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  • 1.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Martin, Clara
    Anticipating information structure: An event-related potentials study of focus assignment via the it-cleft2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 134, article id 107203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses event-related potentials to investigate the role of prediction in the processing of information structure, a domain of language that belongs to the level of the discourse. Twenty-three native speakers of English read short contexts including three Noun Phrases (NPs) (e.g., Either an adviser or an agent can be helpful to a banker), followed by a wh-question that established the discourse role of each referent (In your opinion, which of the two should a banker hire?). The NP that the question was about (banker) was the Topic, and the two NPs that could fill the slot opened by the wh-question (adviser, agent) were the Focus NPs. The participants’ brain activity was recorded with EEG while they read the responses to the wh-questions, which differed along two dimensions: (1) the availability of the it-cleft construction (In my opinion, [it is] an agent…), a Focus-devoted device that makes Focus assignment predictable in the response; and (2) the discourse role of the target noun (Focus, Topic), which corresponds to the first referent in the response (In my opinion, [it is] an agent/a banker…). Crucially, we manipulated the phonological properties of the Focus and Topic nouns such that, if the Topic noun began with a consonant (e.g., a banker), both nouns that could fill the slot opened by the wh-question began with a vowel (e.g., an agent, an adviser) (counterbalanced in the overall design). This allowed us to measure effects of prediction at the prenominal article, before the integration of semantic and discourse information took place. The analyses on prenominal articles revealed an N400 effect for articles that were unexpected based on the phonological properties of the Focus nouns, but only in the conditions with the it-cleft. This effect emerged between 250 and 400 ms, with a frontal bias. The analyses on the noun revealed that violations of information structure (i.e., cases where the it-cleft was followed by the Topic noun) yielded a broadly distributed P600 effect, relative to appropriately clefted (i.e., focused) nouns. A similar (but numerically less robust) effect emerged for Topic relative to Focus NPs in the conditions without the it-cleft, suggesting that, in the absence of a constraining cue, comprehenders still assigned Focus to the first referent in the response. Overall, these results suggest that, when reading answers to wh-questions, comprehenders use information structure constraints (i.e., prior context + the it-cleft) to anticipate the form that the response should take (i.e., how information should be packaged).

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  • 2.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Iannilli, Emilia
    Gerber, Johannes C.
    Willander, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seo, Han-Seok
    Hummel, Thomas
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The functional neuroanatomy of odor evoked autobiographical memories cued by odors and words2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral evidence indicates that odor evoked autobiographical memories (OEAMs) are older, more emotional, less thought of and induce stronger time traveling characteristics than autobiographical memories (AMs) evoked by other modalities. The main aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of AMs evoked by odors as a function of retrieval cue. Participants were screened for specific OEAMs and later presented with the odor cue and its verbal referent in an fMRI paradigm. Because the same OEAM was retrieved across both cue formats (odor and word), potential cue dependent brain activations were investigated. The overall results showed that odor and word cued OEAMs activated regions typically associated with recollection of autobiographical information. Although no odors were presented, a verbal cuing of the OEAMs activated areas associated with olfactory perception (e.g., piriform cortex). However, relative to word cuing, an odor cuing of OEAMs resulted in more activity in MTL regions such as the parahippocampus, and areas involved in visual vividness (e.g., occipital gyrus and precuneus). Furthermore, odor cues activated areas related to emotional processing, such as limbic and tempopolar regions significantly more. In contrast, word cues relative to odor cues recruited a more widespread and bilateral prefrontal activity. Hippocampus activity did not vary as function of the remoteness of the memory, but recollection of OEAMs from the 1st vs the 2nd decade of life showed specific activation in the right OFC, whereas the 2nd reflected a higher activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

  • 3.
    Bellander, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Westerberg, Helena
    Karlsson, Sari
    Fürth, Daniel
    Bergman, Olle
    Eriksson, Elias
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Preliminary evidence that allelic variation in the LMX1A gene influences training-related working memory improvement2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 1938-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LMX1A is a transcription factor involved in the development of dopamine (DA)-producing neurons in midbrain. Previous research has shown that allelic variations in three LMX1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that these SNPs may influence the number of mesencephalic DA neurons. Prompted by the established link between striatal DA functions and working memory (WM) performance, we examined two of these SNPs in relation to the ability to benefit from 4 weeks of WM training. One SNP (rs4657412) was strongly associated with the magnitude of training-related gains in verbal WM. The allele linked to larger gains has previously been suggested to be associated with higher dopaminergic nerve cell density. No differential gains of either SNP were observed for spatial WM, and the genotype groups were also indistinguishable in tests of attention, interference control, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning for both SNPs. This pattern of data is in agreement with previous findings from our group, suggesting that cognitive effects of DA-related genes may be more easily detected in a training context than for single-assessment performance scores.

  • 4. Boraxbekk, C. J.
    et al.
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Lindner, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Umeå University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Motor and mental training in older people: Transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 5.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ames, David
    Kochan, Nicole
    Lee, Teresa
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Wen, Wei
    Armstrong, Nicola
    Kwok, John
    Schofield, Peter
    Reppermund, Simone
    Wright, Margaret
    Trollor, Julian
    Brodaty, Henry
    Sachdev, Perminder
    Mather, Karen
    Investigating the influence of KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of memory performance and hippocampal volume in older individuals2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 78, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variability of episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy observed with increasing age may partly be explained by genetic factors. KIBRA (kidney and brain expressed protein) and CLSTN2 (calsyntenin 2) are two candidate genes previously linked to episodic memory performance and volume of the hippocampus, a key memory structure. However, whether polymorphisms in these two genes also influence age-related longitudinal memory decline and hippocampal atrophy is still unknown. Using data from two independent cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and the Older Australian Twins Study, we investigated whether the KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms (rs17070145 and rs6439886) are associated with episodic memory performance and hippocampal volume in older adults (65–90 years at baseline). We were able to examine these polymorphisms in relation to memory and hippocampal volume using cross-sectional data and, more importantly, also using longitudinal data (2 years between testing occasions). Overall we did not find support for an association of KIBRA either alone or in combination with CLSTN2 with memory performance or hippocampal volume, nor did variation in these genes influence longitudinal memory decline or hippocampal atrophy in two cohorts of older adults.

  • 6.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lindner, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Motor and mental training in older people: transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor-only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 7.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Handedness in preterm born children: a systematic review and a meta-analysis2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 2299-2310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that left and/or non-right handedness (NRH) is over-represented in children with a history of preterm birth because such births are associated with a greater incidence of insult to the brain. We report an approximate two-fold increase in left and/or non-right handedness based on a systematic search of the literature from 1980 to September 2010 for English-language articles reporting handedness status in preterm children compared with fullterm controls either as a main focus of the study or as a secondary finding. In total, thirty articles met the inclusion criteria. However, there was a great variation between the included studies in terms of objectives, population characteristics, sample size and methodologies used. While the majority of studies reported a higher incidence of NRH in preterm than fullterm children, this was not a consistent finding. A quality assessment was made to explore the differences in overall study quality and handedness assessment methodology between studies. A random-effects model meta-analysis was then performed to estimate the accumulated effect of preterm birth on handedness (18 studies; 1947 cases and 8170 controls). Preterm children displayed a significantly higher occurrence of NRH than fullterm children (odds ratio [OR]: 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.59–2.78). Sources of heterogeneity were investigated by supplementary meta-analyses considering studies with high or low overall and handedness assessment quality. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test of the intercept and Duvall and Tweedie’s trim-and-fill method. The outcomes of these procedures did not jeopardize the overall finding of reliably increased OR for NRH in preterm children. The present review suggests that a preterm birth is indeed associated with a greater than two-fold likelihood of NRH. Several studies also explored the relationship between handedness and neuropsychological functioning (cognition mainly) with an array of methods. Although not without disagreement, this association was found to be concordant. Studying handedness in preterm children, therefore, is a potentially important index of hemispheric organization and cognitive and sensory–motor functions following neurodevelopmental disturbance.

  • 8.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    D'Ausilio, A.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fadiga, L.
    The motor cortex is causally related to predictive eye movements during action observation2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 488-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the hypothesis that predictive gaze during observation of other people's actions depends on the activation of corresponding action plans in the observer. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and eye-tracking technology we found that stimulation of the motor hand area, but not of the leg area, slowed gaze predictive behavior (compared to no TMS). This result shows that predictive eye movements to others' action goals depend on a somatotopical recruitment of the observer's motor system. The study provides direct support for the view that a direct matching process implemented in the mirror-neuron system plays a functional role for real-time goal prediction.

  • 9.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bakker, Marta
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Human infants orient to biological motion rather than audiovisual synchrony2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 2131-2135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both orienting to audiovisual synchrony and to biological motion are adaptive responses. The ability to integrate correlated information from multiple senses reduces processing load and underlies the perception of a multimodal and unified world. Perceiving biological motion facilitates filial attachment and detection of predators/prey. In the literature, these mechanisms are discussed in isolation. In this eye-tracking study, we tested their relative strengths in young human infants. We showed five-month-old infants point-light animation pairs of human motion, accompanied by a soundtrack. We found that audiovisual synchrony was a strong determinant of attention when it was embedded in biological motion (two upright animations). However, when biological motion was shown together with distorted biological motion (upright animation and inverted animation, respectively), infants looked at the upright animation and disregarded audiovisual synchrony. Thus, infants oriented to biological motion rather than multimodally unified physical events. These findings have important implications for understanding the developmental trajectory of brain specialization in early human infancy.

  • 10.
    Ferri, Francesca
    et al.
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    University of London, England.
    Väljamäe, Aleksander
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vastano, Roberta
    Fdn Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; University of G DAnnunzio, Italy.
    Costantini, Marcello
    University of Ottawa, Canada; University of G DAnnunzio, Italy; University of G DAnnunzio, Italy.
    Emotion-inducing approaching sounds shape the boundaries of multisensory peripersonal space2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 70, p. 468-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to survive in a complex environment, inhabited by potentially threatening and noxious objects or living beings, we need to constantly monitor our surrounding space, especially in the vicinity of our body. Such a space has been commonly referred to as ones peripersonal space (PPS). In this study we investigated whether emotion-inducing approaching sound sources impact the boundaries of PPS. Previous studies have indeed showed that the boundaries of PPS are not fixed but modulate according to properties of stimuli in the surrounding environment. In Experiment 1, participants performed a simple tactile detection task of targets presented to their right hand. Concurrently, they were presented with intensity-changing task-irrelevant artificial sound sources perceived as approaching toward their body. The physical properties of the sound elicited emotional responses of either neutral or negative valence. Results showed larger PPS when the approaching stimulus had negative as compared to neutral emotional valence. In Experiment 2, we used ecological sounds which content (i.e., psychological associations to the sound producing source), rather than physical properties, elicited emotional responses of negative, positive or neutral valence. In agreement with results from experiment 1, we found larger PPS when the approaching stimuli had negative emotional valence as compared to both neutral and positive ones. Results are discussed within the theoretical framework that conceives PPS as a safety zone around ones body. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Fingelkurts, Andrew
    et al.
    BM-SCIENCE - Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, P.O. Box 77, FI-02601 Espoo, Finland.
    Fingelkurts, Alexander
    BM-SCIENCE - Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, P.O. Box 77, FI-02601 Espoo, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Cortex Functional Connectivity as a Neurophysiological Correlate of Hypnosis: an EEG Case Study2007In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1452-1462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cortex functional connectivity associated with hypnosis was investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject in a normal baseline condition and under neutral hypnosis during two sessions separated by a year. After the hypnotic induction, but without further suggestions as compared to the baseline condition, all studied parameters of local and remote functional connectivity were significantly changed. The significant differences between hypnosis and the baseline condition were observable (to different extent) in five studied independent frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma). The results were consistent and stable after 1 year. Based on these findings we conclude that alteration in functional connectivity of the brain may be regarded as a neuronal correlate of hypnosis (at least in very highly hypnotizable subjects) in which separate cognitive modules and subsystems may be temporarily incapable of communicating with each other normally

  • 12. Franklin, Anna
    et al.
    Catherwood, Di
    Alvarez, James
    Axelsson, Emma
    Hemispheric asymmetries in categorical perception of orientation in infants and adults2010In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 48, p. 2648-2657Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Freidle, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lebedev, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    No evidence for any effect of multiple sessions of frontal transcranial direct stimulation on mood in healthy older adults2020In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 137, article id 107325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is part of a network important for emotional regulation and the possibility of modulating activity in this region with transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) to change mood has gained great interest, particularly for application in clinical populations. Whilst results in major depressive disorder have been promising, less is known about the effects of TDCS on mood in non-clinical populations. We hypothesized that multiple sessions of anodal TDCS applied over the left DLPFC would enhance mood, primarily as measured by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire, in healthy older adults. In addition, in an exploratory analysis, we examined the potentially moderating role of working memory training. Working memory, just like emotional regulation, taxes the DLPFC, which suggests that engaging in a working memory task whilst receiving TDCS may have a different effect on activity in this region and consequently mood. A total of 123 participants between 65 and 75 years of age were randomly assigned to receive either 20 sessions of TDCS, with or without working memory training, or 20 sessions sham stimulation, with or without working memory training. We found no support for enhancement of mood due to TDCS in healthy older adults, with or without cognitive training and conclude that the TDCS protocol used is unlikely to improve mood in non-depressed older individuals.

  • 14.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Souchet, Jérémie
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Aubret, Fabien
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Segurini, Giulia V.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Pattern matters: Snakes exhibiting triangular and diamond-shaped skin patterns modulate electrophysiological activity in human visual cortex2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 131, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural and perceptual mechanisms that support the efficient visual detection of snakes in humans are still not fully understood. According to the Snake Detection Theory, selection pressures posed by snakes on early primates have shaped the development of the visual system. Previous studies in humans have investigated early visual electrophysiological activity in response to snake images vs. various alternative dangerous or non-dangerous stimuli. These studies have shown that the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) component is selectively elicited by snake or snake-like images. Recent findings yielded the complementary/alternative hypothesis that early humans (and possibly other primates) evolved an aversion especially for potentially harmful triangular shapes, such as teeth, claws or spikes. In the present study we investigated the effect of triangular and diamond-shaped patterns in snake skins on the ERP correlates of visual processing in humans. In the first experiment, we employed pictures of snakes displaying either triangular/diamond-shaped patterns or no particular pattern on their skins, and pictures of frogs as control. Participants observed a random visual presentation of these pictures. Consistent with previous studies, snakes elicited an enhanced negativity between 225 and 300 ms (EPN) compared to frogs. However, snakes featuring triangular/diamond-shaped patterns on their skin produced an enhanced EPN compared to the snakes that did not display such patterns. In a second experiment we used pictures displaying only skin patterns of snakes and frogs. Results from the second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment, suggesting that triangular snake-skin patterns modulate the activity in human visual cortex. Taken together, our results constitute an important contribution to the snake detection theory. 

  • 15.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University, Gavlegatan € 16, S11330, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Wahlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Longitudinal evidence that reduced hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry predicts episodic-memory impairment in aging2020In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 137, article id 107329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HERA (Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry) model captures hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain activity during memory encoding and retrieval. Reduced HERA has been observed in cross-sectional aging studies, but there is no longitudinal evidence, to our knowledge, on age-related changes in HERA and whether maintained or reduced HERA relates to well-preserved memory functioning. In the present study we set out to explore HERA in a longitudinal neuroimaging sample from the Betula study [3 Waves over 10 years; Wave-1: n = 363, W2: n = 227, W3: n = 101]. We used fMRI data from a face-name paired-associates task to derive a HERA index. In support of the HERA model, the mean HERA index was positive across the three imaging waves. The longitudinal age-HERA relationship was highly significant (p < 10(-11)), with a HERA decline occurring after age 60. The age-related HERA decline was associated with episodic memory decline (p < 0.05). Taken together, the findings provide large-scale support for the HERA model, and suggest that reduced HERA in the PFC reflects pathological memory aging possibly related to impaired ability to bias mnemonic processing according to the appropriate encoding or retrieval state.

  • 16. Johansson, Jarkko
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Andersson, Micael
    Nyberg, Lars
    Longitudinal evidence that reduced hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry predicts episodic-memory impairment in aging2020In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 137, article id 107329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HERA (Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry) model captures hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) brain activity during memory encoding and retrieval. Reduced HERA has been observed in cross-sectional aging studies, but there is no longitudinal evidence, to our knowledge, on age-related changes in HERA and whether maintained or reduced HERA relates to well-preserved memory functioning. In the present study we set out to explore HERA in a longitudinal neuroimaging sample from the Betula study [3 Waves over 10 years; Wave-1: n = 363, W2: n = 227, W3: n = 101]. We used fMRI data from a face-name paired-associates task to derive a HERA index. In support of the HERA model, the mean HERA index was positive across the three imaging waves. The longitudinal age-HERA relationship was highly significant (p < 10(-11)), with a HERA decline occurring after age 60. The age-related HERA decline was associated with episodic memory decline (p < 0.05). Taken together, the findings provide large-scale support for the HERA model, and suggest that reduced HERA in the PFC reflects pathological memory aging possibly related to impaired ability to bias mnemonic processing according to the appropriate encoding or retrieval state.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Bäckman, L.
    Herlitz, A.
    Nilsson, L-G.
    Winblad, B.
    Österlind, P-O.
    Memory improvement at different stages of Alzheimer's disease1989In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 27, p. 737-742Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Decreased medial temporal lobe activation in BDNF 66Met allele carriers during memory encoding2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 2462-2468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Met allele of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism has been associated with impaired activity-dependent secretion of BDNF protein and decreased memory performance. Results from imaging studies relating Val(66)Met to brain activation during memory processing have been inconsistent, with reports of both increased and decreased activation in the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) in Met carriers relative to Val homozygotes. Here, we extensively studied BDNF Val(66)Met in relation to brain activation and white matter integrity as well as memory performance in a large imaging (n=194) and behavioral (n=2229) sample, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate MTL activation in healthy participants in the age of 55-75 years during a face-name episodic encoding and retrieval task. White matter integrity was measured using diffusion tensor imaging.

    BDNF Met allele carriers had significantly decreased activation in the MTL during encoding processes, but not during retrieval processes. In contrast to previous proposals, the effect was not modulated by age and the polymorphism was not related to white matter integrity. Met carriers had lower memory performance than Val homozygotes, but differences were subtle and not significant. In conclusion, the BDNF Met allele has a negative influence on MTL functioning, preferentially during encoding processes, which might translate into impaired episodic memory function.

  • 19. Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Lundquist, Anders
    Eriksson, Elias
    Nyberg, Lars
    Decreased medial temporal lobe activation in BDNF 66Met allele carriers during memory encoding2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 2462-2468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Met allele of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with impaired activity-dependent secretion of BDNF protein and decreased memory performance. Results from imaging studies relating Val66Met to brain activation during memory processing have been inconsistent, with reports of both increased and decreased activation in the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) in Met carriers relative to Val homozygotes. Here, we extensively studied BDNF Val66Met in relation to brain activation and white matter integrity as well as memory performance in a large imaging (n=194) and behavioral (n=2229) sample, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate MTL activation in healthy participants in the age of 55–75 years during a face-name episodic encoding and retrieval task. White matter integrity was measured using diffusion tensor imaging.

    BDNF Met allele carriers had significantly decreased activation in the MTL during encoding processes, but not during retrieval processes. In contrast to previous proposals, the effect was not modulated by age and the polymorphism was not related to white matter integrity. Met carriers had lower memory performance than Val homozygotes, but differences were subtle and not significant. In conclusion, the BDNF Met allele has a negative influence on MTL functioning, preferentially during encoding processes, which might translate into impaired episodic memory function.

  • 20.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Hurme, Mikko
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Tallus, Jussi
    Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Teemu
    Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials2017In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 107, p. 94-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches. Subjective visibility ratings showed that TMS of right IPS shifted the visibility toward the right hemifield, while TMS of left IPS did not have any behavioral effect. TMS of right IPS, but not left one, reduced the amplitude of posterior N1 potential, 180–220 ms after stimulus-onset. The attenuation of N1 occurred bilaterally over the posterior areas of both hemispheres. Consistent with previous TMS-fMRI studies, this finding suggests that the right IPS has top-down control on the neural processing in visual cortex. As N1 most probably reflects reactivation of early visual areas, the current findings support the view that the posterior parietal cortex in the right hemisphere amplifies recurrent interactions in ventral visual areas during the time-window that is critical for conscious perception.

  • 21.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kainulainen, Pasi
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The relationship between awareness and attention: Evidence from ERP responses2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 13, p. 2891-2899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between attention and awareness is complex, because both concepts can be understood in different ways. Here we review our recent series of experiments which have tracked the independent contributions of different types of visual attention and awareness to electrophysiological brain responses, and then we report a new experiment focusing on spatial attention, nonspatial selection of objects, and visual consciousness at the same time. The results indicate that the earliest electrophysiological correlate of consciousness, assumed to correlate with “phenomenal consciousness”, was dependent on spatial attention, suggesting that spatial attention is a prerequisite for the internal representations of space that provide the medium for phenomenal experience. The correlate of phenomenal consciousness emerged independent of nonspatial selection of objects, but its later part was modified by it. By contrast, the correlate of access to later conscious processing stages (“reflective consciousness”) that take the selected contents of phenomenal consciousness as input for conceptual thought and working memory, was dependent on both spatial attention and nonspatial selection. These results imply that one should distinguish between different types of attention and different forms of awareness, when describing the relationship between attention and awareness.

  • 22.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Dynamic switching between semantic and episodic memory systems2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2252-2260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that episodic and semantic long-term memory systems interact during retrieval. Here we examined the flexibility of memory retrieval in an associative task taxing memories of different strength, assumed to differentially engage episodic and semantic memory. Healthy volunteers were pre-trained on a set of 36 face-name pairs over a 6-week period. Another set of 36 items was shown only once during the same time period. About 3 months after the training period all items were presented in a randomly intermixed order in an event-related fMRI study of face-name memory. Once presented items differentially activated anterior cingulate cortex and a right prefrontal region that previously have been associated with episodic retrieval mode. High-familiar items were associated with stronger activation of posterior cortices and a left frontal region. These findings fit a model of memory retrieval by which early processes determine, on a trial-by-trial basis, if the task can be solved by the default semantic system. If not, there is a dynamic shift to cognitive control processes that guide retrieval from episodic memory.

  • 23.
    Linnavalli, Tanja
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Putkinen, Vesa
    Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Mus, Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Huotilainen, Minna
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Cicero Learning, Helsinki, Finland..
    Tervaniemi, Mari
    Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Cicero Learning, Helsinki, Finland..
    Phoneme processing skills are reflected in children's MMN responses2017In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 101, p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness (PA), the core contributor in phoneme processing abilities, has a link to later reading skills in children. However, the associations between PA and neural auditory discrimination are not clear. We used event-related potential (ERP) methodology and neuropsychological testing to monitor the neurocognitive basis of phonological awareness in typically developing children. We measured 5-6-year-old children's (N = 70) phoneme processing, word completion and perceptual reasoning skills and compared their test results to their brain responses to phonemic changes, separately for each test. We found that children performing better in Phoneme processing test showed larger mismatch negativity (MMN) responses than children scoring lower in the same test. In contrast, no correspondence between test scores and brain responses was found for Auditory closure. Thus, the results suggest that automatic auditory change detection is linked to phoneme awareness in preschool children.

  • 24.
    Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Bodammer, Nils Christian
    Kühn, Simone
    Kaufmann, Jörn
    Schütze, Hartmut
    Tempelmann, Claus
    Heinze, Hans-Jochen
    Düzel, Emrah
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age2010In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 48, no 13, p. 3878-3883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience-dependent alterations in the human brain's white-matter microstructure occur in early adulthood, but it is unknown whether such plasticity extends throughout life. We used cognitive training, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), and structural MRI to investigate plasticity of the white-matter tracts that connect the left and right hemisphere of the frontal lobes. Over a period of about 180 days, 20 younger adults and 12 older adults trained for a total of one hundred and one 1-h sessions on a set of three working memory, three episodic memory, and six perceptual speed tasks. Control groups were assessed at pre- and post-test. Training affected several DTI metrics and increased the area of the anterior part of the corpus callosum. These alterations were of similar magnitude in younger and older adults. The findings indicate that experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age and that disruptions of structural interhemispheric connectivity in old age, which are pronounced in aging, are modifiable by experience and amenable to treatment.

  • 25. MacDonald, Stuart W S
    et al.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Farde, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding modulates intraindividual variability in episodic recognition and executive functioning.2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2299-2304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) reflects lawful but transient within-person changes in performance. Increased IIV in cognition shares systematic associations with numerous conditions characterized by alterations in dopamine (DA) neuromodulation (e.g., old age, ADHD, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease). In a group of normal middle-aged adults, we examined links between PET-derived measures of D2 receptor binding in striatum, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus (HC) and IIV for tasks assessing recognition memory and executive functioning. An index of IIV, the intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), was computed across successful response latency trials for each cognitive outcome. Lower D2 binding in OC, ACC, and HC, but not striatum, was associated with increasing ISDs for the memory and executive measures. Consistent with neurocomputational models, the present findings suggest a role for extrastriatal DA neurotransmission in modulating variability in cognitive functioning.

  • 26. McNab, Fiona
    et al.
    Leroux, Gaelle
    Strand, Fredrik
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Sissela
    Klingberg, Torkel
    Common and unique components of inhibition and working memory: An fMRI, within-subjects investigation2008In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 2668-2682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural findings indicate that the core executive functions of inhibition and working memory are closely linked, and neuroimaging studies indicate overlap between their neural correlates. There has not, however, been a comprehensive study, including several inhibition tasks and several working memory tasks, performed by the same subjects. In the present study, 11 healthy adult subjects completed separate blocks of 3 inhibition tasks (a stop task, a go/no-go task and a flanker task), and 2 working memory tasks (one spatial and one verbal). Activation common to all 5 tasks was identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and, at a lower threshold, also the right middle frontal gyrus and right parietal regions (BA 40 and BA 7). Left inferior frontal regions of interest (ROIs) showed a significant conjunction between all tasks except the flanker task. The present study could not pinpoint the specific function of each common region, but the parietal region identified here has previously been consistently related to working memory storage and the right inferior frontal gyrus has been associated with inhibition in both lesion and imaging studies. These results support the notion that inhibitory and working memory tasks involve common neural components, which may provide a neural basis for the interrelationship between the two systems.

  • 27.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, J.
    Cabeza, R.
    Forkstam, C.
    Petersson, K. M.
    Ingvar, M.
    Common prefrontal activations during working memory, episodic memory, and semantic memory.2003In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Olofsson, Jonas K
    et al.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Wilson, Donald
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Larsson, Maria
    Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є42016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 85, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memory and olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45-90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10-20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by > 1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.

  • 29.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wilson, Donald
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nordin, Steven
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є42016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 85, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memoryand olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45–90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10–20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by >1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.

  • 30. Palombo, D
    et al.
    Alain, C
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Khuu, W
    Levine, B
    Severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) in healthy adults: a new mnemonic syndrome2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 72, p. 105-118Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 31.
    Pantzar, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Laukka, Erika J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Atti, Anna Rita
    Papenberg, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Max Planck Society, Germany.
    Keller, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Graff, Caroline
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Interactive effects of KIBRA and CLSTN2 polymorphisms on episodic memory in old-age unipolar depression2014In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 62, p. 137-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The KIBRA (rs17070145) C-allele and the CLSTN2 (rs6439886) T-allele have both been associated with poorer episodic memory performance. Given that episodic memory is affected in depression, we hypothesized that the combination of these risk alleles would be particularly detrimental to episodic memory performance in depressed persons. In the population-based SNAC-K study, 2170 participants (>= 60 years) without dementia (DSM-IV criteria) and antidepressant pharmacotherapy were clinically examined and diagnosed following ICD-10 criteria for unipolar depression, and genotyped for KIBRA and CLSTN2. Participants were categorized according to unipolar depression status (yes, no) and genotype combinations (KIBRA: CC, any T; CLSTN2: TT, any C). Critically, a three-way interaction effect showed that the CC/TT genotype combination was associated with poorer episodic recall and recognition performance only in depressed elderly persons, with depressed CC/TT carriers consistently performing at the lowest level. This finding supports the view that effects of genetic polymorphisms on cognitive functioning may be most easily disclosed at suboptimal levels of cognitive ability, such as in old-age depression.

  • 32. Papenberg, Goran
    et al.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Chicherio, Christian
    Nagel, Irene E
    Heekeren, Hauke R
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Li, Shu-Chen
    Higher intraindividual variability is associated with more forgetting and dedifferentiated memory functions in old age2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 1879-1888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraindividual trial-to-trial reaction time (RT) variability is commonly found to be higher in clinical populations or life periods that are associated with impaired cognition. In the present study, higher within-person trial-to-trial RT variability in a perceptual speed task is related to more forgetting and dedifferentiation of memory functions in older adults (aged 60-71 years). More specifically, our study showed that individuals in a high-variability group (n=175) forgot more memory scenes over a 1-week retention interval than individuals in the low-variability group (n=174). In contrast, slower RT speed was associated with poorer episodic memory in general, but unrelated to the amount of forgetting. Moreover, results from multiple group latent factor analyses showed that episodic memory and working memory functions were more highly correlated in the high-variability (r=.63) than in the low-variability (r=.25) group. Given that deficits in dopamine (DA) modulation may underlie increases in RT variability, the present findings are in line with (i) recent animal studies implicating DA in long-term episodic memory consolidation and (ii) neurocomputational work linking DA modulation of performance variability to dedifferentiation of cognitive functions in old age.

  • 33.
    Patil, Indrajeet
    et al.
    Scuola Int Super Studi Avanzati, Italy; Harvard Univ, MA 02138 USA.
    Zanon, Marco
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Novembre, Giovanni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zangrando, Nicola
    Univ Udine, Italy.
    Chittaro, Luca
    Univ Udine, Italy.
    Silani, Giorgia
    Univ Vienna, Austria.
    Neuroanatomical basis of concern-based altruism in virtual environment2018In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 116, p. 34-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Costly altruism entails helping others at a cost to the self and prior work shows that empathic concern (EC) for the well-being of distressed and vulnerable individuals is one of the primary motivators of such behavior. However, extant work has investigated costly altruism with paradigms that did not feature self-relevant and severe costs for the altruist and have solely focused on neurofunctional, and not neuroanatomical, correlates. In the current study, we used a contextually-rich virtual reality environment to study costly altruism and found that individuals who risked their own lives in the virtual world to try to save someone in danger had enlarged right anterior insula and exhibited greater empathic concern than those who did not. These findings add to the growing literature showing the role of caring motivation in promoting altruism and prosociality and its neural correlates in the right anterior insula.

  • 34. Persson, J.
    et al.
    Lind, J.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Ingvar, M.
    Sleegers, K.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, L.-G.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Altered deactivation in individuals with genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease2008In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1679-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regions that show task-induced deactivations may be part of a default-mode network related to processes that are more engaged during passive than active task conditions. Alteration of task-induced deactivations with age and dementia is indicated by atypical engagement of default-mode network regions. Genetic studies show a relation between the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele and the common form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and altered functional brain activation has been observed in non-demented APOE4 carriers compared to non-carriers. Here we investigate the hypothesis of altered default-mode network brain responses in individuals with genetic risk for AD. Functional MRI was used to assess task-induced deactivation in 60 subjects of which 30 carried at least one copy of the APOE4 allele, and 30 non-carriers. Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic categorization task shown to promote episodic memory encoding. The results show patterns of deactivation consistent with the default-mode network. We also found reduced deactivation in non-demented APOE4 carriers compared to non-carriers, suggesting alterations in the default-mode network in the absence of dementia. These results implicate possibilities for investigating altered properties of task-induced deactivations in individuals with genetic risk for AD, and may prove useful for pre-clinical identification of individuals susceptible to memory problems and AD.

  • 35.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, J.
    Larsson, A.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Sleegers, K.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Adolfsson, R.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Altered deactivation in individuals with genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease2008In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1679-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regions that show task-induced deactivations may be part of a default-mode network related to processes that are more engaged during passive than active task conditions. Alteration of task-induced deactivations with age and dementia is indicated by atypical engagement of default-mode network regions. Genetic studies show a relation between the apolipoprotein E4 (<i>APOE4</i>) allele and the common form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and altered functional brain activation has been observed in non-demented <i>APOE4</i> carriers compared to non-carriers. Here we investigate the hypothesis of altered default-mode network brain responses in individuals with genetic risk for AD. Functional MRI was used to assess task-induced deactivation in 60 subjects of which 30 carried at least one copy of the <i>APOE4</i> allele, and 30 non-carriers. Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic categorization task shown to promote episodic memory encoding. The results show patterns of deactivation consistent with the default-mode network. We also found reduced deactivation in non-demented <i>APOE4</i> carriers compared to non-carriers, suggesting alterations in the default-mode network in the absence of dementia. These results implicate possibilities for investigatin altered properties of task-induced deactivations in individuals with genetic risk for AD, and may prove useful for pre-clinical identification of individuals susceptible to memory problems and AD.

  • 36. Preuschhof, Claudia
    et al.
    Heekeren, Hauke R
    Li, Shu-Chen
    Sander, Thomas
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    KIBRA and CLSTN2 polymorphisms exert interactive effects on human episodic memory2010In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 402-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in episodic memory are highly heritable. Several studies have linked a polymorphism in the gene encoding the KIBRA protein to episodic memory performance. Results regarding CLSTN2, the gene encoding the synaptic protein calsyntenin 2, have been less consistent, possibly pointing to interactions with other genes. Given that both KIBRA and CLSTN2 are expressed in the medial temporal lobe and have been linked to synaptic plasticity, we investigated whether KIBRA and CLSTN2 interactively modulate episodic memory performance (n=383). We replicated the beneficial effect of the KIBRA T-allele on episodic memory, and discovered that this effect increases with the associative demands of the memory task. Importantly, the memory-enhancing effect of the KIBRA T-allele was boosted by the presence of the CLSTN2 C-allele, which positively affected memory performance in some previous studies. In contrast, the presence of CLSTN2 C-allele led to reduced performance in subjects homozygous for the KIBRA C-allele. Overall, these findings suggest that KIBRA and CLSTN2 interactively modulate episodic memory performance, and underscore the need for delineating the interactive effects of multiple genes on brain and behavior.

  • 37.
    Prohovnik, Isak
    et al.
    University of Lund.
    Håkansson, Krister
    University of Lund.
    Risberg, Jarl
    University of Lund.
    Observations on the functional significance of regional cerebral blood flow in "resting" normal subjects.1980In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 203-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) of 16 cortical regions was measured bilaterally in 22 healthy adults, with 4–8 repeated measurements per individual. All measurements were done during “rest”, i.e. with minimal external stimulation, by the Xe-133 inhalation method. The data are presented to serve as normal controls for research and clinical work, but more importantly because of their significance for neuropsychological theory. Some rCBF variance is shown to be meaningfully related to handedness, habituation processes, biological rhythms and possibly to regional lateral dominance. Further data and discussion relate to the possible role of frontal lobe structures during non-task-oriented cognition. Finally, data are interpreted as showing that regional functional coupling across the midline, in this situation, is inversely related to the characteristic level-of-processing associated with each area.

  • 38.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictive gaze shifts elicited during observed and performed actions in 10-month-old infants and adults2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 2911-2917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked whether people's actions are understood by projecting them onto one's own action programs, according to the direct matching hypothesis, and whether this mode of control functions in infants. Adults' and infants' gaze and hand movements were measured in two live situations. The task was either to move an object between two places in the visual field, or to observe the corresponding action performed by another person. When performing the action, infants and adults behaved strikingly similar. Hand and gaze movements were simultaneously initiated and gaze arrived at the goal ahead of the hand. When observing the actions, the initiation of the gaze shift was delayed relative to the observed hand movement in both infants and adults, but it still arrived at the goal ahead of the hand. For both the performance and observation of actions the proactiveness of gaze shifts was associated with saccades ahead of the velocity peak of the hand. The close similarity between adults' and infants' actions when performing the movements and the great advantage of the adults when observing them support the conclusion that one's own motor actions develop ahead of the ability to predict other people's actions.

  • 39.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fransson, Peter
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, MR Research Centre, N8, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Cognitive Neurophysiology, MR Research Centre, N8, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Neural representation of binding lexical signs and words in the episodic buffer of working memory2007In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 2258-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The episodic buffer accommodates formation and maintenance of unitary multidimensional representations based on information in different codes from different sources. Formation, based on submorphemic units, engages posterior brain regions, while maintenance engages frontal regions. Using a hybrid fMRI design, that allows separate analysis of transient and sustained components, an n-back task and an experimental group of 13 hearing native signers, with experience of Swedish Sign Language and Swedish since birth, we investigated binding of lexical signs and words in working memory. Results show that the transient component of these functions is supported by a buffer-specific network of posterior regions including the right middle temporal lobe, possibly relating to binding of phonological loop representations with semantic representations in long-term memory, as well as a loop-specific network, in line with predictions of a functional relationship between loop and buffer. The left hippocampus was engaged in transient and sustained components of buffer processing, possibly reflecting the meaningful nature of the stimuli. Only a minor role was found for executive functions in line with other recent work. A novel representation of the sustained component of working memory for audiovisual language in the right inferior temporal lobe may be related to perception of speech-related facial gestures. Previous findings of sign and speech loop representation in working memory were replicated and extended. Together, these findings support the notion of a module that mediates between codes and sources, such as the episodic buffer, and further our understanding of its nature.

  • 40.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fransson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Department of Radiation Sciences and Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neural representation of binding lexical signs and words in the episodic buffer of working memory2007In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 2258-2276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The episodic buffer accommodates formation and maintenance of unitary multidimensional representations based on information in different codes from different sources. Formation, based on submorphemic units, engages posterior brain regions, while maintenance engages frontal regions. Using a hybrid fMRI design, that allows separate analysis of transient and sustained components, an n-back task and an experimental group of 13 hearing native signers, with experience of Swedish Sign Language and Swedish since birth, we investigated binding of lexical signs and words in working memory. Results show that the transient component of these functions is supported by a buffer-specific network of posterior regions including the right middle temporal lobe, possibly relating to binding of phonological loop representations with semantic representations in long-term memory, as well as a loop-specific network, in line with predictions of a functional relationship between loop and buffer. The left hippocampus was engaged in transient and sustained components of buffer processing, possibly reflecting the meaningful nature of the stimuli. Only a minor role was found for executive functions in line with other recent work. A novel representation of the sustained component of working memory for audiovisual language in the right inferior temporal lobe may be related to perception of speech-related facial gestures. Previous findings of sign and speech loop representation in working memory were replicated and extended. Together, these findings support the notion of a module that mediates between codes and sources, such as the episodic buffer, and further our understanding of its nature.

  • 41.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Johan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 656-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing.

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  • 42.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2174-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency). We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched samples (35–80 years; N = 2996) tested on the same battery of memory tasks on either of four occasions (1989, 1995, 1999, and 2004). The results demonstrate substantial time-related improvements on recall and recognition as well as on fluency and knowledge, with a trend of larger gains on semantic as compared with episodic memory [Rönnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. -G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence], but highly similar gains across the sub-factors. Finally, the association with markers of environmental change was similar, with evidence that historical increases in quantity of schooling was a main driving force behind the gains, both on the episodic and semantic sub-factors. The results obtained are discussed in terms of brain regions involved.

  • 43.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, p. 2174-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency).We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawnfromthe Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched samples (35–80 years; N= 2996) tested on the same battery of memory tasks on either of four occasions (1989, 1995, 1999, and 2004). The results demonstrate substantial time-related improvements on recall and recognition as well as on fluency and knowledge, with a trend of larger gains on semantic as compared with episodic memory [Rönnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. -G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence], but highly similar gains across the sub-factors. Finally, the association with markers of environmental change was similar, with evidence that historical increases in quantity of schoolingwas a main driving force behind the gains, both on the episodic and semantic sub-factors. The results obtained are discussed in terms of brain regions involved.

  • 44.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A critical examination of the Moro response in newborn infants--symmetry, state relation, underlying mechanisms1995In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 713-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of the present study was to analyze quantitatively the vestibular evoked Moro response, and the symmetry of the movement pattern involved, as the traditional descriptions bring about. Another aim was to determine the segmental movements involved and determine whether the components of the Moro response are dependent on changes in the infant's behavioral state. Another question concerns whether the form of these movements changed over repeated trials on the same day, or from the first to the fifth day after birth. Vestibular evoked Moro responses of 52 neonates, 1–5 days of age, elicited in different behavior states (State 1–5), were examined and quantitatively analyzed. The response was evoked by a predefined, rapid, downward, vertical body motion, without any dorsiflexion of the infant's head. Optoelectronic device (SELSPOT II) were used to monitor the arm/hand movement patterns involved in the response. The three-dimensional movement pattern in space, duration, velocity, latency, and the acceleration of both arms/hands were analyzed in relation to the infant's behavioral state. The response movements were structured into phases of abduction/extension, adduction/flexion and the extension/flexion of the fingers. The vestibular stimulation used was found to be sufficient for eliciting an adequate Moro response. The segmental movement pattern of the Moro response was found to be sensitive to the infant's behavioral state at the time when the response was elicited. This was found in the movement pattern, duration, latency, and the velocity of the response. The response was found to be asymmetrical, in 82% of the infants it was found to be a predominant shorter onset latency of the right arm, in 12% the opposite was found. These findings suggest that there is a fundamental, spinal asymmetry involved in the Moro response which is subject to supraspinal influences emanating from the vestibulospinal system. No differences were found between 1 and 5 days of age for any of the scoring categories, and no differences were found within groups over six successive trials.

  • 45.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Vanni, Simo
    Brain Research Unit, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Finland / Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto University School of Science, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation suggests that area V2 is necessary for visual awareness2012In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1621-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary visual cortex (V1) has been shown to be critical for visual awareness, but the importance of other low-level visual areas has remained unclear. To clarify the role of human cortical area V2 in visual awareness, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over V2 while participants were carrying out a visual discrimination task and rating their subjective awareness. Individual retinotopic maps and modelling of the TMS-induced electric field in V1, V2 and V3d ensured that the electric field was at or under the phosphene threshold level in V1 and V3d, whereas in V2 it was at the higher suppressive level. As earlier shown for the V1, our results imply that also V2 is necessary for conscious visual experience. Visual awareness of stimulus presence was completely suppressed when the TMS pulse was delivered 44-84 ms after the onset of visual stimulus. Visual discrimination and awareness of stimulus features was impaired when the TMS pulse was delivered 44-104 ms after the visual stimulus onset. These results suggest that visual awareness cannot be generated without an intact V2. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Alakurtti, Kati
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Does TMS on V3 block conscious visual perception?2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 128, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate V2 are necessary for the emergence of visual consciousness, but the effects of involvement of extrastriate V3 on visual consciousness is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the causal role of V3 in visual consciousness in humans. We combined neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a computational model of the TMS-induced electric field to test whether or not the intact processing of visual input in V3, like in V1 and V2, is necessary for conscious visual perception. We targeted the stimulation both to V2 and to V3. If TMS of V3 blocks conscious visual perception of stimuli, then activation in V3 is a causally necessary prerequisite for conscious perception of stimuli. According to the alternative hypothesis, TMS of V3 will not block the conscious visual perception of stimuli, because the pathways from V1 to the higher cortical areas that go around V3 provide sufficient visual input for the emergence of conscious visual perception. The results showed that TMS interfered with conscious perception of features, detection of stimulus presence and the ability to discriminate the letter stimuli both when TMS was targeted either to V3 or to V2. For the conscious detection of stimulus presence, the effect was significantly stronger when V2 was stimulated than when V3 was stimulated. The results of the present study suggest that in addition to the primary visual cortex and V2, also V3 causally contributes to the generation of the most basic form of visual consciousness. Importantly, the results also indicate that V3 is necessary for visual perception in general, not only for visual consciousness.

  • 47.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Converging evidence for the role of occipital regions in orthographic processing: A case of developmental surface dyslexia2000In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 351-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been several reports focusing on the neural basis for word recognition. Two different views have emerged: one emphasizing the role of the left angular gyrus in recognizing printed words, and the second view suggesting that visual word processing activates the left extrastriate cortex. This paper describes the case of EBON, a 14-year-old girl with an extensive early (most likely congenital) brain lesion in the left occipital lobe. She demonstrates a clear pattern of developmental surface dyslexia in that she is more successful at reading and spelling regular words than irregular words and makes frequent regularisation errors. Thus, EBON is the first case reported with the potential to establish converging evidence for the role of extrastriate regions in the left hemisphere in the acquisition of orthographic representations. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 48.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience. University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Department of Neurosurgery, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stålnacke, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    The supplementary motor area syndrome and cognitive control2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 129, p. 141-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)-syndrome is a transient disturbance of the ability to initiate voluntary motor and speech actions that will often occur immediately after neurosurgical resections in the dorsal superior frontal gyrus but will typically have disappeared after 3 months. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the extent to which this syndrome is associated with alterations in cognitive control. Five patients who were to different extents affected by the SMA-syndrome after surgery for WHO grade II gliomas in the left hemisphere, were tested with the color word interference (Stroop) test; the Bergen dichotic listening test and for letter and category verbal fluency before surgery, 1–2 days after surgery and approximately 3 months after surgery. Results suggest that the motor symptoms known as the SMA syndrome co-occur with pronounced deficits in cognitive control.

  • 49. Warkentin, S
    et al.
    Erikson, C
    Janciauskiene, S
    rCBF pathology in Alzheimer's disease is associated with slow processing speed.2008In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased information processing speed (mental slowing) is a known sequelae of many brain disorders, and can be assessed by continuous naming tasks. Functional imaging studies have shown that pause and articulation times in continuous speech are normally associated with different brain regions, but knowledge about such association in dementia is lacking. We therefore tested the hypothesis that perfusion deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not only associated with slower processing, but also with these speech measures. Using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements during the performance of a continuous colour and form-naming task, we found that naming speed was substantially slower in AD patients than in controls. This slower naming was exclusively determined by an increase in mean pause time, and only to a limited extent by articulation time. The increased pause time was uniquely associated with temporo-parietal rCBF reductions of the patients, while articulation was not. By contrast, the rCBF of healthy elderly control subjects was consistently accompanied by substantially shorter articulation and pause times, although the naming measures were not statistically associated with rCBF. These findings suggest that pause time (in contrast to articulation time) may serve as a sensitive measure in the assessment of information processing speed deficits in dementia, by virtue of its close association with brain pathology.

  • 50.
    Ziaei, Maryam
    et al.
    Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Persson, Jonas
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bonyadi, Mohammad Reza
    Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Reutens, David C
    School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Ebner, Natalie C
    Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Florida, USA; Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Florida, USA; Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville FL, USA.
    Amygdala functional network during recognition of own-age vs. other-age faces in younger and older adults2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 129, p. 10-20, article id S0028-3932(18)30347-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial cues, such as a person's age, provide important information for social interactions. Processing such facial cues can be affected by observer bias. However, there is currently no consensus regarding how the brain is processing facial cues related to age, and if facial age processing changes as a function of the age of the observer (i.e., own-age bias). The primary study aim was to investigate functional networks involved in processing own-age vs. other-age faces among younger and older adults and determine how emotional expression of the face modulates own-age vs. other-age face processing. The secondary study aim was to examine the relation between higher social cognitive processes (i.e., empathy) and modulation of brain activity by facial age and emotional expression. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) younger and older participants were asked to recognize happy, angry, and neutral expressions in own-age and other-age faces. Functional connectivity analyses with the amygdala as seed showed that for own-age faces both age groups recruited a network of regions including the anterior cingulate and anterior insula that was involved in empathy and detection of salient information. Brain-behavior analyses furthermore showed that empathic responses in younger, but not in older, participants were positively correlated with engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex during processing of angry own-age faces. These findings identify the neurobehavioral correlates of facial age processing, and its modulation by emotion expression, and directly link facial cue processing to higher-order social cognitive functioning.

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