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  • 1. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Vaez, Elham
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among High-School Students: the Moderating Role of Academic Hardiness2018Inngår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 632-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that test anxiety is increasing among students; however, relatively little is known regarding the related factors of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the relationships between two forms of perfectionism, academic hardiness, and test anxiety, and (2) examine the moderating role of academic hardiness on the association between two types of perfectionism and test anxiety. This study included 520 students ranging from 15 to 21 years of age from eight high schools in Tehran, Iran completed the self-administered questionnaires. The results of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) revealed that students with high levels of personal standards perfectionism and high levels of academic hardiness were less likely to experience test anxiety, while students with high levels of evaluative concerns perfectionism were more likely to experience test anxiety. A multi-group analysis revealed that academic hardiness moderated the relationship between evaluative concerns perfectionism and test anxiety. These findings enhance existing literature by revealing moderating processes that explain how perfectionism effects test anxiety.

  • 2.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Tepe, Yeliz Kındap
    Cumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey.
    Persson, Roland S.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Investigating Turkish university students’ attitudes towards refugees in a time of Civil War in neighboring Syria2018Inngår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of refugees have immigrated to Turkey because of the current Civil War in neighboring Syria. This is causing tensions between refugees and locals. These increasingly negative attitudes towards the incoming victims of conflict are of particular interest. The present study, therefore, aimed at determining the premises of the emergence of such negative attitudes. The research sample consisted of university students who all studied at various faculties at Cumhuriyet University in the Turkish province of Sivas. Data were collected by the Attitude Scale Towards Refugees, the Patriotism Attitude Scale, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and the Cirhinlioğlu Religiosity Scale. Data were analyzed by Independent Sample t-tests as well as using Stepwise Regression Analyses. Results showed that the feeling of empathy correlated negatively with negative attitudes towards refugees, while blind patriotism, religiosity, and having nationalist/conservative orientations, correlated positively. Men were found to be more negative than women. The feeling of empathy was the most prominent factor in predicting the nature of attitudes towards refugees. Religious doctrine and distancing oneself from conservative and patriotic perspectives appeared to be effective in potentially preventing the development of negative attitudes. In conclusion, research results are discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  • 3. Chen, Bin-Bin
    et al.
    Wiium, Nora
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Chen, Ning
    The Relationships between Family, School and Community Support and Boundaries and Student Engagement among Chinese Adolescents2019Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 705-714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between social support and boundaries from family, school and community and student engagement among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 577 adolescents (53.5% boys) from Shanghai who provided data on student engagement, environmental support and boundaries from family, school and community. Results showed that family, school and community support and boundaries were positively related to two dimensions of student engagement (i.e., behavioral and affective). Several interaction terms were also observed. Specifically, school support strengthened the relationship between community support and behavioral engagement, and family support and affective engagement; school boundary strengthened the relationship between family boundary and affective engagement. Practical implications for the contributions of support and boundaries from family, school and community on student engagement are discussed.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Views on and Perceptions of Experiences of Touch Avoidance: An Exploratory Study2013Inngår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 44-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of physical touch by conducting semi-structured interviews with 14 participants, nine women and five men (M (age) = 25.1). A touch avoidance screening form was used to select subjects with the highest scores on touch avoidance as well as those with the lowest scores, that is, the greatest acceptance of touch, for the interviews (n = 7 in each group). Data were analyzed using Burnard's stage-by-stage process of coding and categorization. The identified superordinate themes were labeled: 1) safe haven, 2) skill, 3) physical appearance, 4) ambivalence and 5) fear. Among other findings, touch avoiders seemed to have a greater need for bodily intimacy as a confirmation of the romantic partner relationship than did touch accepters. It was concluded that the experience of physical closeness is complex, and the relationships with attachment theory were discussed. Further research was suggested to more thoroughly investigate the present findings on touch avoidance, as well as the origins of touch avoidance and its consequences for personal relationships and communication skills.

  • 5.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avdelningen för psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi. University of Gothenburg, Department of Psychology, Göteborg, Sweden. University of Skövde,Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Skövde, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avdelningen för psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism (MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a community sample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, while grandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on that narcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to the experience of stress in everyday life.

  • 6.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism(MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a communitysample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, whilegrandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on thatnarcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to theexperience of stress in everyday life.

  • 7.
    Lönnfjord, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale: A Rasch Analysis Based on Adolescent Data2017Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 703-715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-efficacy describes people’s belief in their own ability to perform the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) with an adolescent sample, using Rasch analysis. The scale was examined with a focus on invariant functioning along the latent trait as well as across sample groups. The data were collected 2009 and 2010 among 3764 students aged between 13 and 15 years, in the 7th to 9th grade, in compulsory schools in the municipality of Karlstad, Sweden. The item fit was acceptable, the categorization of the items worked well and the scale worked invariantly between years of investigations. Although the GSES worked well as a whole, there was some evidence of misfit indicating room for improvements. The targeting may be improved by adding more questions of medium difficulty. Also, further attention needs to be paid to the dimensionality of the GSES as well as to whether the psychometric properties of GSES are affected by using more recent data.

  • 8.
    Pazhoohi, Farid
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Grammer, Karl
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO). University of Minho, Portugal.
    Arantes, Joana
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    The effect of women’s leg posture on gazing behavior and perceived attractiveness2018Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Subtle nonverbal changes can influence perception, signal individual’s affective state and act as gateways in interpersonal communications. In this exploratory study, we investigated the effect of previously uninvestigated female leg posture (in-toeing vs. out-toeing) on gazing behavior and perceived attractiveness. Results showed a small effect: participants fixated more and spent more time looking at the legs and feet of the stimuli with in-toeing feet than parallel and out-toeing feet. Likewise, we found a small effect for the perception of the attractiveness. In line with the previous studies, we suggest in-toeing feet might signal femininity and submission and discussed our results accordingly.

  • 9.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Centre for Consumer Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Personality traits and Internet usage across generation cohorts: Insights from a nationally representative study2018Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining the relationship between personality and Internet usage have usually used small and non-representative samples. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the Five Factor Model of Personality and Internet usage in a large nationally representative Swedish sample (N = 1694). Neuroticism was negatively associated with overall Internet usage, whereas extraversion and openness to experience were shown to be positively associated with overall Internet usage. However, exploring these associations across categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts revealed some other interesting patterns. Specifically, neuroticism was negatively associated with using the Internet for activities relating to information and duties but not for leisure and social activities. Extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities among DotNets (born 1977–1999), whereas among Dutifuls (born 1910–1945) and Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities. Openness to experience was positively associated with Internet usage but only among Baby Boomers. Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of Internet usage only for DotNets and GenXers (born 1965–1976). In these cohorts, conscientiousness was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities but negatively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities. Apparently, understanding the relationship between personality and Internet usage is not possible without considering the modifying role of categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts. The implications of the results for theory and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 10.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Kristina
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sara
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mechanisms in Self-Determined Exercise Motivation: Effects of a Theory Informed Pilot Intervention2017Inngår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 90-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine the effects of an exercise pilot intervention informed by Self-determination theory. The 64 participants were randomized into experimental and control group. The main questions were whether the intervention would influence (a) exercise level, (b) motivation quality, and (c) autonomy and competence need satisfaction. We also examined the indirect effects of self-determined motivation on exercise. Significant intervention effects were found regarding exercise level and motivation quality. Also, intervention effect on exercise was found to be mediated by motivation quality and identified regulation. The results provide interesting information about the underlying mechanisms involved in exercise behaviour change. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

  • 11.
    Weman Josefsson, Karin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI).
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zooming in on the Effects: a Controlled Trial on Motivation and Exercise Behaviour in a Digital Context2018Inngår i: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 250-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a description of a short-term digital exercise intervention based on the theoretical framework self-determination theory and tested in a controlled trial. The sample consisted of 318 adult women (n = 279) and men (n = 40) aged 23–67 years (M = 46.7; SD = 9.4) participating in a digital step contest provided by their employer. All participants completed study baseline measures via validated web-based versions of the following instruments: Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. These measures were repeated twice, 3 weeks (post-intervention) and 6 weeks (follow-up) after study baseline. The experimental group had access to the intervention platform for three weeks. Data were analysed by analyses of covariance and mediation variable analysis. Results showed the intervention to affect exercise level and intensity as well as basic psychological need satisfaction and behavioural regulations. Intervention effects on amotivation post-intervention were found to mediate total exercise behaviour at follow-up. Moderation analyses showed intervention effects on light exercise to be stronger for those participants engaging in moderate or high levels of light activities at study baseline. Also, the effect on identified regulation was stronger for those with low levels of identified regulation at study baseline. This study adds to the knowledge on exercise motivation based on short-term intervention effects on level and intensity of exercise and physical activity. The use of mediating and moderating analyses uncover processes underlying the main intervention effects. Findings are discussed in relation to self-determination theory and previous research. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 12. Zhang, Rongwei
    et al.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Turku, Finland.
    Li, Dan
    Jiang, Jun
    Chinese Students' Satisfaction with Life Relative to Psychological Capital and Mediated by Purpose in Life2019Inngår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 260-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Altogether 700 college students aged 18 to 24years (M=20.81, SD=1.29) originating from six universities in China participated in this study. The current aim was to find out whether a student's sense of purpose in life mediated the relationship between his/her psychological capital (PsyCap) comprising hope, generalized self-efficacy, resilience, optimism (HERO; Luthans and Youssef-Morgan. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 339-366, 2017) and satisfaction with life. Furthermore, it was asked which factor contributes more to students' satisfaction with life, PsyCap or purpose in life? Thus, apprentices completed the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585, 1991), General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem. Causal and Control Beliefs, 1, 35-37, 1995), Resilience Scale (Wagnild and Young. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165-17847, 1993), Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063-1078, 1994) along with the completion of the Purpose in Life Test (Crumbaugh and Maholick. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20(2), 200-207, 1964) and Satisfaction with life scale (Diener et al. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75, 1985). The results disclosed grade differences in PsyCap elements. Moreover, positive and significant correlations between any of two variables were found, thus allowing for further analysis. Structural equation modeling revealed that students' satisfaction with life was directly predicted by PsyCap per se as well as indirectly projected by means of the construct purpose in life. Based on the present assessment, PsyCap contributed more to students' satisfaction with life than their experienced purpose in life.

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