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  • 1.
    Astor, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gaze following in 4.5- and 6-month-old infants: The impact of proximity on standard gaze following performance tests2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 79-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze following (GF), the ability to synchronize visual attention with others, is often considered a foundation of social cognition. In this study, GF was assessed while changing the space between an actor's eyes and the gaze target. This was done to address a potential confound in the gold standard GF performance test, namely the spatial bias of the actors? eye position that occurs when the actor turns the head to look at a target, offsetting the eye position from a centered position toward the attended target. Our results suggest that both 4.5 (n = 27) and 6 (n = 30)-month-old infants can follow an actor's gaze regardless of proximity. This is the first demonstration that early GF is not dependent on proximity cues, and our results strengthen previous findings suggesting that GF develops well before 6 months of age. The study was preregistered, and all data and analysis routines can be downloaded with provided links.

  • 2. Del Bianco, Teresa
    et al.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Karolinska Institutet.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Developmental Origins of Gaze-Following in Human Infants2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants develop the capacity to follow the gaze of others. This behavior allows sharing attention and facilitates language acquisition and cognitive development. This article reviews studies that investigated gaze-following before 12 months of age in typically developing infants and discusses current theoretical perspectives on early GF. Recent research has revealed that early GF is highly dependent on situational constraints and individual characteristics, but theories that describe the underlying mechanisms have partly failed to consider this complexity. We propose a novel framework termed the perceptual narrowing account of GF that may have the potential to integrate existing theoretical accounts.

  • 3.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eighteen-Month-Olds, but not 14-Month-Olds, Use Social Context to Bind Action Sequences2015In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that 18-month-olds, but not 14-month-olds, can anticipate others' actions based on an interpretation of shared goals that bind together individual actions into a collaborative sequence. After viewing a sequence of actions performed by two people who socially interact, 18-month-olds bound together the socially engaged actors' actions such that they later expected the actors to share the same final goal. Eighteen-month-olds who saw nonsocially engaged actors did not have this expectation and neither did 14-month-olds when viewing either socially or nonsocially engaged actors. The results are discussed in light of the possibility that experience in collaborations could be necessary for understanding collaboration from a third-person perspective.

  • 4.
    Galazka, Martyna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Visual Attention to Dynamic Spatial Relations in Infants and Adults2016In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has found that kinematic features of interactions, such as spatial proximity, capture adult visual attention. The current research uses online measures of gaze behavior to determine attentional capture to objects with reduced interobject spacing in adults as well as infants at 5 and 12months. The three age groups observed three identical geometrical shapes that moved randomly. Relative distance between the objects was mapped and intervals of high and low spatial proximity were identified. Findings demonstrate that only adults and 12-month-olds look significantly more at the objects that are close during instances of high spatial proximity, while 5-month-olds look at chance. The findings speak for a developmental trend in oculomotor processes, where a bias to look at objects with high spatial proximity develops within the first year of life.

  • 5.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Schmitow, Clara
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laeng, Bruno
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Individual Differences in Face Processing: Infants' Scanning Patterns and Pupil Dilations are Influenced by the Distribution of Parental Leave2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen-month-old infants were presented with static images of happy, neutral, and fearful emotional facial expressions in an eye-tracking paradigm. The emotions were expressed by the infants own parents as well as a male and female stranger (parents of another participating infant). Rather than measuring the duration of gaze in particular areas of interest, we measured number of fixations, distribution of fixations, and pupil diameter to evaluate global scanning patterns and reactions to emotional content. The three measures were differentially sensitive to differences in parental leave, emotional expression, and face familiarity. Infants scanned and processed differently happy, neutral, and fearful faces. In addition, infants cared for by both father and mother (divided parental leave) distributed their gaze more across faces than did infants primarily cared for by one parent (in this study, the mother). Pupil diameter complemented these findings, revealing that infants had larger pupil diameter during observation of neutral emotions expressed by the parent who is not currently the primary caregiver. This study demonstrates how conclusions differ as a function of the particular eye-tracking measure used and shows that the three measures used here converge on the conclusion that 14-month-old infants processing of emotional expressions is influenced by infants exposure to fathers and mothers.

  • 6.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Schmitow, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Laeng, Bruno
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Differences in Face Processing: Infants' Scanning Patterns and Pupil Dilations are Influenced by the Distribution of Parental Leave2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen-month-old infants were presented with static images of happy, neutral, and fearful emotional facial expressions in an eye-tracking paradigm. The emotions were expressed by the infants own parents as well as a male and female stranger (parents of another participating infant). Rather than measuring the duration of gaze in particular areas of interest, we measured number of fixations, distribution of fixations, and pupil diameter to evaluate global scanning patterns and reactions to emotional content. The three measures were differentially sensitive to differences in parental leave, emotional expression, and face familiarity. Infants scanned and processed differently happy, neutral, and fearful faces. In addition, infants cared for by both father and mother (divided parental leave) distributed their gaze more across faces than did infants primarily cared for by one parent (in this study, the mother). Pupil diameter complemented these findings, revealing that infants had larger pupil diameter during observation of neutral emotions expressed by the parent who is not currently the primary caregiver. This study demonstrates how conclusions differ as a function of the particular eye-tracking measure used and shows that the three measures used here converge on the conclusion that 14-month-old infants processing of emotional expressions is influenced by infants exposure to fathers and mothers.

  • 7.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kenward, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The microstructure of  infants' gaze as they view adult shifts in overt attention2008In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 533-543Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Theuring, C.
    Hauf, P.
    Kenward, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The microstructure of infants' gaze as they view adult shifts in overt attention2008In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 533-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We presented infants (5, 6, 9, and 12 months old) with movies in which a female model turned toward and fixated 1 of 2 toys placed on a table. Infants' gaze was measured using a Tobii 1750 eye tracker. Six-, 9-, and 12-month-olds' first gaze shift from the model's face (after the model started turning) was directed to the attended toy. The 5-month-olds performed at random. Following this initial response, 5-, 6-, and 9-month-olds performed more gaze shifts to the attended target; 12-month-olds performed at random. Infants at all ages displayed longer looking times to the attended toy. We discuss a number of explanations for 5-month-olds' ability to follow a shift in overt attention by an adult after an initially random response, including the possibility that infants' initial gaze response strengthens the representation of the objects in the peripheral visual field.

  • 9.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Theuring, Carolin
    Hauf, Petra
    Kenward, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The microstructure of infants' gaze as they view adult shifts in overt attention2013In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 533-543Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion During Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants2004In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 165-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion interval ranged from 500–4,000 msec). Gaze was measured using an ASL 504 infrared eye-tracking system. Results effectively demonstrate that infants from 6 months of age can represent the spatiotemporal dynamics of occluded objects. Infants at all ages tested were able to predict, under certain conditions, when and where the object would reappear after occlusion. They moved gaze accurately to the position where the object was going to reappear and scaled their timing to the current occlusion duration. The average rate of predictive gaze crossings increased with occlusion duration. These results are discussed as a 2-factor process. Successful predictions are dependent on strong representations, themselves dependent on the richness of information available during encoding and graded representations.

  • 11.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tjus, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neonatal imitation: Temporal characteristics in imitative response patterns2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 674-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neonatal imitation has been an area that has attracted intense attention within developmental psychology. Reported here are data from 33 newborn infants (16 girls; mean age: 47 hr) assessed for imitation of tongue protrusion (TP) and mouth opening (MO). The stimuli were presented dynamically, in three 20-second-long gesture modeling intervals, interwoven with three 20-second-long intervals in which the presenter kept a passive face. Imitation of TP emerged among a majority of the infants during the first 60 s of the experiment. In contrast, MO showed a protracted response and a majority exhibited imitation after 60 s. The individual response pattern of the participating infants varied substantially over the course of the experiment. The study provides renewed support for neonatal imitation of MO and TP, and, in addition, suggests that the temporal organization of the responses observed is an important factor to consider, which in turn has methodological and theoretical implications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-06-19 11:09
  • 12.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rennels, Jennifer L.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Psychol, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.
    Kayl, Andrea J.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Psychol, Las Vegas, NV 89154 USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Attention during Visual Preference Tasks: Relation to Caregiving and Face Recognition2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 356-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examined how caregiver experience (female primary caregiver or distributed caregiving with mom and dad) influenced 10-, 14-, and 16-month-olds' visual preferences and attention toward internal facial features of female-male face pairs, and how these behaviors related to novelty preferences in a face recognition task and speed and accuracy on a visual search task. In the visual preference task, infants visually preferred male faces, regardless of caregiver experience. Despite similarities in visual preferences, infants' attention toward females and males' internal facial features was related for infants with distributed caregiving only. Infants' performance across face processing tasks most often correlated for those with female primary caregivers. Results further our understanding of how infants with female primary caregivers display specialized processing of female faces, and how infants with distributed caregiving show similarities in their attention to female and male facial features.

  • 13.
    Kenward, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    10-Month-Olds Visually Anticipate an Outcome Contingent on Their Own Action2010In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 337-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that young infants can learn to perform an action that elicits a reinforcer, and that they can visually anticipate a predictable stimulus by looking at its location before it begins. Here, in an investigation of the display of these abilities in tandem, I report that 10-month-olds anticipate a reward stimulus that they generate through their own action: .5 sec before pushing a button to start a video reward, they increase their rate of gaze shifts to the reward location; and during periods of extinction, reward location gaze shifts correlate with bouts of button pushing. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the infants have an expectation of the outcome of their actions: several alternative hypotheses are ruled out by yoked controls. Such an expectation may, however, be procedural, have minimal content, and is not necessarily sufficient to motivate action.

  • 14. Peltola, Mikko
    et al.
    Hietanen, Jari
    Forssman, Linda
    University of Tampere.
    Leppänen, Jukka
    The Emergence and Stability of the Attentional Bias to Fearful Faces in Infancy2013In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 905-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that at 7 months of age, infants display an atten- tional bias toward fearful facial expressions. In this study, we analyzed visual attention and heart rate data from a cross-sectional study with 5-, 7-, 9-, and 11-month-old infants (Experiment 1) and visual attention from a longitudinal study with 5- and 7-month-old infants (Experiment 2) to exam- ine the emergence and stability of the attentional bias to fearful facial expressions. In both experiments, the attentional bias to fearful faces appeared to emerge between 5 and 7 months of age: 5-month-olds did not show a difference in disengaging attention from fearful and nonfearful faces, whereas 7- and 9-month-old infants had a lower probability of disengaging attention from fearful than nonfearful faces. Across the age groups, heart 

    rate (HR) data (Experiment 1) showed a more pronounced and longer-last- ing HR deceleration to fearful than nonfearful expressions. The results are discussed in relation to the development of the perception and experience of fear and the interaction between emotional and attentional processes. 

  • 15.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do 12-month-old infants trust a competent adult?2013In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 873-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why infants prefer to look at and use information provided by some informants over others was examined in four experiments. In each experiment, 52 12-month-old infants participated. In Experiment 1, a familiar expert and a familiar nonexpert and in Experiment 2, a novel expert and a novel nonexpert presented an ambiguous object and provided positive information. In both experiments, the infants preferred to look at the expert and regulated their behavior more in accordance with positive information provided by the expert, regardless of she was novel or more familiar. In Experiment 3, a familiar expert and a familiar nonexpert and in Experiment 4, a novel expert and a novel nonexpert presented an ambiguous object and provided negative information. In both experiments, the infants looked more at the expert and regulated their behavior more in accordance with negative information provided by the expert, regardless of she was novel or more familiar. The results support an expertise perspective of infant behavior in social-referencing situations.

  • 16.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing2009In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not have relevant information to provide in the laboratory. If this is the case, higher order cognitive capacities might be involved in infant selectivity in looking in social referencing situations. However, it has also been proposed that associative learning processes might account for infant preferences in such studies. To examine whether an expertise perspective or if more basic learning processes best explain infant selectivity in looking, 40 12-month-old infants were assigned to 1 of 2 comparable conditions. The experimenter versus the caregiver presented an ambiguous toy and delivered positive information about the toy. The infants preferred to look at the experimenter and they regulated their behavior more in accordance with information coming from the experimenter. Thus, an associative learning account cannot explain infant preferences in looking. The results are discussed in terms of an expertise perspective.

  • 17.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do Infants Look at and Use Positive Information from Some Informants Rather Than Others in Ambiguous Situations?2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 642-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three laboratory experiments on social referencing examined whether infants tendencies to look at and use positive information from the experimenter could be interpreted from a perspective of novelty or expertise. In Study 1, novelty was manipulated. Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated. In a between-subject design, a more novel or a less novel experimenter presented an ambiguous object and provided positive information. The infants looked more at and regulated their behavior more in accordance with information coming from the less novel experimenter. In Study 2, expertise was manipulated. Forty-eight 12-month-old infants were exposed to one experimenter who showed expertise about the laboratory situation and one experimenter who did not show such competence. The infants looked more at and regulated their behavior more in accordance with information coming from the expert. In Study 3, 40 12-month-old infants participated. The infants were exposed to a toy-expert who was either novel or familiar. The infants, in both groups, looked as much at the toy-experts and used the information regardless of whether the novel or familiar toy-expert had provided information. The findings suggest that novelty does not increase looking in ambiguous situations. Instead, the results support the expertise perspective of infant looking preferences.

  • 18.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infant looking behavior in ambiguous situations: Social referencing or attachment behavior?2007In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 111-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is infant looking behavior in ambiguous situations best described in terms of information seeking (social referencing) or as attachment behavior? Twelve-month-old infants were assigned to I of 2 conditions (Study 1); each infant's mother provided positive information about an ambiguous toy and an experimenter provided positive information. In Study 2, 12-month-old infants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: mother provided positive information about the toy, mother was inattentive, or mother provided negative information; the experimenter was inattentive. The infants preferred to look at the experimenter in almost all conditions and they regulated their behavior in accordance with information obtained from the experimenter. None of the studies lends support for an explanation in terms of behaviors deriving from the attachment system, and they raise questions concerning social referencing interpretations of infants' looking behavior. Other alternatives for explaining infant looking behavior in social referencing situations (e.g., associative learning) are discussed.

  • 19.
    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Infants’ expectations about third-party verbal exchangesIn: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dahlström, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredriksson, Ylva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    12-month–old infants’ perception of attention direction in static video images2005In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, nfancy, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 217-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve-month-old infants' ability to perceive gaze direction in static video images was investigated. The images showed a woman who performed attention-directing actions by looking or pointing toward 1 of 4 objects positioned in front of her (2 on each side). When the model just pointed at the objects, she looked straight ahead, and when she just looked, her hands were hidden below the tabletop. An eye movement system (TOBII) was used to register the gaze of the participants. We found that the infants clearly discriminated the gaze directions to the objects. There was no tendency to mix up the 2 object positions, located 10° apart, on the same side of the model. The infants spent more time looking at the attended objects than the unattended ones and they shifted gaze more often from the face of the model to the attended object than to the unattended objects. Pointing did not significantly increase the infants' tendency to move gaze to the attended object, irrespective of whether the pointing gesture was accompanied by looking or not. In all conditions the infants spent most of the time looking at the model's face. This tendency was especially noticeable in the pointing-only condition and the condition where the model just looked straight ahead.

  • 21. Wass, Sam
    et al.
    Forssman, Linda
    University of Tampere.
    Leppänen, Jukka
    Robustness and Precision: How Data Quality May Influence Key Dependent Variables in Infant Eye-Tracker Analyses2014In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 427-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, eye-tracking has become a popular method for drawing conclusions about infant cognition. Relatively little attention has been paid, however, to methodological issues associated with infant eye-tracking. Here, we consider the possibility that systematic differences in the quality of raw eye-tracking data obtained from different populations and individuals might create the impression of differences in gaze behavior, without this actually being the case. First, we show that lower quality eye-tracking data are obtained from populations who are younger and populations who are more fidgety and that data quality declines during the testing session. Second, we assess how these differences in data quality might influence key dependent variables in eye-tracking analyses. We show that lower precision data can appear to suggest a reduced likelihood to look at the eyes in a face relative to the mouth. We also show that less robust tracking may manifest as slower reaction time latencies (e.g., time to first fixation). Finally, we show that less robust data can manifest as shorter first look/visit duration. We argue that data quality should be reported in all analyses of infant eye-tracking data and/or that steps should be taken to control for data quality before performing final analyses.

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