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  • 1. Aronsson, Carina
    et al.
    Bohman, Mikael
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, Maria
    Loud voice during environmental noise exposure in patients with vocal nodules2007In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how female patients with vocal nodules use their voices when trying to make themselves heard over background noise. Ten patients with bilateral vocal fold nodules and 23 female controls were recorded reading a text in four conditions, one without noise and three with noise from cafes/pubs, played over loudspeakers at 69, 77 and 85 dBA. The noise was separated from the voice signal using a high-resolution channel estimation technique. Both patients and controls increased voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), subglottal pressure (Ps) and their subjective ratings of strain significantly as a main effect of the increased background noise. The patients used significantly higher Ps in all four conditions. Despite this they did not differ significantly from the controls in voice SPL, F0 or perceived strain. It was concluded that speaking in background noise is a risk factor for vocal loading. Vocal loading tests in clinical settings are important and further development of assessment methods is needed.

  • 2. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Reliability and content validity of a new instrument for assessment of communicative skills and language abilities in young Swedish children2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Alku, Paavo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Subglottal Pressure and Normalized Amplitude Quotient Variation in Classically Trained Baritone Singers2006In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subglottal pressure (Ps) and voice source characteristics of five professional baritone singers have been analyzed and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), defined as the ratio between peak-to-peak pulse amplitude and the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram and normalized with respect to the period time, was used as an estimate of glottal adduction. The relationship between Ps and NAQ has been investigated in female subjects in two earlier studies. One of these revealed NAQ differences between both singing styles and phonation modes, and the other, based on register differences in female musical theatre singers, showed that NAQ differed between registers for the same PPs value. These studies thus suggest that NAQ and its variation with PPs represent a useful parameter in the analysis of voice source characteristics. The present study aims at increasing our knowledge of the NAQ parameter further by finding out how it varies with pitch and PPs in professional classically trained baritone singers, singing at high and low pitch (278 Hz and 139 Hz, respectively). Ten equally spaced Ps values were selected from three takes of the syllable [pae:], initiated at maximum vocal loudness and repeated with a continuously decreasing vocal loudness. The vowel sounds following the selected PPs peaks were inverse filtered. Data on peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, maximum flow declination rate and NAQ are presented.

  • 4.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Thurfjell, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Intervention of the communicative ability in persons with mental retardation1996In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Long-term-average spectrum characteristics of Kunqu Opera singers' speaking, singing and stage speech2014In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) characteristics were analyzed for ten Kunqu Opera singers, two in each of five roles. Each singer performed singing, stage speech, and conversational speech. Differences between the roles and between their performances of these three conditions are examined. After compensating for Leq difference LTAS characteristics still differ between the roles but are similar for the three conditions, especially for Colorful face (CF) and Old man roles, and especially between reading and singing. The curves show no evidence of a singer's formant cluster peak, but the CF role demonstrates a speaker's formant peak near 3 kHz. The LTAS characteristics deviate markedly from non-singers' standard conversational speech as well as from those of Western opera singing.

  • 6. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Breyer, Tobias
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal tract and register changes analysed by real-time MRI in male professional singers - a pilot study2008In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of vocal tract shape accompanying changes of vocal register and pitch in singing have remained an unclear field. Dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to two professional classical singers (a tenor and a baritone) in this pilot study. The singers sang ascending scales from B3 to G#4 on the vowel /a/, keeping the modal register throughout or shifting to falsetto register for the highest pitches. The results show that these singers made few and minor modifications of vocal tract shape when they changed from modal to falsetto and some clear modifications when they kept the register. In this case the baritone increased his tongue dorsum height, widened his jaw opening, and decreased his jaw protrusion, while the tenor merely lifted his uvula. The method used seems promising and should be applied to a greater number of singer subjects in the future.

  • 7.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vocal fold collision threshold pressure: An alternative to phonation threshold pressure?2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), frequently used for characterizing vocal fold properties, is often difficult to measure. This investigation analyses the lowest pressure initiating vocal fold collision (CTP). Microphone, electroglottograph (EGG), and oral pressure signals were recorded, before and after vocal warm-up, in 15 amateur singers, repeating the syllable /pa:/ at several fundamental frequencies with gradually decreasing vocal loudness. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the p-occlusion, using the audio and the EGG amplitudes as criteria for PTP and CTP. The coefficient of variation was mostly lower for CTP than for PTP. Both CTP and PTP tended to be higher before than after the warm-up. The results support the conclusion that CTP is a promising parameter in investigations of vocal fold characteristics.

  • 8.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Vocal fold collision threshold pressure: An alternative to phonation threshold pressure?2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [et]

    Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), frequently used for characterizing vocal fold properties, is often difficult to measure. This investigation analyses the lowest pressure initiating vocal fold collision (CTP). Microphone, electroglottograph (EGG), and oral pressure signals were recorded, before and after vocal warm-up, in 15 amateur singers, repeating the syllable /pa:/ at several fundamental frequencies with gradually decreasing vocal loudness. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the p-occlusion, using the audio and the EGG amplitudes as criteria for PTP and CTP. The coefficient of variation was mostly lower for CTP than for PTP. Both CTP and PTP tended to be higher before than after the warm-up. The results support the conclusion that CTP is a promising parameter in investigations of vocal fold characteristics.

  • 9.
    From, Asa
    et al.
    Blekingesjukhuset, Sweden.
    Sundström, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Differences in phonologic and prosodic abilities in children with phonological language impairment and phonological-grammatical language impairment assessed with non-word repetition2016In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 66-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody can be described as the rhythmic, dynamic, and melodic aspects of language. Swedish has a relatively complex prosodic system compared to, for example, English. A large percentage of Swedish children with language impairment show prosodic problems to some extent. In the present study, non-word repetition was used to assess the phonological and prosodic abilities in children with phonological language impairment and children with phonological-grammatical language impairment. In the study, 10 children with phonological language impairment and 14 children with phonological-grammatical language impairment from 4;3 to 6;2 years of age participated. All children heard the same recorded non-words and words. The group with phonological language impairment received higher scores in all variables, compared to the group with phonological-grammatical language impairment. The results showed significant differences between the groups regarding production of vowels correct in words and production of phonemes correct in non-words as well as production of unstressed syllables in non-words and production of correct stress in non-words. Percent correctly produced vowels in words, but not in non-words, correlated significantly with grammatical ability.

  • 10.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The self-to-other ratio applied as a phonation detector for voice accumulation2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for phonation detection is presented. The method utilises two microphones attached near the subject's ears. Simplified, phonation is assumed to occur when the signals appear mainly in-phase and at equal amplitude. Several signal processing steps are added in order to improve the phonation detection, and finally the original signal is sorted in separate channels corresponding to the phonated and non-phonated instances. The method is tested in a laboratory setting to demonstrate the need for some of the stages of the signal processing and to examine the processing speed. The resulting sound file allows for measurement of phonation time, speaking time and fundamental frequency of the subject and sound pressure level of the subject's voice and the environmental sounds separately. The present implementation gives great freedom for adjustment of analysis parameters, since the microphone signals are recorded on DAT tape and the processing is performed off-line on a PC. In future versions, a voice accumulator based on this principle could be designed in order to shorten analysis time and thus make the method more appropriate for clinical use.

  • 11.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The visual sort and rate method for perceptual evaluation in listening tests2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the Visual Sort and Rate (VSR) method which can be utilized for perceptual rating of sound stimuli. The method facilitates comparing similar stimuli, thus making the rank ordering of the stimuli easier. To examine the potential benefits of the method, it was compared with two other methods for perceptual rating of audio stimuli. The first method was a straightforward computer-based implementation of a visual analogue scale (VAS) allowing multiple playbacks and re-play of previously heard stimuli (C-VAS). The second method utilized a VAS where the responses were given on paper (P-VAS). The three methods were compared by using two sets of stimuli. The first set was a synthetically generated series of stimuli mimicking the vowel /a/ with different spectral tilts. In this test, a single parameter was rated. The second set of stimuli was a naturally spoken voice. For this set of stimuli three parameters were rated. Results show that the VSR method gave better reliability of the subjects' ratings in the single-parameter tests: Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were significantly higher for the VSR method than for the other methods. For the multi-parameter, intra-subject test, significantly higher Pearson correlation coefficients were found for the VSR method than for the VAS on paper.

  • 12.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Simberg, S.
    Hertegård, S.
    Holmqvist, S.
    Larsson, H.
    Lindestad, P. -Å
    Södersten, M.
    Hammarberg, B.
    Resonance tube phonation in water: High-speed imaging, electroglottographic and oral pressure observations of vocal fold vibrations - A pilot study2015In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonation into glass tubes (resonance tubes), keeping the free end of the tube in water, has been a frequently used voice therapy method in Finland and more recently also in other countries. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate what effects tube phonation with and without water has on the larynx. Two participants were included in the study. The methods used were high-speed imaging, electroglottographic observations of vocal fold vibrations, and measurements of oral pressure during tube phonation. Results showed that the fluctuation in the back pressure during tube phonation in water altered the vocal fold vibrations. In the high-speed imaging, effects were found in the open quotient and amplitude variation of the glottal opening. The open quotient increased with increasing water depth (from 2 cm to 6 cm). A modulation effect by the water bubbles on the vocal fold vibrations was seen both in the high-speed glottal area tracings and in the electroglottography signal. A second experiment revealed that the increased average oral pressure was largely determined by the water depth. The increased open quotient can possibly be explained by an increased abduction of the vocal folds and/or a reduced transglottal pressure. The back pressure of the bubbles also modulates glottal vibrations with a possible massage effect on the vocal folds. This effect and the well-defined average pressure increase due to the known water depth are different from those of other methods using a semi-occluded vocal tract.

  • 13. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Kornes, Tanja
    Weitzberg, Eddie
    Lundberg, Jon O.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Eliminating paranasal sinus resonance and its effects on acoustic properties of the nasal tract2016In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of nasal resonance and anti-resonance to voice production is a classical issue in vocal pedagogy and voice research. The complex structure of the nasal tract produces a complex frequency response. This complexity must be heavily influenced by the morphology of the paranasal cavities, but their contributions are far from being entirely understood. Detailed analyses of these cavities are difficult because of their limited accessibility. Here we test different methods aiming at documenting the acoustical properties of the paranasal tract. The first set of experiments was performed under in vivo conditions, where the middle meatus was occluded by means of targeted application of a maltodextrin mass under endoscopic control. The efficiency of this occlusion method was verified by measuring the nasal nitric oxide (NO) output during humming. In another experiment the frequency responses to sine sweep excitation of an epoxy mould of a nasal cavity were measured, with and without elimination of paranasal sinuses. The third experiment was conducted in a cadaveric situs, with and without maltodextrin occlusion of the middle meatus and the sphenoidal ostia. The results show that some nasal tract resonances were unaffected by the manipulation of the paranasal cavities. Providing access to a maxillary sinus resulted in marked dips in the response curve while access to the sphenoidal ostium caused only minor effects.

  • 14.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nelson, Keith E
    Penn State University.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kärnevik, Margareta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Facilitating language skills through interactive microcomputer instruction: Observations on seven children with autism1993In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether children with autism would benefit from using an interactive and child initiated microcomputer program (ALPHA) when learning to read and write. Previous research has demonstrated strong effects when used with deaf or multihandicapped children. In this study, six children with autism used a Swedish version of ALPHA for a period of 3 to 4 months. In addition, one autistic child used the U.S. version when learning English as a second language. The results indicate strong gains in reading and phonological skills for four of the children. One child displayed a mixed pattern and two children failed to show any improvement. It is concluded that interactive micro-computer instruction may be of help for children with autism, but that mental age, motivation, and overall interest in communication must be considered when planning such interventions.

  • 15.
    Helland, Wenche A
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen.
    Heimann, Mikael
    University of Bergen.
    Assessment of pragmatic language impairment in children referred to psychiatric services: A pilot study of the Children's Communication Checklist2007In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 32, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      The aim of the present pilot study was to explore whether pragmatic language impairments are more prevalent among children referred to child psychiatric services (n=21) than among a comparison group of typically developing children (n=29) in the age range 8-10 years. A second and minor aim was also to assess the usability of a Norwegian translation of the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC). Communication disorders defined as a pragmatic score equal to or below 140 on the CCC were identified in a majority (0.57) of the children in the clinical group; the corresponding proportion for the typically developing comparison group was only 0.10. Thus, the Norwegian version of the CCC distinguishes between children with symptoms of pragmatic language impairments and those with no symptoms, as does the English version.

  • 16.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Peterson, Malin
    Specialpedagogiskt Centre, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient characteristics and intervention effect as measured by Voice Handicap Index2017In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze patients with a confirmed voice disorder in order to identify patterns regarding age, gender, and occupation compared to the general public. To explore effects of voice therapy according to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score pre- and post-therapy in relation to the number of sessions, age, and gender. Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and methods: This study was conducted as a collaborative project between Linkoping University and hospitals in the south-east health care region in Sweden. Six voice clinics participated by asking their patients voluntarily to complete the Swedish version of the VHI at the beginning and end of therapy. Results and conclusions: The two most prevalent diagnoses were dysphonia (43%) and phonasthenia (25%). Among the working population, the three most common occupational fields were education, health care, and child-care. The majority of the patients were women (74.3%), and the mean age of all patients was 55 years. A significant improvement in VHI scores was found after therapy, with an average decrease of 19 median points in total score and a substantial effect size (0.55). The number of sessions did not significantly correlate with the mean VHI score difference but had a weak correlation to the start and end scores. Increasing age correlated with a higher median VHI score both at the start and end of therapy but did not affect the average decrease between the two measurements.

  • 17. Herbst, Christian
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    A comparison of different methods to measure the EGG contact quotient2006In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from six published electroglottographic (EGG-based) methods for calculating the EGG contact quotient (CQEGG) were compared to closed quotients derived from simultaneous videokymographic imaging (CQKYM). Two trained male singers phonated in falsetto and in chest register, with two degrees of adduction in both registers. The maximum difference between methods in the CQEGG was 0.3 (out of 1.0). The CQEGG was generally lower than the CQKYM. Within subjects, the CQEGG co-varied with the CQkym, but with changing offsets depending on method. The CQEGG cannot be calculated for falsetto phonation with little adduction, since there is no complete glottal closure. Basic criterion-level methods with thresholds of 0.2 or 0.25 gave the best match to the CQKYM data. The results suggest that contacting and de-contacting in the EGG might not refer to the same physical events as do the beginning and cessation of airflow.

  • 18. Holmberg, Eva
    et al.
    Nordqvist, Kent
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Quality improvements, innovations and leadership in health care and social work.
    Prevalence of dysarthria in adult myotonic dystrophy (M. Steinert) patients: speech characteristics and intelligibility1996In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Körner Gustafsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Södersten, Maria
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schalling, Ellika
    Long-term effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on daily voice use in Parkinson’s disease as measured with a portable voice accumulator2019In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, ISSN 1401-5439, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of an intensive voice treatment focusing on increasing voice intensity, LSVT LOUD¯ Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, on voice use in daily life in a participant with Parkinson’s disease, using a portable voice accumulator, the VoxLog. A secondary aim was to compare voice use between the participant and a matched healthy control. Participants were an individual with Parkinson’s disease and his healthy monozygotic twin. Voice use was registered with the VoxLog during 9 weeks for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 2 weeks for the control. This included baseline registrations for both participants, 4 weeks during LSVT LOUD for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 1 week after treatment for both participants. For the participant with Parkinson’s disease, follow-up registrations at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment were made. The individual with Parkinson’s disease increased voice intensity during registrations in daily life with 4.1 dB post-treatment and 1.4 dB at 1-year follow-up compared to before treatment. When monitored during laboratory recordings an increase of 5.6 dB was seen post-treatment and 3.8 dB at 1-year follow-up. Changes in voice intensity were interpreted as a treatment effect as no significant correlations between changes in voice intensity and background noise were found for the individual with Parkinson’s disease. The increase in voice intensity in a laboratory setting was comparable to findings previously reported following LSVT LOUD. The increase registered using ambulatory monitoring in daily life was lower but still reflecting a clinically relevant change.

  • 20.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Not just sound: Supplementing the voice range profile with the singer's ownperceptions of vocal challenges2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial phonetograph was complemented with a response button, such that presses resulted in marked regions in the voice range profile (VRP). This study reports the VRP data of 16 healthy female professionally trained singers (7 mezzosopranos and 9 sopranos). Subjects pressed the button to indicate sensations of vocal instability or reduced control during phonation. Each press thereby marked potential areas of difficulty. A method is presented to quantify the consistency of button use for repeated tasks. The pattern of button presses was significantly consistent within subjects. As expected, the singers pressed at the extremes of VRP contours as well as at register transitions. These results and the potential of the method for the assessment of vocal problems of singers are discussed.

  • 21.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms Universitet, Institute of psychology.
    Verduyckt, Ingrid
    Université catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc.
    The Swedish version of the Voice Handicap Index adapted for Singers2010In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The recent Belgian adaptation for singers of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) was translated and readapted in Swedish. This study’s aim was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Swedish version. Method: In a parallel group design, 96 healthy singers and 30 singer patients with various diagnoses completed a Swedish version of the singer adapted VHI. A prospective evaluation of the Swedish voice health status instrument was carried out. In average, delays between test-retest were between 14 to 16 days. Validity and reliability as well as the internal coherence and group differences were assessed. Results: The singer-patient group scored significantly higher than the control group. Reliability was confirmed by high Cronbach’s alpha (>.78) for test-retest scores as well as each subscales. In particular, test-retest stability in both groups was confirmed by high values for Cronbach’s alpha (>.8). For both the control and patient groups, test and retest scores compared closely to previously reports with respect to overall scores. Retest results were slightly lower than initial test scores. Conclusions: The Swedish translation of the adapted VHI for singers (RHI-s) is valid and reliable and shows sensitivity to the singer's concerns. It can be considered a useful tool in the clinical assessment of Swedish healthy or pathological singers.

  • 22. Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Verduyckt, Ingrid
    Ternström, Sten
    The Swedish version of the Voice Handicap Index adapted for singers2010In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates a Swedish version of the Voice Handicap Index adapted for singers. A total of 96 healthy singers and 30 singer-patients completed the questionnaire. Validity and reliability, internal coherence, and group differences were assessed. The singer- patient group had significantly higher scores than the control group. Reliability was confirmed by high Cronbach's (> 0.78) for test-retest scores, and for each of the sub-scales. Test-retest stability in both groups was confirmed by high correlation values alpha (> 0.8). Overall scores compared closely to those from previous reports. The Swedish translation of the adapted VHI for singers (RHI-s) is valid and reliable and shows sensitivity to the singer's concerns. It can be considered a useful tool in the clinical assessment of Swedish healthy or pathological singers.

  • 23. Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    et al.
    Pulakka, Hannu
    Alku, Paavo
    Vilkman, Erkki
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Lindestad, Per-Ake
    Larsson, Hans
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    High-speed registration of phonation-related glottal area variation during artificial lengthening of the vocal tract2007In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal exercises that increase the vocal tract impedance are widely used in voice training and therapy. The present study applies a versatile methodology to investigate phonation during varying artificial extension of the vocal tract. Two males and one female phonated into a hard-walled plastic tube ( 2 cm), whose physical length was randomly pair-wise changed between 30 cm, 60 cm and 100 cm. High-speed image (1900 f/sec) sequences of the vocal folds were obtained via a rigid endoscope. Acoustic and electroglottographic signals (EGG) were recorded. Oral pressure during shuttering of the tube was used to give an estimate of subglottic pressure (P-sub). The only trend observed was that with the two longer tubes compared to the shortest one, fundamental frequency was lower, open time of the glottis shorter, and P-sub higher. The results may partly reflect increased vocal tract impedance as such and partly the increased vocal effort to compensate for it. In other parameters there were individual differences in tube length-related changes, suggesting complexity of the coupling between supraglottic space and the glottis.

  • 24.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laryngeal mechanisms in speech: The contributions of Jan Gauffin2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 149-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Gauffin was an early user of fiber optics which allowed him to discover that laryngeal structures above the glottal level are involved in speech. His research led him to postulate three independently controlled mechanisms: fundamental frequency control, glottal adduction/abduction, and laryngealization,the latter derived from the protective closure function. He argued that phonetic theory must be revised to account for the main phonation types of the world's languages. He saw them as combinations of two interacting dimensions: adduction/abduction and laryngealization. Secondly he gave the aryepiglottic sphincter an explanatory role in accounting for the production of low pitch and downward pitch inflections. During his lifetime his work received limited attention. However, later laryngoscopic research has confirmed and extended his thinking and findings. His contribution was a pioneering one.

  • 25.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on /s/-articulation in children-effects of surgery2011In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsillar hypertrophy is common in young children and affects several aspects of the speech such as distortions of the dento-alveolar consonants. The study objective was to assess s-articulation, perceptually and acoustically in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and compare effects of two types of surgery, total tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy. Sixty-seven children, 50-65 months, on waiting list for surgery, were randomized to tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy. The speech material was collected pre-operatively and six months post-operatively.  Two groups of age-matched children were controls. /S/-articulation was affected acoustically with lower spectral peak locations and perceptually with less distinct /s/-production before surgery, in comparison to controls.  After surgery /s/-articulation was normalized perceptually, but acoustic differences remained. No significant differences between surgical methods were found.

  • 26.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiman, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Voice onset time in Swedish children and adults2012In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice onset time (VOT) is a temporal acoustic parameter, which reflects the timing of speech motor control. The objective of the work was to obtain normative VOT data in Swedish children. Thus, 150 children aged 8-11 years old and 36 adults were audio-recorded when producing the plosives in minimal pairs. Measures were made using waveforms and spectro-grams. Results show that Swedish children developed adult-like VOT values between 9 and 10 years. By the age of 10 years prevoicing was also found to be completely adultlike in length. The results indicate that all Swedish adults do not produce voiced plosives with prevoicing. No evident gender differences were found. The obtained VOT values can be used as normative data when assessing children with speech and language disorders.

  • 27.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zeipel-Stjerna, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mcallister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Voice onset time in Swedish children with phonological impairment2015In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastering spatial and temporal co-ordination in speech production is a challenge for children. Voice onset time (VOT) reflects timing in speech. The objective was to study VOT in Swedish children with a diagnosed phonological impairment and compare results with normative data. Thus 38 children, aged 4-11 years, in three age-groups were audio-recorded when producing minimal pairs with the plosives /p b t d k g/. Waveforms and spectrograms were analysed. Results show that children with phonological impairment produced plosives with deviant VOT values and greater variability compared to normative data. No developmental trend was seen with increasing age. Also, no relationship was found between VOT values and degree of impairment measured by percentage phonemes correct. Furthermore no relation was found between number of errors on auditory discrimination of nine minimal pairs with the different plosives and number of deviant VOT. Findings were interpreted as displaying motor co-ordination difficulties.

  • 28.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Avdelningen för Logopedi, Inst för Kliniks och Expermentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitete, Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hutltcrantz, Elisabeth
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Inst för Kliniks och Expermentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    Avdelningen för Logopedi, Inst för Kliniks och Expermentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitete, Linköping.
    Influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on s-articulation in children: Effects of surgery2011In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsillar hypertrophy is common in young children and affects several aspects of the speech such as distortions of the dento-alveolar consonants. The study objective was to assess /s/-articulation, perceptually and acoustically, in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and compare effects of two types of surgery, total tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy. Sixty-seven children, aged 50-65 months, on the waiting list for surgery, were randomized to tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy. The speech material was collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Two groups of age-matched children were controls. /S/-articulation was affected acoustically with lower spectral peak locations and perceptually with less distinct /s/-production before surgery, in comparison to controls. After surgery /s/-articulation was normalized perceptually, but acoustic differences remained. No significant differences between surgical methods were found.

  • 29.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    LDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, IKE/Speech Language Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    School of Health Sciences Science, Department of Nursing Science, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hutltcrantz, Elisabeth
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    IKE/Speech Language Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Influence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on s-articulation in children: effects of surgery2011In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsillar hypertrophy is common in young children and affects several aspects of the speech such as distortions of the dento-alveolar consonants. The study objective was to assess /s/-articulation, perceptually and acoustically, in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and compare effects of two types of surgery, total tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy. Sixty-seven children, aged 50-65 months, on the waiting list for surgery, were randomized to tonsillectomy or tonsillotomy. The speech material was collected preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Two groups of age-matched children were controls. /S/-articulation was affected acoustically with lower spectral peak locations and perceptually with less distinct /s/-production before surgery, in comparison to controls. After surgery /s/-articulation was normalized perceptually, but acoustic differences remained. No significant differences between surgical methods were found.

  • 30.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Treatment with a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography in a child with severe developmental dyspraxia2007In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 71-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography (EPG) in the treatment of a case with severe developmental verbal dyspraxia. A multiple-baseline design was used. The treatment duration was 11 months and started when the subject was 5 years old. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by calculations of percentage of correctly articulated words, percentage of consonants correct, percentage of phonemes correct and percentage of words correct. Intelligibility assessments were conducted by both naïve and expert listeners. The experts also assessed visual deviances in articulatory gestures from video recordings. Qualitative analysis of EPG data was made. The subject's speech was significantly improved by the treatment in all aspects. The results and their generalization to other cases of developmental verbal dyspraxia are discussed.

  • 31.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping.
    McAllister, Anita
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Graf, Jonas
    Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping; Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Oral Motor Dysfunction in Children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy: effects of Surgery2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is associated with a wide range of problems. The enlargement causes obstructive symptoms and affects different functions such as chewing, swallowing, articulation, and voice. The objective of this study was to assess oral motor function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy using Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) before and 6 months after surgery consisting of adenoidectomy combined with total or partial tonsil removal. A total of 67 children were assigned to either tonsillectomy (n33) or partial tonsillectomy, ‘tonsillotomy’ (n34); 76 controls were assessed with NOT-S and divided into a younger and older age group to match pre- and post-operated children. Most children in the study groups had oral motor problems prior to surgery including snoring, open mouth position, drooling, masticatory, and swallowing problems. Post-surgery oral motor function was equal to controls. Improvement was independent of surgery method.

  • 32.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    McAllister, Anita
    University of Linköping.
    Graf, Jonas
    University of Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Nursing Science. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. CHILD.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    University of Linköping.
    Oral Motor Dysfunction in Children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy: effects of Surgery2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Graf, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Oral motor dysfunction in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy-effects of surgery2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is associated with a wide range of problems. The enlargement causes obstructive symptoms and affects different functions such as chewing, swallowing, articulation, and voice. The objective of this study was to assess oral motor function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy using Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) before and 6 months after surgery consisting of adenoidectomy combined with total or partial tonsil removal. A total of 67 children were assigned to either tonsillectomy (n=33) or partial tonsillectomy, 'tonsillotomy' (n=34); 76 controls were assessed with NOT-S and divided into a younger and older age group to match pre- and post-operated children. Most children in the study groups had oral motor problems prior to surgery including snoring, open mouth position, drooling, masticatory, and swallowing problems. Post-surgery oral motor function was equal to controls. Improvement was independent of surgery method.

  • 34.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ekstrom, Anna
    Hyden, Lars-Christer
    Spatiotemporal arrangement of objects in activities with people with dementia2019In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study shows how the spatial organization of objects and their use may impact locally produced order of activities and how that can affect the accomplishment of everyday activities by people with dementia. Methods: The study is based on ethnomethodological conversation analysis of eight and a half hours of video recordings in three different settings. Eighteen sequences of activities identified were multimodally transcribed and analyzed. Results: The availability or non-availability of objects, their arrangements and manipulations play a crucial role in the management of the order of activities and may present both challenges and facilitations for people with dementia. The organizations of objects directly influence the order of the activity, and the objects' potential use may afford actions that deviate from the trajectory and the order of the main activity. Conclusions: One of the significant uses of objects is how they contribute to the perceptual field where attention is organized for building actions. Participants in activities modify the perceptual field by manipulating objects in the material surrounds in response to the relevancies resulting from the unfolding activities. Therefore, spatial contingency is significant in the accomplishment of activities by people with dementia. As it is not self-evident that verbal instructions may result in the instructed actions accordingly, the rearrangement of objects and making them timely available to people with dementia may increase the possibilities of keeping the order of the activities intact.

  • 35.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spatiotemporal arrangement of objects in activities with people with dementia2019In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study shows how the spatial organization of objects and their use may impact locally produced order of activities and how that can affect the accomplishment of everyday activities by people with dementia. Methods: The study is based on ethnomethodological conversation analysis of eight and a half hours of video recordings in three different settings. Eighteen sequences of activities identified were multimodally transcribed and analyzed. Results: The availability or non-availability of objects, their arrangements and manipulations play a crucial role in the management of the order of activities and may present both challenges and facilitations for people with dementia. The organizations of objects directly influence the order of the activity, and the objects potential use may afford actions that deviate from the trajectory and the order of the main activity. Conclusions: One of the significant uses of objects is how they contribute to the perceptual field where attention is organized for building actions. Participants in activities modify the perceptual field by manipulating objects in the material surrounds in response to the relevancies resulting from the unfolding activities. Therefore, spatial contingency is significant in the accomplishment of activities by people with dementia. As it is not self-evident that verbal instructions may result in the instructed actions accordingly, the rearrangement of objects and making them timely available to people with dementia may increase the possibilities of keeping the order of the activities intact.

  • 36.
    Malmenholt, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mcallister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Childhood apraxia of speech: A survey of praxis and typical speech characteristics2017In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate current knowledge of the diagnosis childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) in Sweden and compare speech characteristics and symptoms to those of earlier survey findings in mainly English-speakers. Method: In a web-based questionnaire 178 Swedish speech-language pathologists (SLPs) anonymously answered questions about their perception of typical speech characteristics for CAS. They graded own assessment skills and estimated clinical occurrence. Results: The seven top speech characteristics reported as typical for children with CAS were: inconsistent speech production (85%), sequencing difficulties (71%), oro-motor deficits (63%), vowel errors (62%), voicing errors (61%), consonant cluster deletions (54%), and prosodic disturbance (53%). Motor-programming deficits described as lack of automatization of speech movements were perceived by 82%. All listed characteristics were consistent with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) consensus-based features, Strands 10-point checklist, and the diagnostic model proposed by Ozanne. The mode for clinical occurrence was 5%. Number of suspected cases of CAS in the clinical caseload was approximately one new patient/year and SLP. Conclusions: The results support and add to findings from studies of CAS in English-speaking children with similar speech characteristics regarded as typical. Possibly, these findings could contribute to cross-linguistic consensus on CAS characteristics.

  • 37.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Speech and Language Pathology.
    Voice disorders in children with oral motor dysfunction: Perceptual evaluation pre and post oral motor therapy2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A few clinical investigations of children's voices have suggested a relation between voice deviation and oral motor and sensory dysfunction. This motivated the present retrospective study of the occurrence of voice disorders in a group of children with oral motor problems. A further aim was to evaluate the effect of an oral motor and articulatory treatment programme upon voice function in this patient group. Subjects were 38 children with oral motor deficits who had received and finished therapy at the clinic. The recordings of a picture naming task, before onset of therapy and at therapy ending, were selected. The voices were presented in random order on a test tape and perceptually evaluated by an expert panel of speech pathologists. Eleven perceptual parameters were selected, based on previous investigations of children's voices. Ten of these parameters were represented by a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Register was represented by a categorical scale with the options chest, falsetto, and child voice register. The results were compared with previous investigations of child voice function. Results indicated: 1) The occurrence of voice disorders in the present group of children with oral motor difficulties was somewhat lower than in children with normal articulation. 2) Oral motor treatment also influenced and improved the perceptual impression of voice quality in this group.

  • 38. Mecke, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Richter, Bernhard
    A virtual castrato?2010In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation the voice source from trained boy singers was processed with a transfer function that contained the singer's formant cluster of a bass, a baritone, or a tenor. The modified voices were evaluated by a panel of highly specialized experts. The experts were asked 1) to assess how similar the examples sounded to the voice of the last castrato Alessandro Moreschi, and 2) to rate how similar they thought the examples were to their imagination of an 18th-century castrato voice. For both questions, the voices with tenor formants produced significantly higher ratings than the other voice types. However, the mean ratings for the second question were generally lower than those for the first.

  • 39.
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Sundström, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Enqvist, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessing speech perception in Swedish school-aged children: preliminary data on the Listen–Say test2018In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the need for a linguistic speech perception test in Swedish, the ‘Listen-Say test’ was developed. Minimal word pairs were used as speech material to assess seven phonetic contrasts in two auditory backgrounds. In the present study, children’s speech discrimination skills in quiet and in four-talker (4T) speech background were examined. Associations with lexical-access skills and academic achievement were explored. The study included 27 school children 7–9 years of age. Overall, the children discriminated phonetic contrasts well in both conditions (quiet: Mdn 95%; 4T speech; Mdn 91% correct). A significant effect of 4T speech background was evident in three of the contrasts, connected to place of articulation, voicing and syllable complexity. Reaction times for correctly identified target words were significantly longer in the quiet condition, possibly reflecting a need for further balancing of the test order. Overall speech discrimination accuracy was moderately to highly correlated with lexical-access ability. Children identified as having high concentration ability by their teacher had the highest speech discrimination scores in both conditions followed by children identified as having high reading ability. The first wave of data collection with the Listen-Say test indicates that the test appears to be sensitive to predicted perceptual difficulties of phonetic contrasts particularly in noise. The clinical benefit of using a procedure where speech discrimination, lexical-access ability and academic achievement are taken into account is discussed as well as issues for further test refinement.

  • 40.
    Nordenberg, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Effect on LTAS of vocal loudness variation2004In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) is an efficient method for voice analysis, revealing both voice source and formant characteristics. However, the LTAS contour is non-uniformly affected by vocal loudness. This variation was analyzed in 15 male and 16 female untrained voices reading a text 7 times at different degrees of vocal loudness, mean change in overall equivalent sound level (Leq) amounting to 27.9 dB and 28.4 dB for the female and male subjects. For all frequency values up to 4 kHz, spectrum level was strongly and linearly correlated with Leq for each subject. The gain factor, that is to say, the rate of level increase, varied with frequency, from about 0.5 at low frequencies to about 1.5 in the frequency range 1.5-3 kHz. Using the gain factors for a subject, LTAS contours could be predicted at any Leq within the measured range, with an average accuracy of 2-3 dB below 4 kHz. Mean LTAS calculated for an Leq of 70 dB for each subject showed considerable individual variation for both males and females, SD of the level varying between 7 dB and 4 dB depending on frequency. On the other hand, the results also suggest that meaningful comparisons of LTAS, recorded for example before and after voice therapy, can be made, provided that the documentation includes a set of recordings at different loudness levels from one recording session.

  • 41.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    Department of Theatre, Film and Television, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
    Speech technology and cinema: Can they learn from each other?2013In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The voice is the most important sound of a film soundtrack. It represents a character and it carries language. There are different types of cinematic voices: dialogue, internal monologues, and voice-overs. Conventionally, two main characteristics differentiate these voices: lip synchronization and the voice's attributes that make it appropriate for the character (for example, a voice that sounds very close to the audience can be appropriate for a narrator, but not for an onscreen character). What happens, then, if a film character can only speak through an asynchronous machine that produces a 'robot-like' voice? This article discusses the sound-related work and experimentation done by the author for the short film Voice by Choice. It also attempts to discover whether speech technology design can learn from its cinematic representation, and if such uncommon film protagonists can contribute creatively to transform the conventions of cinematic voices.

  • 42.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    et al.
    Department of Theatre, Film and Television, University of York, East Campus, Baird Lane, York YO10 5GB, United Kingdom.
    Balentine, Bruce
    Pidcock, Chris
    Jones, Kevin
    Bottaci, Leonardo
    Aretoulaki, Maria
    Wells, Jez
    Mundy, Darren P
    Balentine, James
    Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies2013In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  • 43.
    Salomao, Glaucia Lais
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Pontifical Catholic Univ, Brazil.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    What do male singers mean by modal and falsetto register? An investigation of the glottal voice source2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, ISSN 1401-5439, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The voice source differs between modal and falsetto registers, but singers often try to reduce the associated timbral differences, some even doubting that there are any. A total of 54 vowel sounds sung in falsetto and modal register by 13 male more or less experienced choir singers were analyzed by inverse filtering and electroglottography. Closed quotient, maximum flow declination rate, peak-to-peak airflow amplitude, normalized amplitude quotient, and level difference between the two lowest source spectrum partials were determined, and systematic differences were found in all singers, regardless of experience of singing. The observations seem compatible with previous observations of thicker vocal folds in modal register.

  • 44.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Digital communication support in interaction involving people with dementia2019In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with dementia frequently suffer from communication disabilities, which usually influence their quality of life. The communication disabilities may affect a persons possibility to participate in interaction as a result of reduced ability to initiate new topics and difficulties in contributing new information to maintain the conversational topic. Technical aids have been proved useful to facilitate communicative activities by supporting memory and stimulating communicative initiatives. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to further understandings of how digital communication support may be used in interaction involving people with dementia. A further aim is to investigate how participants experience communication with and without the use of communication aids. Methods: The study is carried out in a Swedish context, and three dyads of older women with dementia and professional carers participated in the study. The dyads interact in the home environments of the persons with dementia using tablet computers and two web-based applications with generic pictures, videos, and music files (Computer Interactive Reminiscence and Communication Aid, CIRCA) and personalised pictures and films (Computer Interactive Reminiscence and Communication University of Sheffield, CIRCUS). The data include twenty-one video recorded activities. Results and Conclusion: The applications appear to provide support for the dyads in finding things to talk about. The participants talk both about the material and memories associated with the material. The participants experience the use of communication aids as positive.

  • 45.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clarification requests in everyday interaction involving children with cochlear implants2014In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to explore the form and function of clarification request sequences in interaction involving children with cochlear implants. Clarification request sequences are investigated in everyday interaction, and it is demonstrated that children with CI use both general/open and specific requests for clarification. It is also shown that there is relatively lower frequency of requests for clarification in interactions involving children with CI with high intelligibility scores. The results may be useful in clinical assessment and intervention demonstrating the importance of assessing interactional ability in everyday interaction.

  • 46.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University Hospital.
    Scocco, Charlotte
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nettelbladt, Ulrika
    Towards assessment of prosodic abilities in Swedish children with language impairment2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Sand, Susanne
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Reliability of the term 'support' in singing2005In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness of a term depends on the extent to which it means the same thing to different people. In this investigation we examine the term 'support', commonly used in vocal pedagogy. Singing lessons given by co-author SS to five students at varying stages were recorded on DAT. By listening to these recordings, she selected 42 examples, each a few seconds long, that she found representative of different degrees of support ranging from perfect to nil. These examples were presented in random order to nine experts, all with a professional involvement in singing. Thirteen of the stimuli occurred twice in the test. Intra- and inter-rater reliability were found to be high, Cronbach alpha= 0.910, and mean correlation 0.743 (SD 0.137). These data support the assumption that the term support has a similar meaning to voice experts and should thus be useful in voice terminology.

  • 48.
    Szabo, Annika
    et al.
    Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hammarberg, B.
    Håkansson, A.
    Södersten, M.
    A voice accumulator device: evaluation based on studio and field recordings.2001In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 102-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A voice accumulator is a portable device for long-term measurements of voice use in natural conditions. A contact microphone attached to the front part of the neck registers vocal fold vibrations. The purposes of the present study were: 1) to evaluate the voice accumulator's two measuring programs optimized for registration of fundamental frequency (F0) and phonation time, respectively; and 2) to test the voice accumulator for field recordings. Four healthy subjects were recorded in a sound-proof booth simultaneously with one contact microphone into a voice accumulator and one contact microphone into a computer. In terms of F0 and phonation time, the results showed that correlations between the voice accumulator's two measuring programs and a signal-processing program were high (r > or = 0.85) for all subjects but one. The inter-subject variability was large. A prerequisite for reliable vocal fold vibration detection by the voice accumulator was a careful placement and a firm attachment of the contact microphone on the neck. Four subjects were recorded with the voice accumulator during a working day. It was concluded that the voice accumulator is an overall good instrument for measurements of F0 and phonation time, and thus is useful for both clinical work and research.

  • 49.
    Szabo, Annika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Granqvist, Svante
    Södersten, Maria
    Methods to study pre-school teachers' voice at work: simultaneous recordings with a voice accumulator and a DAT recorder2003In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term recordings with reliable methods are desirable for objective documentation of voice use during natural conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a voice accumulator (VAC) with a digital audiotape (DAT) recorder as a reference. The VAC is based on a microprocessor that accumulates information about fundamental frequency (F0) and phonation time. A contact microphone attached to the front of the neck registers vocal fold vibrations. The DAT recorder was connected to two microphones for airborne signals placed at equal distance from the mouth close to the subject's ears. The computer program Aura was used to separate the subject's voice from the background noise. The Soundswell program was used for F0 and phonation time analysis. Two tests were performed: 1) One female speech-language pathologist was recorded with the two devices simultaneously in a sound-proof booth. She read a standard text with different voice qualities and sustained vowels with increasing F0 and intensity separately. The results showed good agreement between the two methods with respect to F0 and phonation time. However, the VAC failed to register high frequencies above around 440 Hz as well as low intensities. 2) Three female pre-school teachers were recorded with the two devices simultaneously during a working day. Results showed high correlations between the two methods in terms of long-term measurements of F0 and phonation time for two subjects For one subject with subcutaneous soft tissue on the neck, the registration with the contact microphone was not reliable. It was concluded that the VAC has potential for assessment of occupational voice disorders if certain limitations of the method are considered.

  • 50.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Does the acoustic waveform mirror the voice?2005In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 30, no 3-4, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades, much effort has been invested in the search for acoustic correlates of vocal function and dysfunction. The convenience of non-invasive voice measurements has been a major incentive for this effort. The acoustic signal is a rich but also very diversified source of information. Computer literacy and technical curiosity in the voice care and voice performance communities are now higher than ever, and tools for voice analysis are proliferating. On such a busy scene, a review may be useful of some basic principles for what we can and cannot hope to determine from non-invasive acoustic analysis. One way of doing this is to consider communication by voice as though it were engineered, with layered protocols. This results in a scheme for systematizing the many sources of variation that are present in the acoustic signal, that can complement other strategies for extracting information.

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