen, Goran
    Willers, Saskia
    Bellander, Tom
    High-resolution modeling of residential outdoor particulate levels in Sweden2013In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale exposure assessments that include both between- and within-city differences in air pollution levels are lacking. The objective of this study was to model long-term particle exposure for the whole of Sweden, separating long-range transport from local sources, which were further separated into combustion and road dust. Annual regional, urban and local traffic PM exposure contributions were modeled for 26,000 addresses from a national survey, using a European scale model, an urban model and a local traffic model. Total PM10 was overall dominated by the regional contribution, ranging from 3.5 mu g/m(3) (northernmost) to 13.5 mu g/m(3) (southernmost). Local traffic and urban sources contributed nationally on average to 16% of total PM10, but for urban populations this contribution was larger (for Stockholm around 30%). Generalized to the Swedish adult population, the average residential exposure contributions from regional, urban and local traffic PM10 were 10.2, 1.3 and 0.2 mu g/m(3), respectively. Corresponding exposure to PM, was 5.1, 0.5 and 0.03 mu g/m(3), respectively. Long-range transport dominates average Swedish residential PM1 and PM10 levels, but for urban populations the contributions from urban and local traffic sources are important and may even dominate for residences close to heavily trafficked roads. The study shows the importance of considering both national and city-scale gradients. The approach to exposure modeling at home addresses of a Swedish cohort includes both the regional scale and the urban and local traffic contributions to total PM exposure. With this we can resolve both between- and within-city gradients in national exposure assessments. The within-city exposure is further divided into a submicron (combustion) and a supermicron (road dust generated by studded tires) part. This gives new possibilities to study health impacts of different particles generated in Scandinavian cities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23, 306-314; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.122; published online 23 January 2013

  • 4.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Andersson, Eva M
    Johannesson, Sandra
    Bellander, Tom
    Merritt, Anne-Sophie
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Westberg, Håkan
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 437-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  • 5.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp & Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Sandra
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp & Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bellander, Tom
    Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Merritt, Anne-Sophie
    Inst Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Man Technol Environm MTM Res Ctr, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Sahlgrenska Univ Hosp & Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 437-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 mu g/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 mu g/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 mu g/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1,mu g/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1, 3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

  • 6. Heffernan, Amy L.
    et al.
    Aylward, Lesa
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Sly, Peter D.
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Pooled biological specimens for human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals: Opportunities and limitations2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 225-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomonitoring has become the “gold standard” in assessing chemical exposures, and has an important role in risk assessment. The pooling of biological specimens—combining multiple individual specimens into a single sample—can be used in biomonitoring studies to monitor levels of exposure and identify exposure trends or to identify susceptible populations in a cost-effective manner. Pooled samples provide an estimate of central tendency and may also reveal information about variation within the population. The development of a pooling strategy requires careful consideration of the type and number of samples collected, the number of pools required and the number of specimens to combine per pool in order to maximise the type and robustness of the data. Creative pooling strategies can be used to explore exposure–outcome associations, and extrapolation from other larger studies can be useful in identifying elevated exposures in specific individuals. The use of pooled specimens is advantageous as it saves significantly on analytical costs, may reduce the time and resources required for recruitment and, in certain circumstances, allows quantification of samples approaching the limit of detection. In addition, the use of pooled samples can provide population estimates while avoiding ethical difficulties that may be associated with reporting individual results.

  • 7. Korek, Michal J.
    et al.
    Bellander, Tom D.
    Lind, Tomas
    Bottai, Matteo
    Eneroth, Kristina M.
    Caracciolos, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    de Faire, Ulf H.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). 6Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hilding, Agneta
    Leander, Karin
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Ostenson, Claes-Goran
    Pershagen, Goran
    Pene, Johanna C.
    Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm2015In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 mu g/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% Cl 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 mu g/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14(95% Cl 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution.

  • 8. Korek, Michal
    et al.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Environment and Health Administration, Sweden.
    Svensson, Nina
    Lind, Tomas
    Beelen, Rob
    Hoek, Gerard
    Pershagen, Goran
    Bellander, Tom
    Can dispersion modeling of air pollution be improved by land-use regression? An example from Stockholm, Sweden2017In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 575-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both dispersion modeling (DM) and land-use regression modeling (LUR) are often used for assessment of long-term air pollution exposure in epidemiological studies, but seldom in combination. We developed a hybrid DM-LUR model using 93 biweekly observations of NOx at 31 sites in greater Stockholm (Sweden). The DM was based on spatially resolved topographic, physiographic and emission data, and hourly meteorological data from a diagnostic wind model. Other data were from land use, meteorology and routine monitoring of NOx. We built a linear regression model for NOx, using a stepwise forward selection of covariates. The resulting model predicted observed NOx (R-2 = 0.89) better than the DM without covariates (R-2 = 0.68, P-interaction < 0.001) and with minimal apparent bias. The model included (in descending order of importance) DM, traffic intensity on the nearest street, population (number of inhabitants) within 100 m radius, global radiation (direct sunlight plus diffuse or scattered light) and urban contribution to NOx levels (routine urban NOx, less routine rural NOx). Our results indicate that there is a potential for improving estimates of air pollutant concentrations based on DM, by incorporating further spatial characteristics of the immediate surroundings, possibly accounting for imperfections in the emission data.

  • 9.
    Lampa, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Bornefalk Hermansson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Salihovic, Samira
    van Bavel, Bert
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants2012In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 476-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003--2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (<= 6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (>= 6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.

  • 10.
    Lampa, Erik
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medicine, Uppsala University, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Anna Bornefalk
    Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants2012In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 476-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003--2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (<= 6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (>= 6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.

  • 11.
    Li, Wenjing
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medicine Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Li, Runkui
    College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China.
    Ma, Xinming
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medicine Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Chen, Jieying
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medicine Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Zhenglai
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medicine Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Qun
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medicine Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
    The spatial variation in the effects of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, China2018In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 297-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to lack of data from multiple air quality monitoring stations, studies about spatial association between concentrations of ambient pollutants and mortality in China are rare. To investigate the spatial variation of association between concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 mu m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) and cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, China, we collected data including daily deaths, concentrations of PM10, NO2 and CO, and meteorological factors from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010 in all 16 districts of Beijing. Generalized additive model (GAM) and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) were used to examine the citywide and district-specific effects of PM10, NO2 and CO on cardiovascular mortality. The citywide effect derived from GAMM was lower than that derived from GAM, and the strongest effects were identified for 2-day moving average lag 0-1. The interquartile increases in concentrations of PM10, NO2 and CO were associated with 2.46 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-3.72), 4.11 (95% CI, 2.82-5.42) and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.14-3.33) percentage increases in daily cardiovascular mortality by GAMM, respectively. The relative risk of each district compared with reference district was generally statistically significant. The death risk associated with air pollutants varies across different geographic districts in Beijing. The data indicate that the risk is high in suburban areas and rural counties. We found significant and spatially varied adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular deaths across the rural and urban areas in Beijing.

  • 12.
    Navaranjan, Garthika
    et al.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Wheeler, Amanda J.
    Australian Catholic Univ, Mary MacKillop Inst Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas, Australia..
    Diamond, Miriam L.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Azad, Meghan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Becker, Allan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Dai, Ruixue
    Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Harris, Shelley A.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada.;Canc Care Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Lefebvre, Diana L.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lu, Zihang
    Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mandhane, Piush J.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    McLean, Kathleen
    BC Ctr Dis Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Moraes, Theo J.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Scott, James A.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Turvey, Stuart E.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Sears, Malcolm R.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Subbarao, Padmaja
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Brook, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Toronto, 223 Coll St, Toronto, ON M5T 1R4, Canada..
    Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort2020In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have examined phthalate exposure during infancy and early life, critical windows of development. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study, a population-based birth cohort, ascertained multiple exposures during early life. Objective To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood. Methods Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA. Results The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 degrees C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age. Conclusions Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.

  • 13. Navaranjan, Garthika
    et al.
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Wheeler, Amanda J.
    Diamond, Miriam L.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Azad, Meghan B.
    Becker, Allan B.
    Dai, Ruixue
    Harris, Shelley A.
    Lefebvre, Diana L.
    Lu, Zihang
    Mandhane, Piush J.
    McLean, Kathleen
    Moraes, Theo J.
    Scott, James A.
    Turvey, Stuart E.
    Sears, Malcolm R.
    Subbarao, Padmaja
    Brook, Jeffrey R.
    Early life exposure to phthalates in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study: a multi-city birth cohort2020In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 70-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have examined phthalate exposure during infancy and early life, critical windows of development. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study, a population-based birth cohort, ascertained multiple exposures during early life. Objective To characterize exposure to phthalates during infancy and early childhood. Methods Environmental questionnaires were administered, and urine samples collected at 3, 12, and 36 months. In the first 1578 children, urine was analyzed for eight phthalate metabolites: mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were calculated by age, together with factors that may influence concentrations. Trends with age were examined using mixed models and differences within factors examined using ANOVA. Results The highest urinary concentration was for the metabolite MBP at all ages (GM: 15-32 ng/mL). Concentrations of all phthalate metabolites significantly increased with age ranging from GM: 0.5-15.1 ng/mL at 3 months and 1.9-32.1 ng/mL at 36 months. Concentrations of all metabolites were higher in the lowest income categories except for MEHP at 3 months, among children with any breastfeeding at 12 months, and in urine collected on dates with warmer outdoor temperatures (>17 degrees C), except for MBzP at 3 months and MEHP at 3 and 12 months. No consistent differences were found by gender, study site, or maternal age. Conclusions Higher phthalate metabolite concentrations were observed among children in lower income families. Examination of factors associated with income could inform interventions aimed to reduce infant phthalate exposure.

  • 14.
    Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Public Health, University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Johansson, Christer
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Potential health impacts of changes in air pollution exposure associated with moving traffic into a road tunnel2015In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 524-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A planned 21 km bypass (18 km within a tunnel) in Stockholm is expected to reduce ambient air exposure to traffic emissions, but same time tunnel users could be exposed to high concentrations of pollutants. For the health impacts calculations in 2030, the change in annual ambient NOX and PM10 exposure of the general population was modelled in 100 × 100 m(2) grids for Greater Stockholm area. The tunnel exposure was estimated based on calculated annual average NOX concentrations, time spent in tunnel and number of tunnel users. For the general population, we estimate annually 23.7 (95% CI: 17.7-32.3) fewer premature deaths as ambient concentrations are reduced. At the same time, tunnel users will be exposed to NOX levels up to 2000 μg/m(-3). Passing through the whole tunnel two times on working days would correspond to an additional annual NOX exposure of 9.6 μg/m(3). Assuming that there will be ~55,000 vehicles daily each way and 1.3 persons of 30-74 years of age in each vehicle, we estimate the tunnel exposure to result in 20.6 (95% CI: 14.1-25.6) premature deaths annually. If there were more persons per vehicle, or older and vulnerable people travelling, or tunnel dispersion conditions worsen, the adverse effect would become larger.

  • 15. Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Stockholm Environment & Health Administration, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Potential health impacts of changes in air pollution exposure associated with moving traffic into a road tunnel2015In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 524-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A planned 21 km bypass (18 km within a tunnel) in Stockholm is expected to reduce ambient air exposure to traffic emissions, but same time tunnel users could be exposed to high concentrations of pollutants. For the health impacts calculations in 2030, the change in annual ambient NOX and PM10 exposure of the general population was modelled in 100 x 100 m(2) grids for Greater Stockholm area. The tunnel exposure was estimated based on calculated annual average NOX concentrations, time spent in tunnel and number of tunnel users. For the general population, we estimate annually 23.7 (95% Cl: 17.7-32.3) fewer premature deaths as ambient concentrations are reduced. At the same time, tunnel users will be exposed to NOX levels up to 2000 mu g/m(-3). Passing through the whole tunnel two times on working days would correspond to an additional annual NOX exposure of 9.6 mu g/m(3). Assuming that there will be similar to 55,000 vehicles daily each way and 1.3 persons of 30-74 years of age in each vehicle, we estimate the tunnel exposure to result in 20.6 (95% Cl: 14.1-25.6) premature deaths annually. If there were more persons per vehicle, or older and vulnerable people travelling, or tunnel dispersion conditions worsen, the adverse effect would become larger.

  • 16.
    Rydbeck, Filip
    et al.
    Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tofail, Fahmida
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Mahakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Kippler, Maria
    Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: A longitudinal study2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 504-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent.

  • 17.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fall, Tove
    Department of Medical Sciences and Science for Life Laboratory, Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Broad Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Broeckling, Corey D.
    Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Prenni, Jessica E.
    Proteomics and Metabolomics Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances2019In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic phenotypes. To gain further insights regarding PFASs exposure in humans, we here aimed to characterize the associations between different PFASs and the metabolome. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 965 individuals from Sweden (all aged 70 years, 50% women) sampled in 2001-2004. PFASs were analyzed in plasma using isotope-dilution ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Non-target metabolomics profiling was performed in plasma using UPLC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS) operated in positive electrospray mode. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between circulating levels of PFASs and metabolites. In total, 15 metabolites, predominantly from lipid pathways, were associated with levels of PFASs following adjustment for sex, smoking, exercise habits, education, energy, and alcohol intake, after correction for multiple testing. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were strongly associated with multiple glycerophosphocholines and fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We also found that the different PFASs evaluated were associated with distinctive metabolic profiles, suggesting potentially different biochemical pathways in humans.

  • 18.
    Salihovic, Samira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Broeckling, Corey D
    Prenni, Jessica E
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Kärrman, Anna
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Identification of metabolic profiles associated with human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances.2019In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 196-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may be associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic phenotypes. To gain further insights regarding PFASs exposure in humans, we here aimed to characterize the associations between different PFASs and the metabolome. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 965 individuals from Sweden (all aged 70 years, 50% women) sampled in 2001-2004. PFASs were analyzed in plasma using isotope-dilution ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Non-target metabolomics profiling was performed in plasma using UPLC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS) operated in positive electrospray mode. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations between circulating levels of PFASs and metabolites. In total, 15 metabolites, predominantly from lipid pathways, were associated with levels of PFASs following adjustment for sex, smoking, exercise habits, education, energy, and alcohol intake, after correction for multiple testing. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were strongly associated with multiple glycerophosphocholines and fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We also found that the different PFASs evaluated were associated with distinctive metabolic profiles, suggesting potentially different biochemical pathways in humans.

  • 19.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jönsson, Bo AG
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gennings, Chris
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
    Svensson, Åke
    Lunds Universitet.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindh, Christian H
    Lunds universitet.
    Knutz, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Temporal Trends of Phthalate Exposures during 2007-2010 in Swedish Pregnant Women2018In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of “new generation compounds” coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH). Objectives: In order to evaluate temporal trends in phthalate exposure, first trimester urinary biomarkers of phthalates were measured in the Swedish SELMA study over a period of 2.5 years (2007–2010). Methods: We collected first morning void urine samples around week 10 of pregnancy from 1651 pregnant women. Spot samples were analyzed for 13 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement and least square geometric mean (LSGM) levels of the metabolites were compared between the sampling years when adjusted for potential confounders. Results: All 14 metabolites were detectable in more than 99% of the SELMA subjects. The levels were generally comparable to other studies, but the SELMA subjects showed slightly higher exposure to butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP). Di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites levels decreased while DiNP, DiDP/di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), and DiNCH metabolites levels increased during the sampling period. Conclusions: Urinary metabolite levels of the older phthalates and more recently introduced phthalate replacement compound changed during the short sampling period in this Swedish pregnancy cohort. Our results indicate that replacement of phthalates can make an impact on human exposure to these chemicals. During this particularly vulnerable stage of life, phthalate exposures are of particular concern as the impacts, though not immediately noticeable, may increase the risk for health effects later in life.

  • 20.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bo AG
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gennings, Chris
    Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Svensson, Åke
    Department of Dermatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Knutz, Malin
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Temporal Trends of Phthalate Exposures during 2007-2010 in Swedish Pregnant Women2018In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 28, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of “new generation compounds” coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH).

    Objectives: In order to evaluate temporal trends in phthalate exposure, first trimester urinary biomarkers of phthalates were measured in the Swedish SELMA study over a period of 2.5 years (2007–2010).

    Methods: We collected first morning void urine samples around week 10 of pregnancy from 1651 pregnant women. Spot samples were analyzed for 13 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement and least square geometric mean (LSGM) levels of the metabolites were compared between the sampling years when adjusted for potential confounders.

    Results: All 14 metabolites were detectable in more than 99% of the SELMA subjects. The levels were generally comparable to other studies, but the SELMA subjects showed slightly higher exposure to butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP). Di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites levels decreased while DiNP, DiDP/di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), and DiNCH metabolites levels increased during the sampling period.

    Conclusions: Urinary metabolite levels of the older phthalates and more recently introduced phthalate replacement compound changed during the short sampling period in this Swedish pregnancy cohort. Our results indicate that replacement of phthalates can make an impact on human exposure to these chemicals. During this particularly vulnerable stage of life, phthalate exposures are of particular concern as the impacts, though not immediately noticeable, may increase the risk for health effects later in life.

  • 21.
    Sommar, Johan Nilsson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure2014In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227 μg/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55 μg/l); plasma 78% (0.57 μg/l; GSD: 1.84 μg/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7 μg/l; GSD: 2.48 μg/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7 μg/l; GSD: 8.6 μg/l), 15% for plasma (0.09 μg/l; GSD: 0.04 μg/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8 μg/l; GSD: 6.7 μg/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.4.

  • 22.
    Takaro, Tim K.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Scott, James A.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Allen, Ryan W.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Anand, Sonia S.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Becker, Allan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Befus, A. Dean
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Duncan, Joanne
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lefebyre, Diana L.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lou, Wendy
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mandhane, Plush J.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    McLean, Kathleen E.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Miller, Gregory
    Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL USA..
    Sbihi, Hind
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Varmland, Sweden..
    Subbarao, Padmaja
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada..
    Turvey, Stuart E.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Wheeler, Amanda J.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Joondalup, WA, Australia.;Hlth Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0L2, Canada..
    Zeng, Leilei
    Univ Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Sears, Malcolm R.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Brook, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Environm Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures2015In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 580-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  • 23. Wajsman, D.
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Identification and evaluation of computer models for predicting environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals and veterinary products in the Nordic environment2006In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to European Union Council directive 2001/83, an application for the marketing authorization of a medicinal product shall be accompanied by an environmental risk assessment, including an exposure assessment. Computerized exposure models constitute an important tool in predicting environmental exposure to substances yet to be introduced on the market. This paper reports the process of identifying appropriate exposure models for estimating PECs (Predicted Environmental Concentrations) for pharmaceuticals and veterinary products, focusing on emissions to Swedish aquatic and terrestrial environments via water and sludge from sewage treatment plants. From a large number of information sources, a set of 181 potentially relevant exposure models was identified. A process of scrutinizing and testing these models resulted in a final selection of two models, namely SimpleTreat 3.1 that is used to estimate distribution and elimination of chemicals in sewage treatment plants (resulting in a PEC), and VetPec, suited for veterinary products, that estimates PEC in soil (including pore water), groundwater, and surface water. It is concluded that there is still potential for further development of exposure model(s) specifically designed for pharmaceutical emissions to the Nordic environment and climate. Furthermore, increased regulatory data requirements would facilitate the use of existing models, and improve the quality of the output data from these models.

1 - 23 of 23
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