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  • 1.
    Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Gyllenswärd, Göran
    Psychotherapy and Grief Consultant, Stockholm.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm.
    Adolescents' experiences of having a stillborn half-sibling2013Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 557-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is an increasing interest in siblings' experiences of loss and grief there is limited knowledge of adolescent's own perspectives, especially in a unique situation as after stillbirth in a reconstituted family. The authors interviewed 13 bereaved adolescents. They were sad that their family was not the same and expressed feelings of being inside family grief, yet outside, because they did not have full access in their reconstituted family. An implication of present findings is that it is important to include all the members of the family in the grieving process, even half-siblings of the deceased child.

  • 2. Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Gyllenswärd, Göran
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Adolescents' experiences of having a stillborn half-sibling2014Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 557-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is an increasing interest in siblings' experiences of loss and grief there is limited knowledge of adolescent's own perspectives, especially in a unique situation as after stillbirth in a reconstituted family. The authors interviewed 13 bereaved adolescents. They were sad that their family was not the same and expressed feelings of being inside family grief, yet outside, because they did not have full access in their reconstituted family. An implication of present findings is that it is important to include all the members of the family in the grieving process, even half-siblings of the deceased child.

  • 3.
    Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gyllenswärd, Göran
    Psychotherapy and Grief Consultant, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolescents´experiences of having a stillborn half-sibling2014Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 557-562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is an increasing interest in siblings' experiences of loss and grief there is limited knowledge of adolescent's own perspectives, especially in a unique situation as after stillbirth in a reconstituted family. The authors interviewed 13 bereaved adolescents. They were sad that their family was not the same and expressed feelings of being inside family grief, yet outside, because they did not have full access in their reconstituted family. An implication of present findings is that it is important to include all the members of the family in the grieving process, even half-siblings of the deceased child.

  • 4.
    Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Udo, Camilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Socialt arbete.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Cancer-bereaved siblings' advice to peers: a nationwide follow-up survey2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this nationwide survey was to explore, based on an open-ended question, cancer-bereaved siblings’ advice to peers with a brother or sister with cancer. Half of the advice related to being with the ill sibling and cherishing the time together. Other advice related to the value of communicating about the situation, letting go of guilt, and living life as usual. The results highlight the importance of health care professionals, family, and others facilitating for siblings to spend time together and communicate openly.

  • 5.
    Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Udo, Camilla
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap, Palliativt forskningscentrum, PFC. Dalarna högskola.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap, Palliativt forskningscentrum, PFC. Karolinska institutet.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap. Karolinska institutet.
    Cancer-bereaved siblings’ advice to peers: A nationwide follow-up survey2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this nationwide survey was to explore, based on an open-ended question, cancer-bereaved siblings’ advice to peers with a brother or sister with cancer. Half of the advice related to being with the ill sibling and cherishing the time together. Other advice related to the value of communicating about the situation, letting go of guilt, and living life as usual. The results highlight the importance of health care professionals, family, and others facilitating for siblings to spend time together and communicate openly.

  • 6.
    Holm, Maja
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV). Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Ohlen, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Sweden;Dalen Hospital, Sweden.
    Variations in grief, anxiety, depression, and health among family caregivers before and after the death of a close person in the context of palliative home care2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates longitudinal variations in grief, self-rated health, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among family caregivers in palliative care. Data were taken from a randomized psycho-educational intervention trial and were collected at four time-points; at baseline, upon completion, 2 months later, and 6 months after the patient's death. In total, 117 family caregivers completed all questionnaires. The participants' grief was stable across the measurements, while anxiety, depression, and health varied significantly (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the intervention or control group. In conclusion, grief emerged as a constant phenomenon, distinct from symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  • 7.
    Holm, Maja
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet högskola.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnéuniversitetet, Region Kalmar län.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap. Capio Palliativ vård Dalen.
    Variations in grief, anxiety, depression, and health among family caregivers before and after the death of a close person in the context of palliative home care.2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates longitudinal variations in grief, self-rated health, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among family caregivers in palliative care. Data were taken from a randomized psycho-educational intervention trial and were collected at four time-points; at baseline, upon completion, 2 months later, and 6 months after the patient's death. In total, 117 family caregivers completed all questionnaires. The participants' grief was stable across the measurements, while anxiety, depression, and health varied significantly (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the intervention or control group. In conclusion, grief emerged as a constant phenomenon, distinct from symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  • 8.
    Holm, Maja
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Alvariza, Anette
    Variations in grief, anxiety, depression, and health among family caregivers before and after the death of a close person in the context of palliative home care2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates longitudinal variations in grief, self-rated health, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among family caregivers in palliative care. Data were taken from a randomized psycho-educational intervention trial and were collected at four time-points; at baseline, upon completion, 2 months later, and 6 months after the patient's death. In total, 117 family caregivers completed all questionnaires. The participants' grief was stable across the measurements, while anxiety, depression, and health varied significantly (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the intervention or control group. In conclusion, grief emerged as a constant phenomenon, distinct from symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  • 9.
    Jalmsell, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Visby lasarett.
    Kontio, Taru
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stein, Maria
    Karolinska institutet.
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Karolinska institutet.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap, Palliativt forskningscentrum, PFC. Karolinska institutet, Sophiahemmet.
    On the Child's Own Initiative: Parents Communicate with Their Dying Child About Death.2015Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 39, nr 1-5, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when, and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This article reports how bereaved parents communicated about death with their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  • 10.
    Jalmsell, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Kontio, Taru
    Stein, Maria
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    On the child's own initiative: parents communicate with their dying child about death2015Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 111-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when, and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This article reports how bereaved parents communicated about deathwith their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  • 11. Jalmsell, Li
    et al.
    Kontio, Taru
    Stein, Maria
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    On the child's own initiative: parents communicate with their dying child about death2015Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 111-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and honest communication has been identified as an important factor in providing good palliative care. However, there is no easy solution to if, when and how parents and a dying child should communicate about death. This paper reports how bereaved parents communicated about death with their child, dying from a malignancy. Communication was often initiated by the child and included communication through narratives such as fairy-tales and movies and talking more directly about death itself. Parents also reported that their child prepared for death by giving instructions about his or her grave or funeral and giving away toys.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Walter, Tony
    University of Bath, UK.
    Continuing bonds and place2017Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 406-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Where do people feel closest to those they have lost? This article explores how continuing bonds with a deceased person can be rooted in a particular place or places. Some conceptual resources are sketched, namely continuing bonds, place attachment, ancestral places, home, reminder theory, and loss of place. The authors use these concepts to analyze interview material with seven Swedes and five Britons who often thought warmly of the deceased as residing in a particular place and often performing characteristic actions. The destruction of such a place, by contrast, could create a troubling, haunting absence, complicating the deceased's absent-presence.

  • 13. Kleijberg, Max
    et al.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Macdonald, Alastair
    Lindqvist, Olav
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tishelman, Carol
    Navigating power dynamics in engaging communities in end-of-life issues?: Lessons learned from developing community-based intergenerational arts initiatives about death and loss2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of community engagement in end-of-life issues and age-segregation in Swedish society motivated us to develop Studio DöBra, a community-based intergenerational arts initiative to support community engagement in end-of-life issues and develop intergenerational meeting places. Representatives from several community organizations formed a project group with first author MK, to develop Studio DöBra. Based on analysis of exploratory interviews with professionals involved in other, similar initiatives and data from Studio DöBra development, we discuss challenges related to power dynamics in developing initiatives to engage communities in end-of-life issues, and how these can inform the development of similar initiatives.

  • 14.
    Pettersen, Rossana
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Omerov, Pernilla
    Karolinska institutet.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska institutet, Göteborgs universitet.
    Dyregrov, Atle
    Norge.
    Titelman, David
    Karolinska institutet.
    Dyregrov, Kari
    Norge.
    Nyberg, Ullakarin
    Karolinska institutet.
    Suicide-Bereaved Siblings' Perception of Health Services.2014Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 323-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated suicide-bereaved siblings' reported reasons for seeking or not seeking professional support, their reported satisfaction when receiving it, and their recommendations to health services when meeting suicide-bereaved siblings. Using qualitative content analysis of 18 interviews with suicide-bereaved siblings, we found that the perception of health services as being helpful was influenced by both the participants' and by the deceased siblings' experiences with health services. We conclude that own and the deceased sibling's unmet needs may generate negative attitudes towards health services, which reduces the likelihood of seeking professional help as well as medication acceptance in some cases.

  • 15.
    Silvén Hagström, Anneli
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Socialt arbete.
    “Why did he choose to die?”: A meaning-searching approach to parental suicide bereavement in youth2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 113-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes from a narrative perspective how young people talk about their experience of parental suicide in different social contexts. The results show how these young grievers are preoccupied with the question of Why the parent committed suicide. Moreover, they tend primarily to interpret the suicide in line with stigmatizing discourses regarding Who is to blame, which has negative impacts on their identities. In contrast, a ?meaning-searching approach? seeks to answer the question of What caused the suicide and to identify a combination of internal vulnerabilities and external stressors. Professional interventions are recommended to foster the latter health promoting coping strategy.

  • 16.
    Tamm, Maare
    Boden College of Health and Caring Sciences, Department of Research and Development.
    Personification of life and death among Swedish health care professionals1996Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine how people working in health care in Sweden personify life and death. The questions of special interest were whether there are archetypal notions of life and death, and what emotional tone is associated with them, especially with death. Totals of 22 women and 25 men working in health care were interviewed individually. The results showed that 84% of the men and 65% of the women personified death as an old man. The descriptions were archetypal, the reaper figure being the most evident personification. Death was often given a rural location, it was seasonally associated with autumn, and its time of day was evening or night. The emotional tone associated with death by more than 50% of the interviewees was serenity, peace, and melancholy; 25% saw death as something frightening. The corresponding personifications of life showed the opposite characteristics in nearly all respects. The results indicate that archetypal notions of life and death do exist and that these notions are culturally influenced.

  • 17.
    Tamm, Maare
    et al.
    Boden College of Health and Caring Sciences, Department of Research and Development.
    Granqvist, Anna
    Boden College of Health and Caring Sciences, Department of Research and Development.
    The meaning of death for children and adolescents: A phenomenographic study of drawings1995Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 203-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the qualitative differences in 213 girls' and 218 boys' (aged 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, and 19 yrs) concepts of death, as reflected in their drawing. Ss were asked to draw their impression of the word "death" and to give a verbal commentary on what they had drawn. The drawings were analyzed according to a phenomenograhic method and assigned to 1 of 3 superordinate and 10 subordinate qualitative categories. The categories were both age and gender related. Biological death concepts dominated the younger age groups (aged 9-12 yrs), and metaphysical death concepts were found predominately in the older age groups. Boys had more violent death concepts than did girls and personified death more often. Girls depicted death in more emotional terms than boys did.

  • 18. Tishelman, Carol
    et al.
    Eneslätt, Malin
    Menkin, Elizabeth
    Lindqvist, Olav
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Developing and using a structured, conversation-based intervention for clarifying values and preferences for end-of-life in the advance care planning-naive Swedish context: Action research within the the DoBra research program2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has no systematic advance care planning (ACP), nor legal recognition of end-of-life proxies. We describe our experiences and reflections from a participatory action research process, aiming at developing and initially using a conversation-based, structured ACP approach among community-dwelling, older adults in Sweden. Eco-mapping and DoBra cards were used with 65 people to catalyze discussions on preferences for the end-of-life. We found great individual variation in both Eco-map depictions of social networks and prioritization of the 37 DoBra card items. The DoBra cards were concluded to be a viable tool for stimulating person-centered conversations on preferences for future end-of-life care.

  • 19.
    Tishelman, Carol
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Center for Rural Medicine (GMC), Storuman, Sweden. Stockholm Health Care Services (SLSO), Stockholm country council (SLL), Stockholm, Sweden. School of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Eneslätt, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Menkin, Elizabeth
    Institute for Palliative Medicine, San Diego Hospice, San Diego, California, USA.
    Lindqvist, Olav
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden-Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Developing and using a structured, conversation-based intervention for clarifying values and preferences for end-of-life in the advance care planning-naïve Swedish context: Action research within the DöBra research program2020Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has no systematic advance care planning (ACP), nor legal recognition of end-of-life proxies. We describe our experiences and reflections from a participatory action research process, aiming at developing and initially using a conversation-based, structured ACP approach among community-dwelling, older adults in Sweden. Eco-mapping and DöBra cards were used with 65 people to catalyze discussions on preferences for the end-of-life. We found great individual variation in both Eco-map depictions of social networks and prioritization of the 37 DöBra card items. The DöBra cards were concluded to be a viable tool for stimulating person-centered conversations on preferences for future end-of-life care.

  • 20.
    Weber, Megan
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap, Palliativt forskningscentrum, PFC.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap, Palliativt forskningscentrum, PFC.
    Sveen, Josefin (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap, Palliativt forskningscentrum, PFC.
    Adaptation of a Grief and Communication FamilySupport Intervention for Parentally BereavedFamilies in Sweden2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to describe the adaptation of the evidence-based Family BereavementProgram to a Swedish context. Empirical support indicating that family communication is aprotective factor for parentally bereaved children was used to motivate the focus of theintervention. Modules from the Family Bereavement Program manual were translated, culturallyadapted, and modified to fit a family format. The manual for the Grief andCommunication Family Support Intervention was pilot-tested with two families, whichresulted in minor modifications being made to the manual. Therapists reported that theycould follow the manual and adapt it to children’s varying ages.

  • 21.
    Weber, Megan
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Caring Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alvariza, Anette
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Caring Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Capio Palliative Care, Dalen Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Caring Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Women and Child’s Health,Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sveen, Josefin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Ekselius: Psykiatri. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Caring Sciences, Palliative Research Centre, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptation of a Grief and Communication Family Support Intervention for Parentally Bereaved Families in Sweden2019Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to describe the adaptation of the evidence-based Family Bereavement Program to a Swedish context. Empirical support indicating that family communication is a protective factor for parentally bereaved children was used to motivate the focus of the intervention. Modules from the Family Bereavement Program manual were translated, culturally adapted, and modified to fit a family format. The manual for the Grief and Communication Family Support Intervention was pilot-tested with two families, which resulted in minor modifications being made to the manual. Therapists reported that they could follow the manual and adapt it to children's varying ages.

  • 22.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    University of Göteborg.
    Qualitative age-related differences in the meaning of the word "death" to children1984Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 8, nr 5&6, s. 333-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to expand our knowledge of what death means to children, 112 children, ranging in age from 4 to 18 years, drew a picture of what the word “death” means to them and attached a comment to explain their drawing. Three themes were evident in the drawings, resulting in these categories: (a) violence or aggression, (b) religious and cultural symbols, and (c) the experience of dying. The themes were significantly related to age, with the drawings of the youngest children more likely to portray violence and the drawings of the oldest children more likely to portray themes of the experience of dying. This relationship to age may be due to age-specific sociocultural contexts that provide children at each age with a certain type of information about death and dying. Several children described the dying process with images similar to those used by people who describe a “near death” experience. These descriptions seem to reflect universal, archetypical ideas about the experience of dying.

  • 23.
    Wenestam, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    University of Göteborg.
    Wass, Hannelore
    University of Florida.
    Swedish and U.S. children's thinking about death: a qualitative study and cross-cultural comparison1987Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 99-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was two-fold: (a) to investigate the qualitative differences in children's death-related thinking regardless of nationality, and (b) to discover what qualitative differences exist between Swedish and U.S. children in their concepts of death. Phase I of the study included a sample of 316 Swedish and U.S. children, ages 4-19, 53 percent of which were girls. Phase II consisted of a cross-cultural comparison of 124 Swedish and 122 U.S. children matched for age and sex. The children participated in this study as intact classroom groups. They were asked to draw what they thought of when they heard the word “death”, or, in the case of the young children, the word “dead”. They were also asked to give a brief verbal commentary on what they had drawn. Each child's drawing and comments were analyzed as a unit. The drawings were assigned to one of ten qualitatively different categories identified post hoc. The categories were found to be age-related and in accord with previous studies of the development of concepts of death in children. The cross-cultural comparison indicated considerable similarities in the qualities of Swedish and U.S. children's depictions of death. Some cross-cultural differences were also observed, but these are differences in frequency or emphasis rather than in quality of depictions. More Swedish children depicted cultural and religious practices and symbols, whereas more U.S. children depicted violent causes of death. Possible explanations of these differences are suggested, and recommendations for future cross-cultural research in this area are made.

  • 24.
    Wojnar, Danuta M.
    et al.
    Seattle Univ, Coll Nursing, Seattle, WA 98122 USA.
    Swanson, Kristen M.
    Univ N Carolina, Sch Nursing, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
    Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Confronting the inevitable: A conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research2011Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 536-558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of scientific evidence that miscarriage has negative psychological consequences for many individuals and couples, silence and dismissal continue to surround this invisible loss in North American culture and beyond. The grief and sorrow of miscarriage has important implications for clinical practice. It indicates a need for therapeutic interventions delivered in a caring, compassionate, and culturally sensitive manner. This research, based on data from 3 phenomenological investigations conducted with 42 women from diverse geographical locations, sexual orientations, and cultural backgrounds offers a theoretical framework for addressing miscarriage in clinical practice and research.

  • 25.
    Wojnar, Danuta M.
    et al.
    College of Nursing, Seattle University, Seattle WA, USA.
    Swanson, Kristine, M
    School of Nursing, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill NC, USA.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Confronting the inevitable: a conceptual model of miscarriage for use in clinical practice and research2011Ingår i: Death Studies, ISSN 0748-1187, E-ISSN 1091-7683, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 536-558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of scientific evidence that miscarriage has negative psychological consequences for many individuals and couples, silence and dismissal continue to surround this invisible loss in North American culture and beyond. The grief and sorrow of miscarriage has important implications for clinical practice. It indicates a need for therapeutic interventions delivered in a caring, compassionate, and culturally sensitive manner. This research, based on data from 3 phenomenological investigations conducted with 42 women from diverse geographical locations, sexual orientations, and cultural backgrounds offers a theoretical framework for addressing miscarriage in clinical practice and research.

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