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  • 1. Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Granhag, Per-Anders
    The effects of source and type of feedback on child witnesses’ metamemory accuracy2005In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 331-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of feedback on the accuracy (realism) of 12-year-old children's metacognitive judgments of their answers to questions about a film clip. Two types of judgments were investigated: confidence judgments (on each question) and frequency judgments (i.e. estimates of overall accuracy). The source of feedback, whether it was presented as provided by a teacher or a peer child, did not influence metacognitive accuracy. Four types of feedback were given depending on whether the participant's answer was correct and depending on whether the feedback confirmed or disconfirmed the child's answer. The children showed large overconfidence when they received confirmatory feedback but much less so when they received disconfirmatory feedback. The children gave frequency judgments implying that they had more correct answers than they actually had. No main gender differences were found for any of the measures. The results indicate a high degree of malleability in children's metacognitive judgments.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    The contribution of working memory to children's mathematical word problem solving2007In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1201-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explored the contribution of working memory to mathematical word problem solving in children. A total of 69 children in grades 2, 3 and 4 were given measures of mathematical problem solving, reading, arithmetical calculation, fluid IQ and working memory. Multiple regression analyses showed that three measures associated with the central executive and one measure associated with the phonological loop contributed unique variance to mathematical problem solving when the influence of reading, age and IQ were controlled for in the analysis. In addition, the animal dual-task, verbal fluency and digit span task continued to contribute unique variance when the effects of arithmetical calculation in addition to reading, fluid IQ, and age were controlled for. These findings demonstrate that the phonological loop and a number of central executive functions (shifting, co-ordination of concurrent processing and storage of information, accessing information from long-term memory) contribute to mathematical problem solving in children. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 3.
    Chérif, Lobna
    et al.
    Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Canada.
    Wood, Valerie
    Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Canada.
    Marois, Alexandre
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Labonté, Katherine
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Vachon, François
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Multitasking in the military: Cognitive consequences and potential solutions2018In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 429-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multitasking-the performance of several tasks at the same time-is becoming increasingly prevalent in workplaces. Multitasking is known to disrupt performance, particularly in complex and dynamic situations, which is exactly what most military occupations entail. Because military errors can be consequential, the detrimental impact of multitasking on cognitive functioning in such contexts should be taken seriously. This review pertains to high-consequence military occupations that require strong multitasking skills. More specifically, it highlights cognitive challenges arising from different forms of multitasking and discusses their underlying cognitive processes. Because such challenges are not expected to diminish, this review proposes context-relevant solutions to decrease occupational workload, either by reducing the cognitive load ensuing from the to-be-performed tasks or by improving soldiers' multitasking abilities. To ensure effective implementation of these solutions, we stress the need to design context-adapted tools and procedures, and to guide human resource managers in developing particular strategies.

  • 4.
    Hagström, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Virtually overcoming grammar learning with 3D application of Loci mnemonics?2018In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 450-462Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Hildebrand Karlén, Malin
    et al.
    Lindqvist Bagge, Ann-Sophie
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Alcohol intoxicated witnesses' interpretation of social behavior in intimate partner violence2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 468-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol intoxication affects social information processing, though research is scarce regarding how alcohol affected eyewitnesses' perception of social interaction within an applied forensic context. In the present study, the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitnesses' perception of interaction in intimate partner violence (IPV) were investigated. The participants (n = 152) were randomized to an experimental (alcohol) or control group (juice). After consumption, they viewed a filmed IPV scenario where both interacting parties were confrontational. Afterwards, they rated the involved parties' behavior. Several behaviors were perceived in a similar manner by intoxicated and sober participants, but intoxicated participants perceived both parties' attacking behaviors and some of the man's prosocial behaviors differently than sober participants. Hence, alcohol affected some, but not all, kinds of social behaviors investigated in the present study. This would be of interest to legal praxis and to future studies on intoxicated witnesses to interpersonal violence.

  • 6.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Classroom experiments on the effects of different noise sources and sound levels on long-term recall and recognition in children2003In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 895-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 1358 children aged 12-14 years participated in ten noise experiments in their ordinary classrooms and were tested for recall and recognition of a text exactly one week later. Single and combined noise sources were presented for 15 min at 66 dBA L-eq (equivalent noise level). Single source presentations of aircraft and road traffic noise were also presented at 55 dBA L-eq. Data were analysed between subjects since the first within-subjects analysis revealed a noise after-effect or a asymmetric transfer effect. Overall, there was a strong noise effect on recall, and a smaller, but significant effect on recognition. In the single-source studies, aircraft and road traffic noise impaired recall at both noise levels. Train noise and verbal noise did not affect recognition or recall. Some of the pairwise combinations of aircraft noise with train or road traffic, with one or the other as the dominant source, interfered with recall and recognition. Item difficulty, item position and ability did not interact with the noise effect. Arousal, distraction, perceived effort, and perceived difficulty in reading and learning did not mediate the effects on recall and recognition.

  • 7.
    Höffler, Tim N.
    et al.
    IPN - Leibniz‐Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Koć-Januchta, Marta
    IPN - Leibniz‐Institute for Science and Mathematics Education, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Leutner, Detlev
    University of Duisburg‐Essen, Essen, Germany.
    More Evidence for Three Types of Cognitive Style: Validating the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire Using Eye Tracking when Learning with Texts and Pictures2017In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three‐dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text–picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three‐dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ to learning behaviour. The results largely confirm the model in that they show the expected correlations between results on the OSIVQ, visuo‐spatial ability and learning behaviour. Distinct differences between object visualizers, spatial visualizers and verbalizers could be demonstrated.

  • 8. Johansson, O.
    et al.
    Anderssson, J.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Do elderly couples have a better prospective memory than other elderly people when they collaborate?2000In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 14, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    K Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Permentier, Fabrice BR
    Department of Psychology, Edificio Cientifico-Tecnico, University of Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
    Hughes, Robert W
    School of Psychology Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Macken, William J
    School of Psychology Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Jones, Dylan M
    School of Psychology Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Listen out!: Behavioural and subjective responses to verbal warnings2012In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the behavioural and subjective impacts of single-word spoken warnings were examined. Behaviourally, the effect of infrequently occurring warnings was studied through their disruptive impact on a visually presented serial recall task. In separate experiments, ratings of the same words were elicited. Experiment 1 showed a localized effect of the warnings (on the item immediately following the warning), with the urgently intoned warning having a greater disruptive effect than its valence (emotional content). Valence and intonation (urgency) did not interact. The performance changes were mirrored in the ratings of the words. Experiment 2 showed no systematic effect on performance of either the action-relatedness of the word or its lexicality. There was, however, a systematic effect of lexicality but not action-relatedness on ratings. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using objective performance methods to establish the likely effects of verbal warnings and the utility of using such methods for the design of alarm systems.

  • 10.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: does sound source location and number of voices matter?2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 537-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual that people have to write in an environment where background speech is present. Background speech can vary in both speech intelligibility and location of the sound source. Earlier research has shown disruptive effects of background speech on writing performance. To expand and reinforce this knowledge, the present study investigated the role of number of voices and sound source location in the relation between background speech and writing performance. Participants wrote texts in quiet or in background speech existing of one or seven voices talking simultaneously, located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Self-reports showed that sound from the front was more disruptive compared to sound from behind. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture and the cross-modal theory of attention. The relevance of the results for open-office environments is discussed.

  • 11. Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: Does sound source location and number of voices matter?2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 537-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual that people have to write in an environment where background speech is present. Background speech can vary in both speech intelligibility and location of the sound source. Earlier research has shown disruptive effects of background speech on writing performance. To expand and reinforce this knowledge, the present study investigated the role of number of voices and sound source location in the relation between background speech and writing performance. Participants wrote texts in quiet or in background speech consisting of one or seven voices talking simultaneously located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Self-reports showed that sound from the front was more disruptive compared with sound from behind. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture, and the cross-modal theory of attention. The relevance of the results for open-office environments is discussed.

  • 12.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Effects of task interruption and background speech on word processed writing2016In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task interruptions and background speech, both part of the everyday situation in office environments, impair cognitive performance. The current experiments explored the combined effects of background speech and task interruptions on word processed writing-arguably, a task representative of office work. Participants wrote stories, in silence or in the presence of background speech (monologues, halfalogues and dialogues), and were occasionally interrupted by a secondary task. Writing speed was comparably low during the immediate period after the interruption (Experiments 1 and 2); it took 10-15s to regain full writing speed. Background speech had only a small effect on performance (Experiment 1), but a dialogue was more disruptive than a halfalogue (Experiment 2). Background speech did not add to the cost caused by task interruptions. However, subjective measures suggested that speech, just as interruptions, contributed to perceived workload. The findings are discussed in view of attentional capture and interference-by-process mechanisms.

  • 13.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    Centre for Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Ljung, Robert
    Hallman, David
    Centre for Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list

  • 14.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list.

  • 15.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Irrelevant speech and indoor lighting: effects on cognitive performance and self-reported affect2002In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 709-718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Leander, Lina
    et al.
    Christianson, Sven A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granhag, Paer Anders
    Internet-Initiated Sexual Abuse: Adolescent Victims' Reports About On- and Off-Line Sexual Activities2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1260-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how adolescent girls, who had been sexually (on- and off-line) deceived and abused by an Internet hebephile, reported about these acts. As we had access to documentation of 68 girls' conversations (i.e. chat logs) and involvement with the perpetrator, we were able to gauge what the victims reported during the police interview against this detailed documentation. In contrast with findings from previous research, the majority of victims reported about the off-line activities (real-life meetings) with the perpetrator. However, the victims omitted and/or denied more of the on-line activities, specifically the more severe sexual on-line acts (sending nude photos and participating in sexual web shows). There is probably a gap between what the victims reported and what they presumably remembered about the oil-line activities. Factors that might have affected the victims' pattern of reports are discussed.

  • 17.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Who can judge the accuracy of eyewitness statements? A comparison of professionals and lay-persons2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1301-1314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that people have difficulty estimating eyewitness accuracy. It is not known whether groups with professional experience of judging eyewitness memory are better at making such judgments than lay-persons. In the current study, police detectives, judges, and lay-persons judged accuracy of responses to cued recall questions from ethnic in- and out-group witnesses who genuinely tried to remember a crime. Responses were presented in videotape or as transcripts. Detectives outperformed the other groups in discrimination accuracy, and participants performed better when statements were presented in transcribed than in videotaped format. Judges used a liberal response criterion overall, whereas detectives and lay-persons were more liberal when judging out-group than in-group witnesses. Findings indicate that there are observable cues to witnesses’ accuracy, that specific professional groups have more knowledge of these cues than others, and that judgments of accuracy based on transcripts rather than live testimony would increase quality of legal decisions.

  • 18.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Speech Intelligibility and Recall of Spoken Material Heard at Different Signal-to-noise Ratios and the Role Played by Working Memory Capacity2013In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gavle, Sweden; University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?2015In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reexamines the effects of background speech on counting. Previous studies have shown that background sound disrupts counting in comparison with silence, but the magnitude of disruption is no larger for spoken numbers compared with that for non-number speech (there is no effect of the meaning of background speech). The typical task used previously has been to count the number of sequentially presented visual events. We replicated the general finding in Experiment 1that there is no effect of the meaning of background speechin the context of the classic sequence counting task. In Experiment 2, the task was changed by having to-be-counted dots presented simultaneously and randomly across the visual field. Here, an effect attributable to the meaning of background speech emerged. Background speech that is similar in meaning to the focal task process contributes to the magnitude of disruption, but apparently only when spatial memory processes are a task prerequisite. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  • 20.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire UK .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?2015In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reexamines the effects of background speech on counting. Previous studies have shown that background sound disrupts counting in comparison with silence, but the magnitude of disruption is no larger for spoken numbers compared with that for non-number speech (there is no effect of the meaning of background speech). The typical task used previously has been to count the number of sequentially presented visual events. We replicated the general finding in Experiment 1—that there is no effect of the meaning of background speech—in the context of the classic sequence counting task. In Experiment 2, the task was changed by having to-be-counted dots presented simultaneously and randomly across the visual field. Here, an effect attributable to the meaning of background speech emerged. Background speech that is similar in meaning to the focal task process contributes to the magnitude of disruption, but apparently only when spatial memory processes are a task prerequisite.

  • 21.
    Sarwar, Farhan
    et al.
    Lund university, Department of psychology.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    University of Gothenburg. Department of psychology.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lund University. Department of psychology.
    Effects of communication with non-witnesses on eyewitnesses' recall correctness and meta-cognitive realism2011In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 782-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In forensic contexts it is common that witnesses retell and discuss the experienced event many times. It is of forensic importance to understand how this influences memory and meta-memory. Eighty-nine participants viewed a short film and were assigned to one of four conditions: (1) Laboratory discussion (five discussions of the event with a confederate), (2) Family discussion (five discussions of the event with a family member), (3) Retell (five retellings of the event) and (4) Control. Three weeks later participants gave an open free recall, and then 3 days later confidence judged the recalled information. The results showed significant differences between the four conditions on number of correct items, incorrect items, accuracy, confidence and calibration. The results suggest that discussion of an experienced event may reduce some of the beneficial memory and meta-memory effects caused by mere retelling, but may have no great negative effects compared to a control condition.

  • 22.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Driving speed changes and subjective estimates of time savings, accident risks and braking2009In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants made decisions between two road improvements to increase mean speed. Time saved when speed increased from a higher driving speed was overestimated in relation to time saved from increases from lower speeds. In Study 2, participants matched pairs of speed increases so that they would give the same time saving and repeated the bias. The increase in risk of an accident with person injury was underestimated and the increase in risk of a fatal accident grossly underestimated when speed increased. The increase of stopping distance when speed increased was systematically underestimated. In Study 3, the tasks and results of Study 2 were repeated with engineering students. When forming opinions about speed limits and traffic planning, drivers, the public, politicians and others who do not collect the proper facts are liable to the same biases as those demonstrated in the present study.

  • 23.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Effects of training on age estimation2007In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 131-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the possibility to improve accuracy of age estimates through training. Thirty-four participants were divided into an experimental and a control group. The sessions included a pre-test before training, six feedback or no-feedback training tests and a post-test after training. The experimental group performed the feedback tests and the control group the no-feedback tests. Training was found to improve age estimation accuracy, particularly estimations of old stimuli, and training with feedback seemed to be superior to training without feedback. No difference was found between the groups at pre-test, but at post-test the experimental group exhibited greater accuracy in age estimation. Moreover, the experimental group increased its accuracy between the pre- and post-tests.

  • 24. Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Halin, Niklas
    Department of Education and Psychology, University of Gävle.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Laboratory of Applied Psychology, Centre for Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 25.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 26. Teoh, Y-S
    et al.
    Yang, P-J
    Lamb, M.E.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Do human figure diagrams help alleged victims of sexual abuse provide clearer accounts of physical contact with alleged perpetrators?2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Threadgold, Emma
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    McLatchie, Neil
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Background music stints creativity: evidence from compound remote associate tasks2019In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 873-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Background music has been claimed to enhance people's creativity. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of background music on performance of Compound Remote Associate Tasks (CRATs), which are widely thought to tap creativity. Background music with foreign (unfamiliar) lyrics (Experiment 1), instrumental music without lyrics (Experiment 2), and music with familiar lyrics (Experiment 3) all significantly impaired CRAT performance in comparison with quiet background conditions. Furthermore, Experiment 3 demonstrated that background music impaired CRAT performance regardless of whether the music induced a positive mood or whether participants typically studied in the presence of music. The findings challenge the view that background music enhances creativity and are discussed in terms of an auditory distraction account (interference-by-process) and the processing disfluency account.

  • 28. Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived Causes of Everyday Memory Problems in a Population-based Sample Aged 39-992011In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 641-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is usually a weak relation between memory complaints and laboratory memory performance, but few studies have investigated what people perceive as causes of their everyday memory problems. This study investigated prevalence, severity and perceived causes of memory problems in a population-based sample (N = 361, age-range 39-99). 30.2 per cent of the participants reported memory complaints (at least moderate memory problems). Higher age was associated with more severe memory problems, but the age-related differences were small. The most frequent perceived causes were age/ageing, stress and multitasking. Age/ageing as a cause was more frequent among older participants, and stress and multitasking were more frequent among middle-aged participants. The results suggest that everyday stress and level of engagement in multiple tasks or commitments, that place demands on cognitive resources, are important variables to consider when studying the relations between subjective everyday memory measures, age and memory performance in the laboratory.

  • 29.
    Vestergren, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Perceived causes of everyday memory problems in a population-based sample aged 39–992011In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 641-646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is usually a weak relation between memory complaints and laboratory memory performance, but few studies have investigated what people perceive as causes of their everyday memory problems. This study investigated prevalence, severity and perceived causes of memory problems in a population-based sample (N = 361, age-range 39–99). 30.2 per cent of the participants reported memory complaints (at least moderate memory problems). Higher age was associated with more severe memory problems, but the age-related differences were small. The most frequent perceived causes were age/ageing, stress and multitasking. Age/ageing as a cause was more frequent among older participants, and stress and multitasking were more frequent among middle-aged participants. The results suggest that everyday stress and level of engagement in multiple tasks or commitments, that place demands on cognitive resources, are important variables to consider when studying the relations between subjective everyday memory measures, age and memory performance in the laboratory.

1 - 29 of 29
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