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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ, Sweden.
    Customer and Worker Discrimination against Gay and Lesbian Business Owners: A Web-Based Experiment among Students in Sweden2022In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1621-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants (N = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Owners sexual orientation was randomized across participants. Results showed that participants were less positive to a restaurant opening if the owners were lesbians, and they were less interested in an available job if the owners were gay. The participants had higher reservation wages if the owners were lesbians. In fact, the participants increased their wage demands when the number of women among the owners increased. Our study underlines that gay and lesbian people face various inequalities in society.

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  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Customer and Worker Discrimination against Gay and Lesbian Business Owners: A Web-Based Experiment among Students in Sweden2022In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1621-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants (N = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Owners’ sexual orientation was randomized across participants. Results showed that participants were less positive to a restaurant opening if the owners were lesbians, and they were less interested in an available job if the owners were gay. The participants had higher reservation wages if the owners were lesbians. In fact, the participants increased their wage demands when the number of women among the owners increased. Our study underlines that gay and lesbian people face various inequalities in society.

  • 3. Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ambivalent Spaces—The Emergence of a New Gay Male Norm Situated Between Notions of the Commercial and the Political in the Swedish Gay Press, 1969-19862015In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 763-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within sexual geographies, sexual struggles over urban public spaces are frequently explored. Less common is research on sexual struggles within sexually shared spaces and gay spaces. The aim of the article is to examine discursive struggles of meanings of gay male identity enacted in discussions of commodification/capitalism, disclosure, and space in Swedish gay press during 1969-1986. We trace the ambivalent feelings or the emergence of a new gay male norm situated between commercialism and non-commercialism within the Swedish gay press back to the 1970s. In the article we show how a monosexualization process was taking place in both the Swedish gay press as well as within sexual spaces. We explore rhetorical struggles between two competing discursive meanings of (ideal homonormative) male homosexuality, gay culture, and space: one wider (inclusive) and one narrower (exclusive).

  • 4.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ambivalent Spaces: The Emergence of a New Gay Male Norm Situated Between Notions of the Commercial and the Political in the Swedish Gay Press, 1969–19862015In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 763-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within sexual geographies, sexual struggles over urban public spaces are frequently explored. Less common is research on sexual struggles within sexually shared spaces and gay spaces. The aim of the article is to examine discursive struggles of meanings of gay male identity enacted in discussions of commodification/capitalism, disclosure, and space in Swedish gay press during 1969–1986. We trace theambivalent feelings or the emergence of a new gay male norm situated between commercialism and non-commercialism within the Swedish gay press back to the 1970s. In the article we show how a monosexualization process was taking place in both the Swedish gay press as well as within sexualspaces. We explore rhetorical struggles between two competing discursive meanings of (ideal homonormative) male homosexuality, gay culture, and space: one wider (inclusive) and one narrower (exclusive).

  • 5.
    Di Luigi, Guendalina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clareus, Benjamin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Mejias Nihlén, Theodor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Tove
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Psychometric Exploration of the Swedish Translation of the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS), and a Commentary on the Validity of the Construct of Microaggressions2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) in a convenience sample of 267 Swedish LGB+ people (Mean age = 36.41). Testing suggested some strengths in terms of factor structure and 2-week test-retest reliability (ICC > .79). Also, internal consistency (alpha = .80-.91) and convergent validity were supported for most subscales. However, the Assumption of Deviance subscale was associated with low response variability and internal consistency (alpha = .35), and the correlational pattern between the Environmental Microaggressions subscale and mental health variables diverged from the overall trend. Furthermore, measurement invariance between homo- and bisexual participants was not supported for most subscales, and although microaggressions would be theoretically irrelevant to a small comparison sample of heterosexual people (N = 76, Mean age = 40.43), metric invariance of the Environmental Microaggressions subscale was supported in comparison to LGB+ people. We argue that these limitations suggest a restricted applicability of the SOMS in a Swedish context, and this has consequences for the definition and operationalization of the construct of microaggressions as a whole. Therefore, more research on the latent properties of microaggressions in Swedish as well as in other contexts is required.

  • 6.
    Di Luigi, Guendalina
    et al.
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Claréus, Benjamin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mejias Nihlén, Theodor
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Lundberg, Tove
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Psychometric Exploration of the Swedish Translation of the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS), and a Commentary on the Validity of the Construct of Microaggressions2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) in a convenience sample of 267 Swedish LGB+ people (Mean age = 36.41). Testing suggested some strengths in terms of factor structure and 2-week test-retest reliability (ICC > .79). Also, internal consistency (α = .80-.91) and convergent validity were supported for most subscales. However, the Assumption of Deviance subscale was associated with low response variability and internal consistency (α = .35), and the correlational pattern between the Environmental Microaggressions subscale and mental health variables diverged from the overall trend. Furthermore, measurement invariance between homo- and bisexual participants was not supported for most subscales, and although microaggressions would be theoretically irrelevant to a small comparison sample of heterosexual people (N = 76, Mean age = 40.43), metric invariance of the Environmental Microaggressions subscale was supported in comparison to LGB+ people. We argue that these limitations suggest a restricted applicability of the SOMS in a Swedish context, and this has consequences for the definition and operationalization of the construct of microaggressions as a whole. Therefore, more research on the latent properties of microaggressions in Swedish as well as in other contexts is required.

  • 7.
    Ekstam, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Change and Continuity in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Across the Lifespan2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 851-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines differential stability in attitudes towards homosexuality using panel data representative of the American adult population. While attitudes towards homosexuality have shifted considerably on the aggregate-level over the past few decades, this study shows that such attitudes are remarkably stable on the individual-level. Employing conditional change models, this study also provides a test of the aging-stability hypothesis with regard to attitudes towards homosexuality. That hypothesis is confirmed, as attitude stability is found to gradually increase with age. However, no other socio-demographic variables are found to have consistent relationship with stability. The finding of an age-graded increase in stability suggests that attitudes toward homosexuality are formed predominantly early in life and that susceptibility to attitude change declines across the adult lifespan. This finding also supports a generational replacement explanation of recent changes in American public opinion on homosexuality, as aging-stability translates into cohort effects on the aggregate-level.  

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  • 8.
    Elouard, Yajna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Psychological Violence Experienced by Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puducherry, India: A Qualitative Study2013In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 1581-1601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Men who have sex with men are a hidden population in India. This study explores the psychological violence such men are exposed to in Puducherry, India. Eleven in-depth interviews probe experiences of blackmail, discrimination, and rejection. Some informants modified their behaviors or appearances to avoid harassment and safeguard their families' reputations. Others told how Indian men accepted their behaviors, but rejected their identities. Social pressure to marry was also a recurring theme. Understanding the factors behind these violent experiences may facilitate their amelioration.

  • 9.
    Gato, Jorge
    et al.
    Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Centre for Psychology at the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Barrientos, Jaime
    University Alberto Hurtado, Santiago de Chile, Chile.
    Tasker, Fiona
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.
    Miscioscia, Marina
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Cerqueira-Santos, Elder
    Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Division of Psychology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Seabra, Daniel
    Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Leal, Daniela
    Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Houghton, Marie
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.
    Poli, Mikael
    Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Gubello, Alessio
    Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    de Miranda Ramos, Mozer
    Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil.
    Guzmán, Mónica
    Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile.
    Urzúa, Alfonzo
    Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile.
    Ulloa, Francisco
    MUMS, Santiago, Chile.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psychosocial Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health among LGBTQ+ Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Comparison across Six Nations2021In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 612-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the world, people have seen their lives interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an online survey, we explored how the psychosocial effects of the pandemic affected the mental health of LGBTQ+ young adults who were confined with their parents during the lockdown period (N = 1,934), from six countries: Portugal, UK, Italy, Brazil, Chile, and Sweden. South American participants experienced more negative psychosocial effects of the pandemic. Depression and anxiety were higher among participants who were younger, not working, living in Europe and who reported feeling more emotionally affected by the pandemic, uncomfortable at home, or isolated from non-LGBTQ friends. Not attending higher education predicted depression while not being totally confined at home, residing habitually with parents, and fearing more future infection predicted anxiety. LGBTQ+ community groups, as well as health and educational services should remain particularly attentive to the needs of LGBTQ+ young adults during health crises.

  • 10.
    Gato, Jorge
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Barrientos, Jaime
    Univ Alberto Hurtado, Chile.
    Tasker, Fiona
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Miscioscia, Marina
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Cerqueira-Santos, Elder
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Brazil.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Seabra, Daniel
    Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Leal, Daniela
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Houghton, Marie
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Poli, Mikael
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Gubello, Alessio
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Ramos, Mozer de Miranda
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Brazil.
    Guzman, Monica
    Univ Catolica Norte, Chile.
    Urzua, Alfonzo
    Univ Catolica Norte, Chile.
    Ulloa, Francisco
    MUMS Movimiento Diversidad Sexual, Chile.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Psychosocial Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health among LGBTQ plus Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Comparison across Six Nations2021In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 612-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the world, people have seen their lives interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an online survey, we explored how the psychosocial effects of the pandemic affected the mental health of LGBTQ+ young adults who were confined with their parents during the lockdown period (N = 1,934), from six countries: Portugal, UK, Italy, Brazil, Chile, and Sweden. South American participants experienced more negative psychosocial effects of the pandemic. Depression and anxiety were higher among participants who were younger, not working, living in Europe and who reported feeling more emotionally affected by the pandemic, uncomfortable at home, or isolated from non-LGBTQ friends. Not attending higher education predicted depression while not being totally confined at home, residing habitually with parents, and fearing more future infection predicted anxiety. LGBTQ+ community groups, as well as health and educational services should remain particularly attentive to the needs of LGBTQ+ young adults during health crises.

  • 11.
    Gindt, Dirk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Medico-artistic complicities on Swedish stages: The boys in the band and the regulation of gay male representation in the welfare state2016In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 633-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley’s The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage.

  • 12.
    Herz, Marcus
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Johansson, Thomas
    The Normativity of the concept of heteronormativity2015In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 1009-1020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to analyse and critically examine use of the concept of heteronormativity. We find it important to adjust the concept to some extent in order to analyse, for example, changes occurring in homosexual families, contemporary gender-equal families or the progressive youth culture. We find two approaches when using the concept. One minimizes the importance of how sexual practices are embedded in social institutions. The first approach becomes too idealistic, whereas the second approach often is based on a structural view of society. This approach makes it hard to imagine a transformation of the family that could lead to more equal and democratic relations in contemporary families. We suggest a third approach, and the possibility of finding creative ways of analysing actual change and contestations of heteronormativity. An approach containing a space of reflexivity and aiming at political change both involving subjects as well as structures.

  • 13.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Norway.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Norway; Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Støre, Siri Jakobsson
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (BUP), Värmland County Council, Karlstad.
    Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage: The Case of Scandinavia2013In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. 

  • 14.
    Nyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Studies on Integrated Health and Welfare (SIHW).
    Jellesma, Francine C.
    Independent Researcher, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Prevention of HIV in the MSM Population: A Cultural-Historical Comparison of Sweden and the Netherlands2024In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 28-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to compare the cultural-historical events and decisions regarding how to deal with the higher risks of HIV in MSM, and more specifically, gay populations in Sweden and the Netherlands. A narrative literature was used, based on 46 scientific articles and 20 additional semi-scientific resources. The themes of the arrival of HIV and AIDS, blood donations, offender/victim, the balance of risks with respect to the statistical probabilities and the human factor, and finally, prevention were discussed. It is concluded that certain context-specific historical events (the Dutch Bloody Sunday and the Swedish gay sauna ban) and culturally determined processes (trust in others in the Netherlands, and disapproval of casual sex in Sweden) have led to some important differences in how HIV and AIDS and the higher risks for gay men and MSM have been dealt with. In the Netherlands, there is a stronger protective attitude when it comes to the freedom and autonomy of MSM both when it comes to decisions about sexual behavior and to sharing any positive HIV status. In Sweden, on the other hand, there is a stronger tendency to enforce informing others of their HIV status. In both countries, despite efforts to prevent this, HIV has increased stigma for gay men and other MSM.

  • 15.
    Nyman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Jellesma, Francine C
    Prevention of HIV in the MSM Population: A Cultural-Historical Comparison of Sweden and the Netherlands2024In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 28-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to compare the cultural-historical events and decisions regarding how to deal with the higher risks of HIV in MSM, and more specifically, gay populations in Sweden and the Netherlands. A narrative literature was used, based on 46 scientific articles and 20 additional semi-scientific resources. The themes of the arrival of HIV and AIDS, blood donations, offender/victim, the balance of risks with respect to the statistical probabilities and the human factor, and finally, prevention were discussed. It is concluded that certain context-specific historical events (the Dutch Bloody Sunday and the Swedish gay sauna ban) and culturally determined processes (trust in others in the Netherlands, and disapproval of casual sex in Sweden) have led to some important differences in how HIV and AIDS and the higher risks for gay men and MSM have been dealt with. In the Netherlands, there is a stronger protective attitude when it comes to the freedom and autonomy of MSM both when it comes to decisions about sexual behavior and to sharing any positive HIV status. In Sweden, on the other hand, there is a stronger tendency to enforce informing others of their HIV status. In both countries, despite efforts to prevent this, HIV has increased stigma for gay men and other MSM.

  • 16.
    Rosenberg, Lena
    et al.
    Department NVS, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kottorp, Anders
    Department NVS, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Department NVS, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    LGBQ-Specific Elderly Housing as a “Sparkling Sanctuary”: Boundary Work on LGBQ Identity and Community in Relationship to Potential LGBQ-Specific Elderly Housing in Sweden2018In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 1484-1506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how boundaries in relationship to community and identity were created and negotiated among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) people within the framework of picturing LGBQ-specific elderly housing as a housing alternative in older age, by applying focus group methodology. “An island as a sparkling sanctuary” was identified as a metaphor for how symbolic resources defining the LGBQ community can be manifested in LGBQ-specific qualities of elderly housing. The boundary work underlying this manifestation included elaborations on the dilemma between exclusiveness and normality. The findings illustrate further how symbolic resources and collective identities were developed through dialectic interplay between internal and external definitions. Further, the findings show how boundary work generated shared feelings of similarity and group membership. The associated symbolic and social resources not only served to deal with difficult situations but also to manifest LGBQ identity and sense of community as a “gold medal.”

  • 17.
    Ross, Michael W.
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Health and Society (HS), Department of Social Work (SA).
    Tikkanen, Ronny
    Berg, Rigmor C.
    Gay Community Involvement: Its Interrelationships and Associations With Internet Use and HIV Risk Behaviors in Swedish Men Who Have Sex With Men2014In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 323-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We measured aspects of community involvement chosen for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sweden (gay places, media accessed, Internet, gay festivals, and social engagement, measured as proportion of gay friends) in two Swedish Internet-based samples from 2006 (n=3,202) and 2008 (n=4,715). Data showed low to moderate reliability with a moderate (0.57) alpha coefficient. While there is moderate internal consistency, as might be anticipated from measures of actual community involvement, they can be treated as scales. The Internet scale indicated the lowest reliability, perhaps due to respondents having Internet sites of primary choice, rather than a high level of usage across several sites. A hypothesized lack of correlation between traditional domains of the gay community and the Internet did not appear: correlations between the Internet measure and the other measures were positive and significant, but among the lowest correlations obtained between the community measures, ranging from 0.06 to 0.24. Those who use the Internet extensively are less likely to be involved in other aspects of the community. Sexual risk was associated with high social engagement at sexual meeting sites and with Internet use. Gay community involvement, including the Internet community, may be complex and associated with both increase in HIV sexual risk behaviors (by measuring use of sexual risk sites) and preventive measures (HIV testing).

  • 18.
    Röndahl, Gerd
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Innala, Sune
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    To hide or not to hide, that is the question!: Lesbians and gay men describe experiences from nursing work environment2007In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 52, no 3-4, p. 211-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homosexual nursing staff (n = 21) from different parts of Sweden were interviewed about experiences from their psychosocial work environment and about what they consider important points to communicate about lesbians and gay men in nursing. The findings show that most of the informants were partly open about their sexual orientation at work, the women less so than the men. All informants spoke of the fear of being socially excluded. Reported negative experiences included being neglected, harassment, and verbal discomfort based on sexual prejudices. The informants regarded responsibility, the need for knowledge, the consequences of invisibility, and the lesbian's specific situation, important points to communicate regarding homosexuality and nursing.

  • 19.
    Strand, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan Anti-Homosexual Bill2012In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 564-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers.

  • 20.
    Strand, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Dept Informat & Media, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Jakob
    Malmö University, Faculty of Culture and Society (KS), School of Arts and Communication (K3).
    Towards a Situated Understanding of Vulnerability: An Analysis of Ugandan LGBT plus Exposure to Hate Crimes in Digital Spaces2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 2806-2827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study maps Uganda LGBT+ experiences of online hate crime and analyzes how preexisting vulnerability morph in digital spaces. Based on field notes, workshop material, and interviews with 13 LGBT+ individuals, the study finds that digital presences in contexts where users are vulnerable due to state-sanctioned discrimination and social exclusion, digital arenas exacerbate users' vulnerability to hate crimes through their digital footprints. The longing for community and intimacy, together with in some cases an unfamiliarity with how digital media can be misused, appear to facilitate both the ideologically driven perpetrators hunting LGBT+, and Crime passionnel, where an (ex)partner miscalculates the implications of publishing private material. This study thus illustrates how digital spaces are not safe(r) spaces, where LGBT+ are free to playfully explore sexual orientation and gender non-conformity, away from society's abhorring gaze. Furthermore, contrary to what could be expected, LGBT+ individuals' vulnerability was most often not the result of an outside intruder hunting LGBT+ online. The article reiterates the importance of a situated approach, acknowledging the environmental influences when studying and addressing LGBT+ vulnerabilities in digital spaces.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Strand, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Svensson, Jakob
    Malmö Univ, Dept Art Culture & Commun K3, Malmö, Sweden.
    Towards a Situated Understanding of Vulnerability: An Analysis of Ugandan LGBT plus Exposure to Hate Crimes in Digital Spaces2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 2806-2827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study maps Uganda LGBT+ experiences of online hate crime and analyzes how preexisting vulnerability morph in digital spaces. Based on field notes, workshop material, and interviews with 13 LGBT+ individuals, the study finds that digital presences in contexts where users are vulnerable due to state-sanctioned discrimination and social exclusion, digital arenas exacerbate users' vulnerability to hate crimes through their digital footprints. The longing for community and intimacy, together with in some cases an unfamiliarity with how digital media can be misused, appear to facilitate both the ideologically driven perpetrators hunting LGBT+, and Crime passionnel, where an (ex)partner miscalculates the implications of publishing private material. This study thus illustrates how digital spaces are not safe(r) spaces, where LGBT+ are free to playfully explore sexual orientation and gender non-conformity, away from society's abhorring gaze. Furthermore, contrary to what could be expected, LGBT+ individuals' vulnerability was most often not the result of an outside intruder hunting LGBT+ online. The article reiterates the importance of a situated approach, acknowledging the environmental influences when studying and addressing LGBT+ vulnerabilities in digital spaces.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Technology and Society (TS), Department of Computer Science and Media Technology (DVMT). Malmö University, Data Society.
    Strand, Cecilia
    Department of Informatics & Media, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Promise of Double Living: Understanding Young People with Same-Sex Desires in Contemporary Kampala2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ugandan urban same-sex desiring individuals frequently encounter and navigate competing understandings of sexuality and sexual identity. Western essentialist understanding of sexual identity introduced by international development partners and transnational LGBT+ (Lesbian, Gay, Bi- and Transsexual) activism, as well as media, offer an alternative to Ugandan non-essentialist and fluid subject positions. This article seeks to understand how young individuals with same-sex -desires in Kampala navigate tensions between Western and local understandings concerning sexuality. We have interviewed 24 young individuals with same-sex desires (unaffiliated and individuals working in LGBT+ organizations) and asked how they approach their sexuality and experiences living with same-sex desires in contemporary Kampala. The results reveal how interview participants engaged in a complex navigation between local community expectations, their own same-sex desires, and embeddedness in a global LGBT+ culture. Although the participants engaged in what Westerners would label as a "double life," the article problematizes the prescriptive norms of authenticity and "coming out." The conclusion is that the fluid vs essentialist dichotomy is too simplistic to be helpful when trying to understand the lives and aspirations of young people with same-sex desires.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Jakob
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science & Media Technology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Strand, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Media and Communication Studies.
    The Promise of Double Living. Understanding Young People with Same-Sex Desires in Contemporary Kampala2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ugandan urban same-sex desiring individuals frequently encounter and navigate competing understandings of sexuality and sexual identity. Western essentialist understanding of sexual identity introduced by international development partners and transnational LGBT+ (Lesbian, Gay, Bi- and Transsexual) activism, as well as media, offer an alternative to Ugandan non-essentialist and fluid subject positions. This article seeks to understand how young individuals with same-sex -desires in Kampala navigate tensions between Western and local understandings concerning sexuality. We have interviewed 24 young individuals with same-sex desires (unaffiliated and individuals working in LGBT+ organizations) and asked how they approach their sexuality and experiences living with same-sex desires in contemporary Kampala. The results reveal how interview participants engaged in a complex navigation between local community expectations, their own same-sex desires, and embeddedness in a global LGBT+ culture. Although the participants engaged in what Westerners would label as a “double life,” the article problematizes the prescriptive norms of authenticity and “coming out.” The conclusion is that the fluid vs essentialist dichotomy is too simplistic to be helpful when trying to understand the lives and aspirations of young people with same-sex desires.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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