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  • 1.
    Anderzen, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Psychophysiological reactions during the first year of a foreign assignment: Results of a controlled longitudinal study.1997In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Psychophylogcal reactions during the first year of a foreign assignment: result from a controlled longitudinal study.1997In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 10, no 11(4), p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Arnetz, Bengt
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, T
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pilot Study Sleepiness in physicians on night call duty.1990In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacobshagen, Nicola
    Univ Bern, Inst Psychol, Bern, Switzerland.
    Harenstam, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    I shouldn't have to do this: Illegitimate tasks as a stressor in relation to organizational control and resource deficits2013In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of tasks that are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable - illegitimate tasks - represents a new stressor concept that refers to assignments that violate the norms associated with the role requirements of professional work. Research has shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with stress and counterproductive work behaviour. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the contribution of characteristics of the organization on the prevalence of illegitimate tasks in the work of frontline and middle managers. Using the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS) in a sample of 440 local government operations managers in 28 different organizations in Sweden, this study supports the theoretical assumptions that illegitimate tasks are positively related to stress and negatively related to satisfaction with work performance. Results further show that 10% of the variance in illegitimate tasks can be attributed to the organization where the managers work. Multilevel referential analysis showed that the more the organization was characterized by competition for resources between units, unfair and arbitrary resource allocation and obscure decisional structure, the more illegitimate tasks managers reported. These results should be valuable for strategic-level management since they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be counteracted by means of the organization of work.

  • 5.
    Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jacobshagen, Nicola
    Institut für Psychologie, Universität Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    I shouldn't have to do this: Illegitimate tasks as a stressor in relation to organizational control and resource deficits2013In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of tasks that are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable - illegitimate tasks - represents a new stressor concept that refers to assignments that violate the norms associated with the role requirements of professional work. Research has shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with stress and counterproductive work behaviour. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the contribution of characteristics of the organization on the prevalence of illegitimate tasks in the work of frontline and middle managers. Using the Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS) in a sample of 440 local government operations managers in 28 different organizations in Sweden, this study supports the theoretical assumptions that illegitimate tasks are positively related to stress and negatively related to satisfaction with work performance. Results further show that 10% of the variance in illegitimate tasks can be attributed to the organization where the managers work. Multilevel referential analysis showed that the more the organization was characterized by competition for resources between units, unfair and arbitrary resource allocation and obscure decisional structure, the more illegitimate tasks managers reported. These results should be valuable for strategic-level management since they indicate that illegitimate tasks can be counteracted by means of the organization of work.

  • 6.
    Boersma, Katja
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lindblom, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stability and change in burnout profiles over time: A prospective study in the working population2009In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 264-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a prospective study on the development of burnout in the general Swedish working population from a person-oriented perspective. A large random sample of the general working population (N=1118) was cluster analyzed, using scores on the subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. The individual and structural stability of the configurations over time, as well as accompanying changes on work-related and mental health variables were investigated. The results show the occurrence of several different configurations of burnout variables. Scoring patterns with high exhaustion and cynicism reflected burnout; those with a high level of professional efficacy reflected engagement; there were also scoring patterns characterized by only one of the dimensions in the relative absence of others. These patterns show structural, as well as individual stability over time. The risk factors for development of burnout or engagement from clusters with only one burnout characteristic varied according to the cluster. These results give new insights, indicating that the road to burnout may be different for subgroups of different burnout profiles, and that these subgroups may potentially have different risk factors associated with the development of burnout. This is of importance for the development of early interventions.

  • 7.
    Fahlen, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Peter, Richard
    Knutsson, Anders
    The effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress at the workplace: a comparison of ERI exposure assessment using two estimation methods2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual for old data to be used in epidemiological studies. Recently developed instruments for measuring work-related stress did not exist when the data collection was carried out. Therefore, approximate questions are sometimes used. An apparent problem is the lack of validation of proxy questions. The aim of this study was to compare the original questions for measuring Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) with approximate questions. The study population corresponded with a subgroup in the WOLF-n (WOrk, Lipids, Fibrinogen-north) cohort study of cardiovascular risk in a working population in the north of Sweden: 655 men and 178 women. The agreement in exposure between the original and the approximate ERI single questions was relatively low throughout, whereas the correlation between the ERI subscales and the ERI ratios was reasonable. The latter agreement between the original and the approximate ERI ratio indicates that the approximate measures might have been useful in the past. Yet, whenever possible the implementation of the original questionnaire in study protocols is recommended since a complete measurement of ERI might help to further improve the internal consistency and the predictive validity of this exposure to effort-reward imbalance.

  • 8.
    Fahlén, Göran
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Peter, Richard
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress at the workplace - a comparison of ERI exposure assessment using two estimation methods2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual for old data to be used in epidemiological studies. Recently developed instruments for measuring work-related stress did not exist when the data collection was carried out. Therefore, approximate questions are sometimes used. An apparent problem is the lack of validation of proxy questions. The aim of this study was to compare the original questions for measuring Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) with approximate questions. The study population corresponded with a subgroup in the WOLF-n (WOrk, Lipids, Fibrinogen-north) cohort study of cardiovascular risk in a working population in the north of Sweden: 655 men and 178 women. The agreement in exposure between the original and the approximate ERI single questions was relatively low throughout, whereas the correlation between the ERI subscales and the ERI ratios was reasonable. The latter agreement between the original and the approximate ERI ratio indicates that the approximate measures might have been useful in the past. Yet, whenever possible the implementation of the original questionnaire in study protocols is recommended since a complete measurement of ERI might help to further improve the internal consistency and the predictive validity of this exposure to effort-reward imbalance.

  • 9.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Organizational Change, Health and Sick Leave among Health Care Employees: A Longitudinal Study Measuring Stress Markers, Individual and Work Site Factors2008In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This controlled longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the effects of organizational change on employees' self-reported health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion, stress, and sick leave. The population consisted of 226 employees at T1 and 198 at T2, divided into a study group affected by organizational changes, and a reference group not affected by them. Group differences for the outcome measures self-rated health (SRH), work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion, and hormones associated with stress were analysed using a two-factor ANOVA design for repeated measurements. Our findings showed no significant differences, either across time or between groups for SRH, work satisfaction, and work-related exhaustion. However, we did find significant change across time and between groups for the recovery hormone DHEA-S. Days of sick leave increased by 7% for employees in the study group and by 2% in the reference group. Serum cortisol showed significantly decreased levels across time but not between groups. The decreased recovery potential in the study group might have long-term health implications. The study points to the importance of looking at the impact of organizational change on employee well-being from a number of perspectives, such as self-reported health parameters, registered sick-leave data, and biological stress markers.

  • 10.
    Hansson, A-S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vingård, Eva
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Organizational change, health, and sick leave among health care employees: A longitudinal study measuring stress markers, individual, and work site factors.2008In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Harter Griep, R
    et al.
    Rotenberg, L
    Chor, D.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Landsbergis, P.
    Beyond simple approaches to studying the association between work characteristics and absenteeism: Combining the DCS and ERI models2010In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 179-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models assess different psychosocial factors. This study investigates whether a combination of these models increases their ability to predict sickness absence, as compared to results based on each model separately. A cross-sectional study with nursing personnel (N = 1307) in Brazil was performed. Regression analyses were conducted in three stages: analysis of each scale of the models and sickness absences; assessment of the independent association of each model with sickness absences; assessment of the associations of three combinations of models/scales with sickness absences: DC and social support (SS), ERI and overcommitment, and DC and ERI. As regards comparisons between the stress models, ERI was shown to be independently associated with short (up to 9 days) and long (10 days or more) spells of absenteeism. The same result held true for low social support. The combinations DC-ERI and DC-SS were better predictors for short spells than each model/scale separately, whereas for long spells, the combination DC-SS was the best predictor. ERI seems to be a good instrument for predicting absenteeism if used alone, whereas DC performed better when combined with ERI or SS. An improved risk estimation of sickness absences by combining information from the two models was observed.

  • 12.
    Härenstam, Annika
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Bodin, Lennart
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Nise, Gun
    Division of Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institute.
    Schéele, Patrik
    Division of Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institute.
    Patterns of working and living conditions: a holistic, multivariate approach to occupational health studies2003In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 73-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to develop a multivariate approach to occupational health studies that is: capable of identifying groups with similar working conditions; relevant for studies of associations between working and living conditions and health; and an appropriate basis for preventive actions. Data at the individual level were obtained through measurements, observations, interviews and questionnaires, and at the organizational level, through interviews with managers. Cluster analyses were applied with the purpose of identifying groups of individuals with small, within-group differences. Eighty work sites and a sample of employees at each site were strategically selected. The study group comprised 203 men and women, and was characterized by large variation. The final analysis produced eight clusters of individuals, denoted according to their best-defining characteristic, i.e. 'decent', 'boundary-less', 'locked', 'exposed', 'heavy and monotonous', 'changed', 'mobile' and 'restrained'. The clusters differed with regard to 'what' characterized working conditions, 'where' on the labour market they were found, and 'who' clustered in these groups. The holistic approach revealed conditions that were important for health and had higher explanatory power in relation to ill-health than applying socio-economic groupings or the demand-control-support model. It showed how psychosocial, ergonomic-physical and occupational hygiene factors combine and interact to create settings with different risks of ill-health. The chosen strategy is recommended for future occupational health studies and is particularly suitable as guidance for preventive actions relevant to specific clusters of working and living conditions.

  • 13.
    Jansson von Vultée, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Differences between male and female physicians, with and without management positions, according to organisational influence, skills development, well-being and health2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    The healthy-worker effect: Self-selection among Swedish shift workers1992In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a study on the 'healthy-worker effect' related to shift work. The study sample comprised 53 male applicants for blue-collar jobs. The subjects who applied for shift work (m = 30) did not differ from those who applied for day work (n = 23) regarding previous illnesses or current symptoms. However, data on self-reported sleep behaviour indicated that a higher percentage of prospective shift workers had a less rigid sleep pattern than did prospective day workers. The results suggest that there might be a self-selection to shift work by individuals with specific sleep behaviours that might facilitate future coping with odd work hours.

  • 15. Lawoko, S
    et al.
    Soares, Joaquim JF
    Violence towards psychiatric staff: A comparison of gender, job and environmentalcharacteristics in England and Sweden2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 39-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace violence is receiving increasing attention world-wide, and studies suggest that, for example, nurses and women may be more abused at work than psychiatrists and men. However, there is a lack of cross-cultural data on the topic. Further, relatively few studies have addressed the influence of environmental factors in the occurrence of violence and within a cross-cultural context. The present study compares among other things the nature of violence encountered by female/male staff (nurses and psychiatrists) in Sweden and England. Psychiatric personnel from England (301 nurses; 74 psychiatrists) and Sweden (745 nurses; 306 psychiatrists) were assessed cross-sectionally by means of a questionnaire covering various areas (e.g. nature of violence). The univariate analyses showed an association between being abused and male gender, young age, being British and a nurse, physical and psychological strain. The multivariate logistic regression confirmed that British nurses and male nurses were the main risk group for exposure to violence. Further, the multivariate analysis indicated that the odds of being abused increased with increasing age, physical strain and dissatisfaction with quality of care. Interventions thus need to be sensitive to gender differences, societal context, professional roles and interactions between them. Further, clinical supervision and team functioning, organizational and environmentally friendly settings may help to reduce violence in mental health care.

  • 16.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Anna (Contributor)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Trajectories of effort-reward imbalance in Swedish workers: Differences in demographic and work-related factors and associations with health2019In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.

  • 17.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trajectories of Effort-Reward Imbalance in Swedish Workers: Differences in Demographic and Work-Related Factors and Associations with Health2020In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify trajectories of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), to examine these with respect to demographic (age, gender, socio-economic position) and work-related (employment contract, work hours, shift work, sector) factors, and to investigate associations with different health indicators (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, migraine, sickness absence). The study used four waves of data (N = 6702), collected biennially within the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Using latent class growth modelling, we identified four trajectories: a stable low imbalance trajectory, which comprised 90% of all participants, and three change trajectories including a decreasing trajectory (4% of the participants), an inverted U-shaped trajectory and an increasing imbalance trajectory, both in 3% of the participants. Results indicate that a sizeable proportion of Swedish employees’ experience imbalance between efforts and rewards at work. The most favourable trajectory comprised relatively more men and was characterised by better work-related characteristics than the less favourable ERI trajectories. All change trajectories were dominated by women and employees in the public sector. Health developments followed ERI trajectories, such that less favourable trajectories associated with impaired health and more favourable trajectories associated with better health. Sickness absence increased among all ERI trajectories, most so for the decreasing and increasing ERI trajectory.

  • 18.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrient intake in day workers and shift workers1994In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 332-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 24-h dietary intake, nutritional status parameters and psychosomatic factors of two-shift, three-shift and day workers were compared. Estimations of the dietary intake (across a work cycle) were made by use of a nutrient database. No significant differences were found between the groups for a large number of nutritional variables: intake of energy; intake and percentage of energy from protein, fat, total carbohydrates and sucrose; intake of coffee; and intake and density of vitamins and minerals. Only minor differences were found between the groups with regard to the quantitative intake of alcohol and calcium, and with regard to the quality of the diet (percentage of energy from alcohol, density of calcium). The groups differed significantly with respect to attitude towards work hours (three-shift workers being most negative in their attitude) and sleep disturbances (shift workers being most negative). The three-shift workers were more evening-oriented and they had higher concentrations of glucose in their blood. It was concluded that work hours not related to nutritional intake-at least not when total amounts across time are considered. It was also concluded that work hours were not related to Body Mass Index or blood lipids: triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol

  • 19.
    Lundmark, R.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasson, H.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasson, D.
    Stress Clinic, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tafvelin, S.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leading for change: line managers’ influence on the outcomes of an occupational health intervention2017In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 276-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers may play a central role in the success of occupational health interventions. However, few studies have focussed on the relationship between line managers’ behaviours and the outcomes of occupational health interventions. We examined the influence of both line managers’ attitudes and actions towards an intervention as well as their transformational leadership on the expected outcomes of the intervention (i.e. employee self-rated health and work ability). The intervention consisted of the implementation and use of a web-based system for occupational health management. A sample of 180 employees provided data for the analysis. Self-rated health and work ability were measured at the baseline (Time 1) and follow-up (Time 3), while employee ratings of line managers’ attitudes and actions, and transformational leadership were measured during the intervention process (Time 2). The results revealed that line managers’ attitudes and actions positively predicted changes in both self-rated health and work ability. The influence of transformational leadership was indirect and mediated through line managers’ attitudes and actions towards the intervention. Based on the results, we suggest using process measures that include aspects of both line managers’ attitudes and actions as well as their transformational leadership in future process evaluation. 

  • 20.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Hasson, Dan
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leading for change: line managers' influence on the outcomes of an occupational health intervention2017In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 276-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Line managers may play a central role in the success of occupational health interventions. However, few studies have focussed on the relationship between line managers' behaviours and the outcomes of occupational health interventions. We examined the influence of both line managers' attitudes and actions towards an intervention as well as their transformational leadership on the expected outcomes of the intervention (i.e. employee self-rated health and work ability). The intervention consisted of the implementation and use of a web-based system for occupational health management. A sample of 180 employees provided data for the analysis. Self-rated health and work ability were measured at the baseline (Time 1) and follow-up (Time 3), while employee ratings of line managers' attitudes and actions, and transformational leadership were measured during the intervention process (Time 2). The results revealed that line managers' attitudes and actions positively predicted changes in both self-rated health and work ability. The influence of transformational leadership was indirect and mediated through line managers' attitudes and actions towards the intervention. Based on the results, we suggest using process measures that include aspects of both line managers' attitudes and actions as well as their transformational leadership in future process evaluation.

  • 21.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), Department of Urban Studies (US).
    Torkelson, Eva
    The role of gender and job level in coping with occupational stress2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between coping and health problems in the context of gender and level in the organization. Questionnaire data were collected from 279 women and men (100 managers and 179 non-managers) at a sales department in a Swedish telecom company in which men and women worked at similar tasks. It was hypothesized that, if gender and level in the organization were controlled for, the use of problem-focused strategies would be associated with fewer health problems and the use of emotion-focused strategies with greater health problems. It was also predicted that men and women at a similar organizational level would not differ in their use of problem-focused coping strategies. The results showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that when level and gender were controlled for, no relation between problem-focused strategies and health was obtained. Instead the emotion-focused strategy of Seeking emotional support was associated with fewer health problems, whereas Focus on emotions and Alcohol/drug disengagement were associated with more symptoms. Coping was at least partly related to level. At a managerial level the men and the women used basically the same strategies whereas at a non-managerial level traditionally-conceived coping patterns were evident.

  • 22.
    Nielsen, Karina
    et al.
    Univ Sheffield, England..
    Nielsen, Morten B.
    Natl Inst Occupat Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Ogbonnaya, Chidiebere
    Univ East Anglia, England..
    Kansala, Marja
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Saari, Eveliina
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Workplace resources to improve both employee well-being and performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 101-120Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of employees in gaining and maintaining competitive advantage. The happy worker-productive worker thesis suggests that workers who experience high levels of well-being also perform well and vice versa; however, organisations need to know how to ensure such happy and productive workers. The present review and meta-analysis identifies workplace resources at the individual, the group, the leader, and the organisational levels that are related to both employee well-being and organisational performance. We examine which types of resources are most important in predicting both employee well-being and performance. We identified 84 quantitative studies published in print and online from 2003 to November 2015. Resources at either of the four levels were related to both employee well-being and performance. We found no significant differences in employee well-being and organisational performance between the four levels of workplace resources, suggesting that interventions may focus on any of these levels. Cross-sectional studies showed stronger relationships with well-being and performance than longitudinal studies. Studies using objective performance ratings provided weaker relationships between resources and performance than self-rated and leader/third-party-rated studies.

  • 23.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North-West University, South Africa .
    Göransson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is work affecting my health?: Appraisals of how work affects health as a mediator in the relationship between working conditions and work-related attitudes2014In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 342-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of appraisals by employees of how work is affecting their health, or could end up affecting it in the future. The study tests a model of health appraisals as a mediator of the effect of demands and control on employee attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions). This was investigated in a sample of employees in a Swedish white-collar organization, who participated in three waves of a longitudinal study conducted in 2007, 2008 and 2009; a final sample of 292 employees participated at all three waves. The results indicate that employee appraisals of how work affects their health have an important role in how working conditions relate to subsequent work-related attitudes. The study supports the importance of including employee appraisals when studying the effects of working conditions.

  • 24.
    Näswall, Katharina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The moderating role of personality characteristics on the relation between job insecurity and strain2005In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of job insecurity has been linked to several different outcomes, such as negative attitudes towards work and the organization, turnover intention, as well as health complaints. However, since the strength of these effects have been found to vary across studies, it is vital to identify factors that could influence the relationships. The present study examines the moderating role of three personality characteristics (negative affectivity, positive affectivity, and external locus of control) on the relation between job insecurity and outcomes (mental health complaints, job dissatisfaction, and job-induced tension). Data from 400 nurses at a Swedish acute care hospital (response rate 71%; 91% women, aged 20-68 years) showed that both job insecurity and personality were related to strain. Also, the data indicated some buffering effect of personality. Despite the gender bias of the sample, the study provides additional support for the notion that job insecurity affects strain even after controlling for individual characteristics. The study also expands the literature on job insecurity by pointing out the influence of personality characteristics on the relationship between stressors and strain.

  • 25.
    Rissén, Dag
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Bo
    Sandsjö, Leif
    Dohns, Ingela
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychophysiological stress reactions, trapezius muscle activity, and neck and shoulder pain among female cashiers before and after introduction of job rotation2002In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the introduction of a job rotation model on supermarket cashiers, with respect to psychophysiological stress reactions, muscle activity of the trapezius muscle (which covers the upper back, the neck and the shoulder), and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders. Thirty-one female cashiers were investigated before and after job rotation was introduced. Before the reorganization the participants were only performing cash register work at the checkout counters. After the reorganization they shifted between cash register work and work in different departments in the supermarket. At follow-up the participants, all right-handed, had a significantly lower diastolic blood pressure, and surface electromyography (EMG) showed a significantly decreased muscle activity in the trapezius muscle on the left side. Musculoskeletal symptoms of the neck and shoulders were only partly changed, and there was no change in prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, which was around 70%. From questionnaires, but not from self-ratings during work, it was found that the introduction of job rotation had been experienced as positive in several regards, although the perceptions of stress and hurry were the same at follow-up.

  • 26.
    Rydstedt, Leif W.
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology and Organisation Studies.
    Ferrie, Jane
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK.
    Head, Jenny
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK.
    Is there support for curvilinear relationships between psychosocial work characteristics and mental well-being?: Cross-sectional and long-term data from the Whitehall II study2006In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 6-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Simonsen Abildgaard, Johan
    et al.
    Nielsen, Karina
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, South Africa.
    Can job insecurity be managed? Evaluating an organizational-level intervention addressing the negative effects of restructuring2018In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 105-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although downsizing and reorganisation are recognised as serious threats to the psychological well-being of employees, intervention strategies for addressing these events are limited. This study evaluated the effects of a participatory organisational-level intervention in which employees and managers chose to address the psychosocial consequences, specifically job insecurity, of restructuring. The intervention was conducted among postal service letter carriers in Denmark and was evaluated based on quantitative and qualitative data. Using interviews (N = 24) and observations, the programme theory of the intervention and to what extent the intervention had been implemented were assessed. Using survey data (N = 238), repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to test for differences in the development of job insecurity between the intervention group and a comparison group. The results indicate that the intervention group had a significantly smaller increase in one dimension of job insecurity as compared to the comparison group. Therefore, we conclude that employees’ experiencing of job insecurity, which typically follows in the wake of restructuring, can be addressed by planned efforts at the workplace level.

  • 28. Soares, Joaquim
    et al.
    Lawoko, Stephen
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nolan, Peter
    The nature, extent and determinants of violence against psychiatric personnel2000In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 105-120-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence against psychiatric staff seems to be on the increase. Such abuse can lead to mental health consequences for the staff and a reluctance to be closely involved with patients. Few Swedish investigations have examined violence against mental nurses and psychiatrists, or undertaken comparative studies between them. In this study we examined the extent, nature and determinants (i.e. risk factors) of violence against psychiatric nurses (n = 731) and psychiatrists (n = 320) working in the eight health care districts of Stockholm. These caregivers were assessed cross-sectionally by means of a questionnaire covering various areas (e.g. violence and work environment). The majority of the participants (85%) reported having been exposed to violence during their careers, with 57% being victimized in the past 12 months. Physical violence was common, and factors such as negative attitudes to work and diminished sense of autonomy were associated with an increased vulnerability to violence. Nurses and psychiatrists did not differ in violence variables. In spite of the weaknesses of the design (cross-sectional self-selecting sample), this study corroborates previous findings and identifies personal factors associated with violence that have received little attention in the literature (e.g. lack of respect for the organization of care).

  • 29.
    Stengård, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stuck in a job: Being “locked-in” or at risk of becoming locked-in at the workplace and well-being over time2016In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 152-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, being “locked-in” at the workplace is conceptualized as being in a non-preferred workplace while at the same time perceiving low employability. The aim of the study was to investigate how being locked-in or at risk of becoming locked-in (being in a non-preferred workplace yet currently satisfied, combined with perceiving low employability) relates to well-being (subjective health and depressive symptoms). The hypotheses were tested in a Swedish longitudinal sample (T1 in 2010 and T2 in 2012) of permanent employees (N = 3491). The results showed that stability with regard to locked-in-related status (being non-locked-in, at risk of becoming locked-in, or locked-in at both T1 and T2) was related to significant and stable differences in well-being. The non-locked-in status was associated with better well-being than being at risk of becoming locked-in. Moreover, those at risk of becoming locked-in showed better well-being than those with stable locked-in status. Changes towards non-locked-in were accompanied by significant improvements in well-being, and changes towards locked-in were associated with impairments in well-being. The relationships that were found could not be attributed to differences in demographic variables and occupational preference. The findings indicate that being locked-in is detrimental to well-being. This has implications for preventative interventions.

  • 30.
    Tafvelin, S.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nielsen, K.
    Sheffield University Management School, United Kingdom.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenling, A.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Leading well is a matter of resources: Leader vigour and peer support augments the relationship between transformational leadership and burnout2019In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 156-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although studies suggest that transformational leaders play an important role in employee health and well-being, the relationship between transformational leadership and employee burnout remains unclear. One reason may be that moderators may play an important role. Building on conservation of resources theory, we examined if leaders’ perceptions of internal and external resources in terms of vigour and peer support augmented the relationship between transformational leadership and employee burnout in a sample of municipality workers and their leaders in Sweden (N = 217). Multilevel analyses over two time points revealed that both vigour and peer support enhance this relationship, such that when leaders experience high levels of vigour or peer support, the negative relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and employee burnout was strengthened. Our findings suggest that both personal and contextual resources may help leaders to better engage in transformational leadership, which is important in order to protect employees from burning out. 

  • 31.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nielsen, Karina
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leading well is a matter of resources: Leader vigour and peer support augments the relationship between transformational leadership and burnout2019In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 156-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although studies suggest that transformational leaders play an important role in employee health and well-being, the relationship between transformational leadership and employee burnout remains unclear. One reason may be that moderators may play an important role. Building on conservation of resources theory, we examined if leaders' perceptions of internal and external resources in terms of vigour and peer support augmented the relationship between transformational leadership and employee burnout in a sample of municipality workers and their leaders in Sweden (N = 217). Multilevel analyses over two time points revealed that both vigour and peer support enhance this relationship, such that when leaders experience high levels of vigour or peer support, the negative relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and employee burnout was strengthened. Our findings suggest that both personal and contextual resources may help leaders to better engage in transformational leadership, which is important in order to protect employees from burning out.

  • 32. Vander Elst, Tinne
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. North West University, South Africa.
    Naeswall, Katharina
    De Cuyper, Nele
    De Witte, Hans
    Threat of losing valued job features: The role of perceived control in mediating the effect of qualitative job insecurity on job strain and psychological withdrawal2014In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 143-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative job insecurity, relating to threat of job loss, has received considerable research attention, but relatively little is known about qualitative job insecurity. The latter relates to uncertainty regarding valued job characteristics, such as career and wage progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether situational appraisals of control may account for the relationship between qualitative job insecurity and both job strain (depressive symptoms and upper musculoskeletal complaints) and psychological withdrawal (affective organizational commitment and turnover intentions). The hypotheses were tested by means of two-wave longitudinal data (time lag of 14 months) from 722 Swedish white-collar workers in four samples. The results of cross-lagged structural equation modelling showed that qualitative job insecurity was negatively related to subsequent perceived control. Furthermore, perceptions of high control over the job situation were associated with decreased depressive symptoms and increased affective organizational commitment over time. Formal tests pointed at a significant indirect effect of qualitative job insecurity on affective organizational commitment through perceived control. No effects of perceived control on upper musculoskeletal complaints and turnover intentions were found. This study indicates the importance of qualitative job insecurity for employees' functioning and highlights perceived control as an explanation of job insecurity outcomes.

  • 33.
    Wiklund, Maria Lennernäs
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrient intake in day workers and shift workers1994In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 332-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 24-h dietary intake, nutritional status parameters and psychosomatic factors of two-shift, three-shift and day workers were compared. Estimations of the dietary intake (across a work cycle) were made by use of a nutrient database. No significant differences were found between the groups for a large number of nutritional variables: intake of energy; intake and percentage of energy from protein, fat, total carbohydrates and sucrose; intake of coffee; and intake and density of vitamins and minerals. Only minor differences were found between the groups with regard to the quantitative intake of alcohol and calcium, and with regard to the quality of the diet (percentage of energy from alcohol, density of calcium). The groups differed significantly with respect to attitude towards work hours (three-shift workers being most negative in their attitude) and sleep disturbances (shift workers being most negative). The three-shift workers were more evening-oriented and they had higher concentrations of glucose in their blood. It was concluded that work hours not related to nutritional intake-at least not when total amounts across time are considered. It was also concluded that work hours were not related to Body Mass Index or blood lipids: triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol

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