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  • 1.
    A. Manneh, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tutor-student interaction in undergraduate chemistry: a case of learning to make relevant distinctions of molecular structures for determining oxidation states of atoms2018In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 16, p. 2023-2043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore the issues and challenges involved in supporting students’ learning to discern relevant and critical aspects of determining oxidation states of atoms in complex molecules. We present a detailed case of an interaction between three students and a tutor during a problem-solving class, using the analytical tool of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). The results show that the ability to make relevant distinctions between the different parts of a molecule for solving the problem, even with the guidance of the tutor, seemed to be challenging for students. These shifts were connected to both purposes that were specific for solving the problem at hand, and additional purposes for general learning of the subject matter, in this case how to assign oxidation states in molecules. The students sometimes could not follow the additional purposes introduced by the tutor, which made the related distinctions more confusing. Our results indicate that in order to provide adequate support and guidance for students the tutor needs to consider how to sequence, move between, and productively connect the different purposes introduced in a tutor-student interaction. One way of doing that is by first pursuing the purposes for solving the problem and then successively introduce additional, more general purposes for developing students’ learning of the subject matter studied. Further recommendations drawn from this study are discussed as well.

  • 2.
    Adbo, Karina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Taber, Keith
    University of Cambridge.
    Developing an Understanding of Chemistry: A case study of one Swedish student's rich conceptualisation for making sense of upper secondary school chemistry2014In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 1107-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report a case study of a 16-year-old Swedish upper secondary student's developing understanding of key concept areas studied in his upper secondary school chemistry course. This study illustrates how the thinking of an individual learner, Jesper, evolves over a school year in response to formal instruction in a particular educational context. Jesper presented a range of ideas, some of which matched intended teaching whilst others were quite inconsistent with canonical chemistry. Of particular interest, research data suggest that his initial alternative conceptions influenced his thinking about subsequent teaching of chemistry subject matter, illustrating how students' alternative conceptions interact with formal instruction. Our findings support the claims of some researchers that alternative conceptions may be stable and tenacious in the context of instruction. Jesper's rich conceptualisation of matter at submicroscopic scales drew upon intuitions about the world that led to teaching being misinterpreted to develop further alternative conceptions. Yet his intuitive thinking also offered clear potential links with canonical scientific concepts that could have been harnessed to channel his developing thinking. These findings support the argument that identifying students' intuitive thinking and how it develops in different instructional contexts can support the development of more effective science pedagogy.

  • 3.
    Adbo, Karina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Taber, Keith
    Learners' Mental Models of the Particle Nature of Matter: A study of 16-year-old Swedish science students2009In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 757-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results presented here derive from a longitudinal study of Swedish upper secondary science students' (16-19 years of age) developing understanding of key chemical concepts. The informants were 18 students from two different schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mental models of matter at the particulate level that learners develop. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews based around the students' own drawings of the atom, and of solids, liquids, and gases. The interview transcripts were analysed to identify patterns in the data that offer insight into aspects of student understanding. The findings are discussed in the specific curriculum context in Swedish schools. Results indicate that the teaching model of the atom (derived from Bohr's model) commonly presented by teachers and textbook authors in Sweden gives the students an image of a disproportionately large and immobile nucleus, emphasises a planetary model of the atom and gives rise to a chain of logic leading to immobility in the solid state and molecular breakdown during phase transitions. The findings indicate that changes in teaching approaches are required to better support learners in developing mental models that reflect the intended target knowledge.

  • 4.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    et al.
    American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Conceptual metaphor and embodied cognition in science learning: Introduction to special issue2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, ISSN 0950-0693, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    et al.
    Amer University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning: Introduction to special issue2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Anderhag, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Emanuelsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Students' choice of post-compulsory science: In search of schools that compensate for the socio-economic background of their students2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 18, p. 3141-3160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly argued that socio-economic inequalities can explain many of the differences in achievement and participation in science education that have been reported among countries and among schools within a country. We addressed this issue by examining (a) the relationship between variables associated with socio-economic background and application frequencies to the Swedish Natural Science Programme (NSP) in upper secondary school and (b) whether there are lower secondary schools in Sweden that seem to compensate for these variables. Data from Statistics Sweden (SCB) covering the whole population of 106,483 ninth-grade students were used to calculate the probability for each student to apply to the NSP. Our results indicate that the variables, such as parental educational level and grades, have explanatory power, but with varying effect for different subpopulations of students. For example, grades in mathematics have a greater impact than grades in science for females’ choice of the NSP. The opposite holds for male students. Out of 1,342 schools, 158 deviated significantly from predicted, that is, the students in these schools applied to the NSP in greater or lesser extent than expected. The number of deviating schools is greater than predicted by pure random variation. This suggests that variables of socio-economic background are only a partial explanation of the application frequencies, and that the deviation needs to be investigated further. Our findings suggest that in order to understand why schools deviate positively and so compensate for the socio-economic background of their students, we need to study their practices more closely

  • 7. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    The relation between students' communicative moves during laboratory work in physics and outcomes of their actions2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 158-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study, we explore students' communication during practical work in physics at an upper secondary school in Sweden from a sociocultural perspective. We investigate the relation between the interaction and content of students' communication and outcomes of their actions, with the purpose of finding new knowledge for informing teachers in their choice of instruction. We make discourse analysis of how students interact but also of what students are discussing in terms of underlying content at a linguistic and cognitive level. Twenty students divided into five groups were video recorded while performing four practical tasks at different stations during laboratory work about motion. An analytical framework was developed and applied for one group to three parts of the transcripts in which three different talk-types occurred. Discursive, content, action and purposive moves in the process were identified for each talk-type at both linguistic and cognitive levels. These moves represent information concerning what the teacher actually assigns students to do, and how students make meaning of the activities. Through these different communicative moves, students experience how laboratory work can enhance their competence to collaborate in a scientific environment with complex practical and theoretical questions to solve quickly. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet.
    The relation between students’ communicative moves during laboratory work in physics and outcomes of their actions2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 158-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study, we explore students’ communication during practical work in physics at an upper secondary school in Sweden from a sociocultural perspective. We investigate the relation between the interaction and content of students’ communication and outcomes of their actions, with the purpose of finding new knowledge for informing teachers in their choice of instruction. We make discourse analysis of how students interact but also of what students are discussing in terms of underlying content at a linguistic and cognitive level. Twenty students divided into five groups were video recorded while performing four practical tasks at different stations during laboratory work about motion. An analytical framework was developed and applied for one group to three parts of the transcripts in which three different talk-types occurred. Discursive, content, action and purposive moves in the process were identified for each talk-type at both linguistic and cognitive levels. These moves represent information concerning what the teacher actually assigns students to do, and how students make meaning of the activities. Through these different communicative moves, students experience how laboratory work can enhance their competence to collaborate in a scientific environment with complex practical and theoretical questions to solve quickly. Implications of the findings are discussed. 

  • 9.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Hansson, Lena
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Marketing the ’Broad Line’: invitations to STEM education in a Swedish recruitment campaign2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 147-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western societies, there is a concern about the tendency of young people not choosing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and occupations. In response, different initiatives have been launched. If one believes that science should have a place in more young people's lives, an important question is to what extent recruitment campaigns communicate messages that open up for STEM education to become relevant in young people's identity formation. Here, we analyse a Swedish government-initiated, primarily Internet-based recruitment attempt (‘The Broad Line Campaign’) aimed at increasing the number of young people choosing the natural science programme in upper secondary school. The campaign is based on marketing principles and deliberately draws on identity issues. The data analysed consists of campaign films and written resources describing the campaign. Data are analysed by use of the constant comparative approach in order to produce categories describing different messages about why to engage in STEM education. These messages are then analysed from an identity perspective using the concept of subjective values. Our results show that the messages communicated in the Broad Line campaign emphasise utility value, attainment value and relative cost rather than interest-enjoyment. The campaign communicates that the natural science programme is to be associated with a high attainment value without establishing relations to the field of science. Finally, potential consequences of the communicated messages in the campaign are discussed in light of previous research.

  • 10.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hansson, Lena
    Marketing the ‘Broad Line’: Invitations to STEM education in a Swedish recruitment campaign2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 147-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western societies, there is a concern about the tendency of young people not choosing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and occupations. In response, different initiatives have been launched. If one believes that science should have a place in more young people's lives, an important question is to what extent recruitment campaigns communicate messages that open up for STEM education to become relevant in young people's identity formation. Here, we analyse a Swedish government-initiated, primarily Internet-based recruitment attempt (‘The Broad Line Campaign’) aimed at increasing the number of young people choosing the natural science programme in upper secondary school. The campaign is based on marketing principles and deliberately draws on identity issues. The data analysed consists of campaign films and written resources describing the campaign. Data are analysed by use of the constant comparative approach in order to produce categories describing different messages about why to engage in STEM education. These messages are then analysed from an identity perspective using the concept of subjective values. Our results show that the messages communicated in the Broad Line campaign emphasise utility value, attainment value and relative cost rather than interest-enjoyment. The campaign communicates that the natural science programme is to be associated with a high attainment value without establishing relations to the field of science. Finally, potential consequences of the communicated messages in the campaign are discussed in light of previous research.

  • 11.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hansson, Lena
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Recruitment campaigns as a tool for social and cultural reproduction of scientific communities: a case study on how scientists invite young people to science2014In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1985-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people's interest in pursuing science and science-intense educations has been expressed as a concern in relation to societal, economic and democratic development by various stakeholders (governments, industry and university). From the perspective of the scientific communities, the issues at stake do not necessarily correspond to the overall societal aims. Rather, initiatives to recruit young people to science are also ways for the scientific community to engage in the social and cultural reproduction of itself. For a community to survive and produce a future, it needs to secure regeneration of itself in succeeding generations. The aim of this study is to, from a perspective of social and cultural production/reproduction, shed light on an initiative from the scientific community to recruit young people to science education. This is a case study of one recruitment campaign called the Chemistry Advent calendar. The calendar consists of 25 webcasted films, produced and published by the science/technology faculty at a university. The analysed data consist of the films and additional published material relating to the campaign such as working reports and articles published about the campaign. The analysis focussed on what messages are communicated to potential newcomers. The messages were categorised by means of a framework of subjective values. The results are discussed both from a perspective of how the messages mirror traditions and habits of the scientific community, and in relation to research on students' educational choices.

  • 12.
    Andrée, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hansson, Lena
    Recruitment Campaigns as a Tool for Social and Cultural Reproduction of Scientific Communities: A case study on how scientists invite young people to science2014In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1985-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people's interest in pursuing science and science-intense educations has been expressed as a concern in relation to societal, economic and democratic development by various stakeholders (governments, industry and university). From the perspective of the scientific communities, the issues at stake do not necessarily correspond to the overall societal aims. Rather, initiatives to recruit young people to science are also ways for the scientific community to engage in the social and cultural reproduction of itself. For a community to survive and produce a future, it needs to secure regeneration of itself in succeeding generations. The aim of this study is to, from a perspective of social and cultural production/reproduction, shed light on an initiative from the scientific community to recruit young people to science education. This is a case study of one recruitment campaign called the Chemistry Advent calendar. The calendar consists of 25 webcasted films, produced and published by the science/technology faculty at a university. The analysed data consist of the films and additional published material relating to the campaign such as working reports and articles published about the campaign. The analysis focussed on what messages are communicated to potential newcomers. The messages were categorised by means of a framework of subjective values. The results are discussed both from a perspective of how the messages mirror traditions and habits of the scientific community, and in relation to research on students' educational choices.

  • 13.
    Anker-Hansen, Jens
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Affordances and Constraints of Using the Socio-Political Debate for Authentic Summative Assessment2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 15, p. 2577-2596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from an empirical study on the affordances and constraints for using staged socio-political debates for authentic summative assessment of scientific literacy. The article focuses on conditions for student participation and what purposes emerge in student interaction in a socio-political debate. As part of the research project, a socio-political debate was designed for assessing student competences of scientific literacy in classroom practices. The debate centred on a fictive case about a lake where a decline in the yield of fish had been established. The students were assigned the task of participating in the debate from appointed roles as different stakeholders. Data were collected with video recordings of the enacted student debates. Student participation was analysed with the theoretical framework of communities of practice. The results show that multiple conflicting purposes of the socio-political debate as an assessment task emerged. The emergent purposes were: (I) putting scientific knowledge on display versus staying true to one’s role, (II) putting scientific knowledge on display versus expressing social responsibility, (III) putting scientific knowledge on display versus winning the debate, (IV) using sources tactically versus using sources critically. As these purposes emerged in classroom practice, tensions between different ways of enacting participation in the debates became manifest. Based on these findings, this paper discusses the affordances and constraints for using a socio-political debate for classroom-based assessment of scientific literacy and argumentation in terms of validity, reliability and affordability.

  • 14. Berg, Anders
    et al.
    Bergendahl, Christina
    Lundberg, Bruno
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Benefiting from an open-ended experiment? A comparison of attitudes to, and outcomes of, an expository versus an open-inquiry version of the same experiment2003In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 351-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we compare outcomes of an open-inquiry and an expository version of a chemistry laboratory experiment at university level for 190 students. The aim of the study was to investigate if these two versions would result in different outcomes depending on the students' attitudes towards learning. We used a questionnaire to find out their attitude position prior to the laboratory experiment. The outcome in the different version of the experiment was evaluated by interviews, questions asked during the experiment and students self-evaluations. The main findings were that the open-inquiry version shows the most positive outcomes regarding learning outcome, preparation time, time spent in the laboratory and student perception of the experiment. The students with low attitude position needed more support to meet the challenge of an open-inquiry experiment, the support being a clearer explanation of the aims, and feedback from the instructor during the experiment.

  • 15. Bergqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Upper Secondary Teachers’ Knowledge for Teaching Chemical Bonding Models2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 298-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have shown a growing interest in science teachers' professional knowledge in recent decades. The article focuses on how chemistry teachers impart chemical bonding, one of the most important topics covered in upper secondary school chemistry courses. Chemical bonding is primarily taught using models, which are key for understanding science. However, many studies have determined that the use of models in science education can contribute to students' difficulties understanding the topic, and that students generally find chemical bonding a challenging topic. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' knowledge of teaching chemical bonding. The study focuses on three essential components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): (1) the students' understanding, (2) representations, and (3) instructional strategies. We analyzed lesson plans about chemical bonding generated by 10 chemistry teachers with whom we also conducted semi-structured interviews about their teaching. Our results revealed that the teachers were generally unaware of how the representations of models they used affected student comprehension. The teachers had trouble specifying students' difficulties in understanding. Moreover, most of the instructional strategies described were generic and insufficient for promoting student understanding. Additionally, the teachers' rationale for choosing a specific representation or activity was seldom directed at addressing students' understanding. Our results indicate that both PCK components require improvement, and suggest that the two components should be connected. Implications for the professional development of pre-service and in-service teachers are discussed.

  • 16.
    Bergqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Educ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Upper Secondary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Chemical Bonding Models2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 298-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have shown a growing interest in science teachers' professional knowledge in recent decades. The article focuses on how chemistry teachers impart chemical bonding, one of the most important topics covered in upper secondary school chemistry courses. Chemical bonding is primarily taught using models, which are key for understanding science. However, many studies have determined that the use of models in science education can contribute to students' difficulties understanding the topic, and that students generally find chemical bonding a challenging topic. The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' knowledge of teaching chemical bonding. The study focuses on three essential components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): (1) the students' understanding, (2) representations, and (3) instructional strategies. We analyzed lesson plans about chemical bonding generated by 10 chemistry teachers with whom we also conducted semi-structured interviews about their teaching. Our results revealed that the teachers were generally unaware of how the representations of models they used affected student comprehension. The teachers had trouble specifying students' difficulties in understanding. Moreover, most of the instructional strategies described were generic and insufficient for promoting student understanding. Additionally, the teachers' rationale for choosing a specific representation or activity was seldom directed at addressing students' understanding. Our results indicate that both PCK components require improvement, and suggest that the two components should be connected. Implications for the professional development of pre-service and in-service teachers are discussed.

  • 17.
    Brandstaedter, Kristina
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute Science and Math Educ IPN, Germany .
    Harms, Ute
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grossschedl, Joerg
    Leibniz Institute Science and Math Educ IPN, Germany .
    Assessing System Thinking Through Different Concept-Mapping Practices2012In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 34, no 14, p. 2147-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular features of CM practices affect the valid assessment of students system thinking. The particular features analysed were the medium (computer versus paper-pencil) and the directedness (highly directed versus nondirected) of CM practices. These features were evaluated with respect to their influence on (a) students performance in CM and (b) the validity of different CM practices for system thinking. One hundred fifty-four German fourth graders (mean age: 9.95 years) and 93 eighth graders (mean age: 14.07 years) participated in the study following an experimental pre-test-post-test design. Three variations of CM practices were applied: (a) highly directed computer mapping, (b) highly directed paper-pencil mapping, and (c) nondirected paper-pencil mapping. In addition to the CM task, a paper-pencil questionnaire was employed to investigate the validity of the CM practices. Results showed that the computer positively influenced student performance in CM when compared with paper-pencil. By contrast, there was no difference between highly directed and nondirected mapping. Whereas the medium rarely influenced the validity of CM for system thinking, high directedness showed a positive influence. Considering the limitations and benefits of particular CM practices, we suggest highly directed and computer-based CM as an appropriate assessment tool-in particular, with regard to large-scale assessments of system thinking.

  • 18.
    Broman, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bernholt, Sascha
    Parchmann, Ilka
    Using Model-based Scaffolds to Support Students Solving Context-based Chemistry Problems2018In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1176-1197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-based learning aims to make learning more meaningful by raising meaningful problems. However, these types of problems often require reflection and thinking processes that are more complex and thus more difficult for students, putting high demands on students’ problem-solving capabilities. In this paper, students’ approaches when solving context-based chemistry problems and effects of systematic scaffolds are analysed based on the Model of Hierarchical Complexity. Most answers were initially assigned to the lowest level of the model; higher levels were reached without scaffolds only by few students and by most students with scaffolds. The results are discussed with regard to practical implications in terms of how teachers could make use of context-based tasks and aligned scaffolds to help students in this activity.

  • 19.
    Byrne, Jenny
    et al.
    Southampton Education School, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Ideland, Malin
    Faculty of Education and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Claes
    Faculty of Education and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Grace, Marcus
    Southampton Education School, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires children use to negotiate a socio-scientific issue2014In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 1491-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9–10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to society at large. It focuses on how different interpretative repertoires were used by the students in discussions to legitimise or question their everyday lifestyles. They discussed four possible options that a government might consider to help reduce carbon dioxide production. Six main repertoires were identified: Everyday life, Self-Interest, Environment, Science and Technology, Society and Justice. The Everyday life repertoire was used when students related their discussion to their everyday lifestyles. Science and technology-related solutions were offered to maintain or improve things, but these were sometimes rather unrealistic. Arguments related to environment and health frequently appeared to have a superior status compared to the others. Findings also highlighted how conflicts between the students were actually productive by bringing in several perspectives to negotiate the solutions. These primary school students were, therefore, able to discuss and negotiate a complex real-world SSI. Students positioned themselves as active contributors to society, using their life experiences and limited knowledge to understand the problems that affected their everyday lives. Honing these skills within a school science community of practice could facilitate primary students' engagement with SSIs and empower them as citizens. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Britta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Ecological understanding 1: ways of experiencing photosynthesis2002In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 681-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is the first in a set of two concerning ecological understanding. It is based on a study conducted with a phenomenographic approach. In the study, ten teacher students, chosen by theoretical and selective sampling, were interviewed on two occasions to capture qualitatively different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. To explore this, two problem solving situations were arranged. Using a systems approach the functional aspects of the ecosystem were explored, with photosynthesis, recycling, and energy as units of analysis. The results are four categories of descriptions identified in relation to photosynthesis. The results indicate that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. This idea divides the categories into a consumptional and a transformational group. The categories are also found to be hierarchical in terms of inclusion of specific, critical aspects forming more and more complex ways of thinking.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Britta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Ecological understanding 2: transformation - a key to ecological understanding2002In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 701-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article (the second of two) describes the structure and general features of the phenomenon ecological understanding. Qualitatively different ways of experiencing cycling of matter and flow of energy in the context of ecosystems are presented. In all, five different categories are identified in each of these issues. It is concluded that the idea of transformation is a key to development of ecological understanding. The structure of ecological understanding was also found to be hierarchical in terms of inclusion of critical aspects in more complex ways of thinking. The identified categories and their critical aspects indicate fruitful paths for learning and crucial dimensions to open up in teaching. Thus, the results concern teachers' professional object, i.e., an emphasis on what to achieve in teaching and learning. The results can also be used as contents of teaching, tools for planning and for diagnostic and assessment purposes.

  • 22.
    Chang, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Chiu, M. H.
    National Taiwan Normal University.
    Lakatos' scientific research programmes as a framework for analysing informal argumentation about socioscientific issues2008In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 1753-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis showed that the science majors' informal arguments were significantly better than the non-science majors' arguments. In terms of the resources for supporting reasons, we find that personal experience and scientific belief are the two categories that are generated most often in both groups of the participants. Besides, science majors made significantly greater use of analogies, while non-science majors made significantly greater use of authority. In addition, both science majors and non-science majors had a harder time changing their arguments after participating in a group discussion. In the study of argumentation in science, scholars have often used Toulmin's framework of data, warrant, backing, qualifiers, claims, and rebuttal. Our work demonstrates that Lakatos' work is also a viable perspective, especially when warrant and backing are difficult to discern, and when students' arguments are resistant to change. Our use of Lakatos' framework highlights how the 'hard core' of students' arguments about socio-scientific issues does, indeed, seem to be protected by a 'protective belt' and, thus, is difficult to alter. From these insights, we make specific implications for further research and teaching.

  • 23.
    Chang, Shu-Nu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Chiu, M. H.
    National Taiwan Normal University.
    Lakatos' scientific research programmes as a framework for analysing informal argumentation about socioscientific issues2008In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 1753-1773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis showed that the science majors' informal arguments were significantly better than the non-science majors' arguments. In terms of the resources for supporting reasons, we find that personal experience and scientific belief are the two categories that are generated most often in both groups of the participants. Besides, science majors made significantly greater use of analogies, while non-science majors made significantly greater use of authority. In addition, both science majors and non-science majors had a harder time changing their arguments after participating in a group discussion. In the study of argumentation in science, scholars have often used Toulmin's framework of data, warrant, backing, qualifiers, claims, and rebuttal. Our work demonstrates that Lakatos' work is also a viable perspective, especially when warrant and backing are difficult to discern, and when students' arguments are resistant to change. Our use of Lakatos' framework highlights how the 'hard core' of students' arguments about socio-scientific issues does, indeed, seem to be protected by a 'protective belt' and, thus, is difficult to alter. From these insights, we make specific implications for further research and teaching.

  • 24.
    Christenson, N.
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höglund,, H.-O.
    Karlstad University.
    Analysing upper secondary students’ use of supporting reasons in arguing socioscientific issues through the SEE-SEP modelIn: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Danielsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. Univ Cambridge, Fac Educ, Cambridge CB2 8PQ, England.
    Warwick, Paul
    Univ Cambridge, Fac Educ, Cambridge CB2 8PQ, England.
    ‘All we did was things like forces and motion…’: multiple Discourses in the development of primary science teachers2014In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 103-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has highlighted challenges associated with embracing an inquiry approach to science teaching for primary teachers, often associating these challenges with insecurity linked to the lack of content knowledge. We argue that in order to understand the extent to which primary student teachers are able to embrace science teaching informed by scientific literacy for all, it is important to take into account various, sometimes competing, science teacher and primary teacher Discourses. The aim of this paper is to explore how such Discourses are constituted in the context of learning to teach during a 1-year university-based Post Graduate Certificate of Education course. The empirical data consist of semi-structured interviews with 11 student teachers. The analysis identifies 5 teacher Discourses and we argue that these can help us to better understand some of the tensions involved in becoming a primary teacher with a responsibility for teaching science: for example, in terms of the interplay between the student teachers' own educational biographies and institutionally sanctioned Discourses. One conclusion is that student teachers' willingness and ability to embrace a Discourse of science education, informed by the aim of scientific literacy for all, may be every bit as constrained by their experience of learning science through ‘traditional schooling’ as it is by their confidence with respect to their own subject knowledge. The 5 Discourses, with their complex interrelations, raise questions about which identity positions are available to students in the intersections of the Discourses and which identity positions teacher educators may seek to make available for their students.

  • 26.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Children's Understanding of Globes as a Model of the Earth: A problem of contextualizing2008In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 221-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and explanations in cognitive frameworks and visual descriptions in cultural contexts. Eleven children aged 6-8 years were interviewed in the presence of a globe. Those children who expressed views of the Earth that deviated from the culturally accepted view did not show any difficulties in combining these different ideas with the globe model. The way that this is possible is explained using a model of conceptual development as a process of differentiation between contexts and frameworks. The child must differentiate not only between the Earth as an area of flat ground in a common-sense framework and the planet Earth in a theoretical framework, but also between these frameworks and the framework of the representation. It is suggested that a differentiation on a meta-level is needed to distinguish which problems and explanations belong to which cognitive framework. In addition, the children must contextualize the visual description of the Earth in the globe in a cultural context to discern which mode of representation is used.

  • 27.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Children's understanding of globes as a model of the earth: A problem of contextualizing2008In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 221-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual representations play an important role in science teaching. The way in which visual representations may help children to acquire scientific concepts is a crucial test in the debate between constructivist and socio-cultural oriented researchers. In this paper, the question is addressed as a problem of how to contextualize conceptions and explanations in cognitive frameworks and visual descriptions in cultural contexts. Eleven children aged 6-8 years were interviewed in the presence of a globe. Those children who expressed views of the Earth that deviated from the culturally accepted view did not show any difficulties in combining these different ideas with the globe model. The way that this is possible is explained using a model of conceptual development as a process of differentiation between contexts and frameworks. The child must differentiate not only between the Earth as an area of flat ground in a common-sense framework and the planet Earth in a theoretical framework, but also between these frameworks and the framework of the representation. It is suggested that a differentiation on a meta-level is needed to distinguish which problems and explanations belong to which cognitive framework. In addition, the children must contextualize the visual description of the Earth in the globe in a cultural context to discern which mode of representation is used.

  • 28.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Drawings as Representations of Children’s Conceptions2009In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawings are often used to obtain an idea of children’s conceptions. Doing so takes for granted an unambiguous relation between conceptions and their representations in drawings. This study was undertaken to gain knowledge of the relation between children’s conceptions and their representation of these conceptions in drawings. A theory of contextualization was the basis for finding out how children related their contextualization of conceptions in conceptual frameworks to their contextualization of drawings in pictorial convention. Eighteen children were interviewed in a semi-structured method while they were drawing the Earth. Audio-recorded interviews, drawings, and notes were analysed to find the cognitive and cultural intentions behind the drawings. Also, even children who demonstrated alternative conceptions of the Earth in the interviews still followed cultural conventions in their drawings. Thus, these alternative conceptions could not be deduced from the drawings. The results indicate that children’s drawings can be used to grasp children’s conceptions only by considering the meaning the children themselves give to their own drawings.

  • 29.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Drawings as representations of children's conceptions2009In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawings are often used to obtain an idea of children's conceptions. Doing so takes for granted an unambiguous relation between conceptions and their representations in drawings. This study was undertaken to gain knowledge of the relation between children's conceptions and their representation of these conceptions in drawings. A theory of contextualization was the basis for finding out how children related their contextualization of conceptions in conceptual frameworks to their contextualization of drawings in pictorial convention. Eighteen children were interviewed in a semi-structured method while they were drawing the Earth. Audio-recorded interviews, drawings, and notes were analysed to find the cognitive and cultural intentions behind the drawings. Also, even children who demonstrated alternative conceptions of the Earth in the interviews still followed cultural conventions in their drawings. Thus, these alternative conceptions could not be deduced from the drawings. The results indicate that children's drawings can be used to grasp children's conceptions only by considering the meaning the children themselves give to their own drawings.

  • 30.
    Eliasson, Nina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Karlsson, Karl Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Sørensen, Helene
    Aarhus University, København NV, Denmark.
    The role of questions in the science classroom: how girls and boys respond to teachers' questions2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 433-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore (a) to what extent male and female science teachers pose different types of questions and (b) if the type of science question posed influences the extent to which boys or girls respond to them. Transcripts of the teacher–student interaction in a whole-class situation were analysed, with attention paid to interactions that involved science questions. Closed and open questions were used. Results revealed that the percentage of closed questions posed corresponded to 87%. Results show that teachers mainly use closed questions, and responses from boys to closed questions are in the majority regardless of if the question is posed by a female teacher (56%) or a male teacher (64%). Both categories of closed questions are mainly considered lower order questions that do not facilitate higher cognitive levels in students. Thus, a direct consequence of an excessive use of this type of questions may be that both boys and girls will be given less opportunities to practise their ability to talk about science. Less access to general classroom interaction may also affect girls’ attitudes to science in a negative way which could ultimately hamper the recruitment of girls to higher scientific studies.

  • 31.
    Eliasson, Nina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Sørensen, Helene
    DPU, Aarhus University, Tuborgvej, København, Denmark .
    Karlsson, Karl Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Teacher-Student Interaction in Contemporary Science Classrooms: Is Participation Still a Question of Gender?2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 1655-1672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that boys still have a greater access to the space for interaction in science classrooms, which is unexpected since in Sweden today girls perform better in these subjects than boys. Results from video-recorded verbal communication, referred to here as interaction, show that the distribution of teacher–student interaction in the final year of lower secondary school follows the same patterns as in the 1980s. The interaction space for all kinds of talk continues to be distributed according to the two-thirds rule for communication in science classrooms as described by previous research. We also show that the overall interaction space in science classrooms has increased for both boys and girls when talk about science alone is considered. Another finding which follows old patterns is that male teachers still address boys more often than girls. This holds true both for general talk and for talk about science. If a more even distribution of teacher–student interaction is desirable, these results once again need to be considered. More research needs to be undertaken before the association between girls’ attitudes and interest in science in terms of future career choice and the opportunity to participate in teacher–student interaction is more clearly understood.

  • 32.
    Gustavsson, Laila
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Jonsson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik.
    Thulin, Susanne
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Forskning Relationell Pedagogik (FoRP).
    Ways of dealing with science learning: a study based on Swedish early childhood education practice2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1867-1881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school system offers curriculum-based early childhood education (ECE) organised as preschool (for 0–5-year-olds) and preschool class (for 6-year-olds). The intention to create a playful and educational environment based on children’s perspectives, interests, and questions is strongly based on historical and cultural traditions. This article develops knowledge of ECE teachers’ approaches to science-learning situations. The study applies a phenomenographic approach. The analysis is based on approximately 9.5 hours of video documentation of teacher-led and child-initiated Swedish ECE science activities. We identified two descriptive categories and four subcategories dealing with science-learning situations: (A) making anything visible, containing the three subcategories (Aa) addressing everyone, (Ab) addressing everything, and (Ac) addressing play and fantasy; and (B) creating a shared space for learning (Ba) addressing common content. These categories are related to how efforts to take advantage of children’s perspectives are interpreted and addressed in educational practice. The article discusses and exemplifies the use of various categories and their potential implications for ECE learning practice.

  • 33.
    Gyberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lee, Francis
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The construction of facts: preconditions for meaning in teaching energy in Swedish classrooms2010In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1173-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the mechanisms that govern the processes of inclusion and exclusion of knowledges. It draws on three cases from Swedish classrooms about how energy is created as an area of knowledge. We are interested in how knowledge is made valid and legitimate in a school context, and in defining and finding tools to identify structures that govern potential meanings in a certain situation. To do this we develop a theoretical model that explains the preconditions for meaning. The purpose is to understand why certain knowledges are legitimated in the classroom and to explain how this happens. The analysis is based on participatory observations in classrooms, audio recordings of students engaged in group projects, educational materials, and the students' own work. The apparatuses of the school offer a wide range of possible meanings concerning energy. At the same time there are forces evolved in the school practice that effectively sift out what counts as values from what counts as facts and valid knowledge. These forces create a certain order and certain effects for what counts as truth. The article investigates the nature of the correlations between the different preconditions identified that makes one discourse more likely and “true” than another.

  • 34.
    Gyllenpalm, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    The Uses of the Term Hypothesis and the Inquiry Emphasis Conflation in Science Teacher Education2011In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 33, no 14, p. 1993-2015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the use and role of the term 'hypothesis' in science teacher education as described by teacher students. Data were collected through focus group interviews conducted at seven occasions with 32 students from six well-known Swedish universities. The theoretical framework is a sociocultural and pragmatist perspective on language and learning, introducing the notion of pivot terms to operationalise language use as a habit and mediated action. We describe three different customs of using the term 'hypothesis' within four cultural institutions that can be said to constitute science teacher education in Sweden. Students were found to habitually use the term hypothesis as meaning a guess about an outcome. This is contrasted to the function of this term in scientific research as a tentative explanation. We also found differences in how this term was used between the pure science courses given by the science departments of universities and science education courses taken only by teacher students. Findings also included further support for school students hypothesis fear reported in an earlier study. It is discussed how these findings can obstruct learning and teaching about the nature of scientific inquiry. Constructivist theories of learning are suggested as a possible origin of these problems. The findings are also related to curricular reform and development.

  • 35.
    Gyllenpalm, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    The Uses of the Term Hypothesis and the Inquiry Emphasis Conflation in Science Teacher Education2011In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 33, no 14, p. 1993-2015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the use and role of the term ‘hypothesis’ in science teacher education as described by teacher students. Data were collected through focus group interviews conducted at seven occasions with 32 students from six well‐known Swedish universities. The theoretical framework is a sociocultural and pragmatist perspective on language and learning, introducing the notion of pivot terms to operationalise language use as a habit and mediated action. We describe three different customs of using the term ‘hypothesis’ within four cultural institutions that can be said to constitute science teacher education in Sweden. Students were found to habitually use the term hypothesis as meaning a guess about an outcome. This is contrasted to the function of this term in scientific research as a tentative explanation. We also found differences in how this term was used between the pure science courses given by the science departments of universities and science education courses taken only by teacher students. Findings also included further support for school students hypothesis fear reported in an earlier study. It is discussed how these findings can obstruct learning and teaching about the nature of scientific inquiry. Constructivist theories of learning are suggested as a possible origin of these problems. The findings are also related to curricular reform and development.

  • 36.
    Gyllenpalm, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Holmgren, Sven-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Teachers' language on scientific inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry?2010In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1151-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students’ practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is sociocultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners’ possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.

  • 37.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wickman, Per-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Student Engagement with Artefacts and Scientific Ideas in a Laboratory and a Concept-Mapping Activity2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 13, p. 2254-2277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to use a comparative approach to scrutinize the common assumption that certain school science activities are theoretical and therefore particularly suited for engaging students with scientific ideas, whereas others are practical and, thus, not equally conducive to engagement with scientific ideas. We compared two school science activities, one (laboratory work) that is commonly regarded as focusing attention on artefacts that may distract students from central science concepts and the other (concept mapping) that is thought to make students focus directly on these concepts. We observed students in either a laboratory activity about real galvanic cells or a concept-mapping activity about idealized galvanic cells. We used a practical epistemology analysis to compare the two activities regarding students' actions towards scientific ideas and artefacts. The comparison revealed that the two activities, despite their alleged differences along the theory–practice scale, primarily resulted in similar student actions. For instance, in both activities, students interacted extensively with artefacts and, to a lesser extent, with scientific ideas. However, only occasionally did students establish any explicit continuity between artefacts and scientific ideas. The findings indicate that some of the problems commonly considered to be unique for school science practical work may indeed be a feature of school science activities more generally.

  • 38.
    Hasslöf, Helen
    et al.
    Lärande och samhälle, Malmö högskola, Malmö.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Claes
    School of Teacher Education. Halmstad University, Halmstad.
    Students’ qualification in environmental and sustainability education: epistemic gaps or composites of critical thinking?2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 259-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ‘age of measurement’ where students’ qualification is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the function of qualification might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve in science education. This paper deals with how secondary and upper secondary teachers in discussions with colleagues articulate qualification in relation to educational aims of ESD. With inspiration from discourse theory, the teachers’ articulations of qualification are analysed and put in relation to other functions of education (qualification, socialisation and subjectification). The results of this study show three discourses of qualification: scientific reasoning, awareness of complexity and to be critical. The discourse of ‘qualification as to be critical’ is articulated as a composite of differing epistemological views. In this discourse, the teachers undulate between rationalistic epistemological views and postmodern views, in a pragmatic way, to articulate a discourse of critical thinking which serves as a reflecting tool to bring about different ways of valuing issues of sustainability, which reformulates ‘matter of facts’ towards ‘matter of concerns’

  • 39.
    Hasslöf, Helen
    et al.
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Claes
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science, Centrum för lärande, kultur och samhälle (CLKS).
    Students’ qualification in environmental and sustainability education—epistemic gaps or composites of critical thinking?2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 259-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ‘age of measurement’ where students’ qualification is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the function of qualification might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve in science education. This paper deals with how secondary and upper secondary teachers in discussions with colleagues articulate qualification in relation to educational aims of ESD. With inspiration from discourse theory, the teachers’ articulations of qualification are analysed and put in relation to other functions of education (qualification, socialisation and subjectification). The results of this study show three discourses of qualification: scientific reasoning, awareness of complexity and to be critical. The discourse of ‘qualification as to be critical’ is articulated as a composite of differing epistemological views. In this discourse, the teachers undulate between rationalistic epistemological views and postmodern views, in a pragmatic way, to articulate a discourse of critical thinking which serves as a reflecting tool to bring about different ways of valuing issues of sustainability, which reformulates ‘matter of facts’ towards ‘matter of concerns’ © 2016 Taylor & Francis

  • 40. Hasslöf, Helen
    et al.
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Malmberg, Claes
    Students' qualification in environmental and sustainability education-epistemic gaps or composites of critical thinking?2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 259-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an 'age of measurement' where students' qualification is a hot topic on the political agenda, it is of interest to ask what the function of qualification might implicate in relation to a complex issue as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and what function environmental and sustainability issues serve in science education. This paper deals with how secondary and upper secondary teachers in discussions with colleagues articulate qualification in relation to educational aims of ESD. With inspiration from discourse theory, the teachers' articulations of qualification are analysed and put in relation to other functions of education (qualification, socialisation and subjectification). The results of this study show three discourses of qualification: scientific reasoning, awareness of complexity and to be critical. The discourse of 'qualification as to be critical' is articulated as a composite of differing epistemological views. In this discourse, the teachers undulate between rationalistic epistemological views and postmodern views, in a pragmatic way, to articulate a discourse of critical thinking which serves as a reflecting tool to bring about different ways of valuing issues of sustainability, which reformulates 'matter of facts' towards 'matter of concerns'.

  • 41.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anward, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Intentions and actions in molecular self-assembly: perspectives on students’ language use2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 627-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to talk science is an important aspect of learning to do science. Given that scientists' language frequently includes intentions and purposes in explanations of unobservable objects and events, teachers must interpret whether learners' use of such language reflects a scientific understanding or inaccurate anthropomorphism and teleology. In the present study, a framework consisting of three 'stances' (Dennett, 1987) - intentional, design and physical - is presented as a powerful tool for analysing students' language use. The aim was to investigate how the framework can be differentiated and used analytically for interpreting students' talk about a molecular process. Semi-structured group discussions and individual interviews about the molecular self-assembly process were conducted with engineering biology/chemistry (n=15) and biology/chemistry teacher students (n=6). Qualitative content analysis of transcripts showed that all three stances were employed by students. The analysis also identified subcategories for each stance, and revealed that intentional language with respect to molecular movement and assumptions about design requirements may be potentially problematic areas. Students' exclusion of physical stance explanations may indicate literal anthropomorphic interpretations. Implications for practice include providing teachers with a tool for scaffolding their use of metaphorical language and for supporting students' metacognitive development as scientific language users.

  • 42.
    Ideland, Malin
    et al.
    Teacher Education, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Claes
    Teacher Education, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Department of Mathematics, Technology and Science Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Culturally Equipped for Socio-Scientific Issues? A comparative study on how teachers and students in mono- and multiethnic schools handle work with complex issues2011In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1835-1859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) are not only said to increase students’ interest in science, but they also strengthen the generic skills of teamwork, problem-solving, and media literacy. At the same time, these skills are prerequisites for successful work with SSI. The aim of the study is to analyze what happens when SSI are implemented in science classrooms with various degrees of ethnic diversity and socio-cultural status. We are also interested in knowing how teachers structure the SSI work from discourses on what suits different students. Quantitative and qualitative methods are combined, for example, questionnaires and ethnographic fieldwork, presented through partial least squares analysis and thick descriptions. We can notice discursive differences between ‘Us’ and ‘The Other’ and between mono- and multiethnic schools. In an earlier research, images of differences between the different student groups emerged, and we can find these in the results from the questionnaires. In an observation study, another pattern appeared that indicated similarities rather than differences between mono- and multiethnic classrooms. The students are first of all inside the discourse of ‘the successful student.’ Noteworthy is that the teachers’ roles correspond better with the discourse than with how students actually act. The study also shows that SSI articulate a collision between different discourses on education: a discourse on differences between students in multiand monoethnic classrooms; a discourse on how to become a successful student; and a discourse on the school’s mission to educate participating citizens. It is suggested that schools should relate to, expose, and articulate discursive clashes that emerge when introducing new work forms. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  • 43.
    Ideland, Malin
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen.
    Malmberg, Claes
    Malmö högskola, Lärarutbildningen.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Culturally equipped for socio-scientific issues?: a comparative study on how teachers and students in mono- and multiethnic schools handle work with complex issues2011In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1835-1859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) are not only said to increase students' interest in science, but they also strengthen the generic skills of teamwork, problem-solving, and media literacy. At the same time, these skills are prerequisites for successful work with SSI. The aim of the study is to analyze what happens when SSI are implemented in science classrooms with various degrees of ethnic diversity and socio-cultural status. We are also interested in knowing how teachers structure the SSI work from discourses on what suits different students. Quantitative and qualitative methods are combined, for example, questionnaires and ethnographic fieldwork, presented through partial least squares analysis and thick descriptions. We can notice discursive differences between 'Us' and 'The Other' and between mono- and multiethnic schools. In an earlier research, images of differences between the different student groups emerged, and we can find these in the results from the questionnaires. In an observation study, another pattern appeared that indicated similarities rather than differences between mono- and multiethnic classrooms. The students are first of all inside the discourse of 'the successful student.' Noteworthy is that the teachers' roles correspond better with the discourse than with how students actually act. The study also shows that SSI articulate a collision between different discourses on education: a discourse on differences between students in multi- and monoethnic classrooms; a discourse on how to become a successful student; and a discourse on the school's mission to educate participating citizens. It is suggested that schools should relate to, expose, and articulate discursive clashes that emerge when introducing new work forms.

  • 44.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    Amer University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors across Levels of Expertise in Thermodynamics2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 780-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve physics problems. In early work, focus was on characterising differences between experts and novices and a key finding was the central role that propositionally expressed principles and laws play in expert, but not novice, problem-solving. A more recent line of research has focused on characterising continuity between experts and novices at the level of non-propositional knowledge structures and processes such as image-schemas, imagistic simulation and analogical reasoning. This study contributes to an emerging literature addressing the coordination of both propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures and processes in the development of expertise. Specifically, in this paper, we compare problem-solving across two levels of expertise-undergraduate students of chemistry and Ph.D. students in physical chemistry-identifying differences in how conceptual metaphors (CMs) are used (or not) to coordinate propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures in the context of solving problems on entropy. It is hypothesised that the acquisition of expertise involves learning to coordinate the use of CMs to interpret propositional (linguistic and mathematical) knowledge and apply it to specific problem situations. Moreover, we suggest that with increasing expertise, the use of CMs involves a greater degree of subjective engagement with physical entities and processes. Implications for research on learning and instructional practice are discussed.

  • 45.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköping University.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Varying use of conceptual metaphors across levels of expertise in thermodynamics2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 780-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve physics problems. In early work, focus was on characterising differences between experts and novices and a key finding was the central role that propositionally expressed principles and laws play in expert, but not novice, problem-solving. A more recent line of research has focused on characterising continuity between experts and novices at the level of non-propositional knowledge structures and processes such as image-schemas, imagistic simulation and analogical reasoning. This study contributes to an emerging literature addressing the coordination of both propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures and processes in the development of expertise. Specifically, in this paper, we compare problem-solving across two levels of expertise — undergraduate students of chemistry and Ph.D. students in physical chemistry — identifying differences in how conceptual metaphors (CMs) are used (or not) to coordinate propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures in the context of solving problems on entropy. It is hypothesised that the acquisition of expertise involves learning to coordinate the use of CMs to interpret propositional (linguistic and mathematical) knowledge and apply it to specific problem situations. Moreover, we suggest that with increasing expertise, the use of CMs involves a greater degree of subjective engagement with physical entities and processes. Implications for research on learning and instructional practice are discussed.

  • 46.
    Jönsson, Anders
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Student performance on argumentation task in the Swedish National Assessment in science2016In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1825-1840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of content knowledge on students’ socio- scientific argumentation in the Swedish National Assessment in biology, chemistry and physics for 12-year-olds. In Sweden, the assessment of socio-scientific argumentation has been a major part of the National Assessment during three consecutive years and this study utilizes data on student performance to investigate (a) the relationship between tasks primarily addressing argumentation and tasks addressing primarily content knowledge as well as (b) students’ performance on argumentation tasks, which differ in relation to content, subject, aspect of argumentation and assessment criteria. Findings suggest a strong and positive relationship between content knowledge and students’ performance on argumentation tasks.The analysis also provides some hypotheses about the task difficulty of argumentation tasks that may be pursued in future investigations.

  • 47.
    Kaufmann, Ilana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Hamza, Karim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Rundgren, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Developing an approach for teaching and learning about Lewis structures2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 1601-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores first-year university students' reasoning as they learn to draw Lewis structures. We also present a theoretical account of the formal procedure commonly taught for drawing these structures. Students' discussions during problem-solving activities were video recorded and detailed analyses of the discussions were made through the use of practical epistemology analysis (PEA). Our results show that the formal procedure was central for drawing Lewis structures, but its use varied depending on situational aspects. Commonly, the use of individual steps of the formal procedure was contingent on experiences of chemical structures, and other information such as the characteristics of the problem given. The analysis revealed a number of patterns in how students constructed, checked and modified the structure in relation to the formal procedure and the situational aspects. We suggest that explicitly teaching the formal procedure as a process of constructing, checking and modifying might be helpful for students learning to draw Lewis structures. By doing so, the students may learn to check the accuracy of the generated structure not only in relation to the octet rule and formal charge, but also to other experiences that are not explicitly included in the formal procedure.

  • 48.
    Kilstadius, Margaretha
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Defining contagion literacy: a Delphi study2017In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 39, no 16, p. 2261-2282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of climate change, which enables infectious diseases to move their frontiers and the increasing global mobility, which make people more exposed to contagion, we as citizens need to relate to this new scenario. A greater number of infectious diseases may also potentially lead to an increased need to use antibiotics and anti-parasitic substances. In view of this, the aim of this study was to identify the health literacy needed in the contemporary world and specify what should be taught in compulsory school. We present the findings of a Delphi study, performed in Sweden, regarding the opinions on contagion among experts in the field. We used Nutbeam's framework of health literacy and related it to Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in order to analyse and categorise the experts' responses, which were categorised into six main content themes: contagions, transmission routes, sexually transmitted diseases, hygiene, vaccinations and use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. These themes were then divided into the three levels of Nutbeam's framework: functional health literacy, which is about knowledge and understanding, interactive health literacy, which is about developing personal qualities and skills that promote health, and critical health literacy, which is about social and cognitive skills related to analysis and critical reflection. The implications for communication and education are then discussed and what should be taught in compulsory school is identified.

  • 49.
    Lindahl, Mats
    et al.
    School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Students’ Ontological Security and Agency in Science Education: An Example from Reasoning about the Use of Gene Technology2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 14, p. 2299-2330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of how students' reasoning about socioscientific issues is framed by three dynamics: societal structures, agency and how trust and security issues are handled. Examples from gene technology were used as the forum for interviews with 13 Swedish high-school students (year 11, age 17-18). A grid based on modalities from the societal structures described by Giddens was used to structure the analysis. The results illustrate how the participating students used both modalities for Legitimation' and Domination' to justify positions that accept or reject new technology. The analysis also showed how norms and knowledge can be used to justify opposing positions in relation to building trust in science and technology, or in democratic decisions expected to favour personal norms. Here, students accepted or rejected the authority of experts based on perceptions of the knowledge base that the authority was seen to be anchored in. Difficulty in discerning between material risks (reduced safety) and immaterial risks (loss of norms) was also found. These outcomes are used to draw attention to the educational challenges associated with students' using knowledge claims (Domination) to support norms (Legitimation) and how this is related to the development of a sense of agency in terms of sharing norms with experts or with laymen.

  • 50.
    Lindahl, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Linder, Cedric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Students' Ontological Security and Agency in Science Education: An Example from Reasoning about the Use of Gene Technology2013In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 35, no 14, p. 2299-2330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of how students’ reasoning about socioscientific issues is framed by three dynamics: societal structures, agency and how trust and security issues are handled. Examples from gene technology were used as the forum for interviews with 13 Swedish highschool students (year 11, age 17–18). A grid based on modalities from the societal structures described by Giddens was used to structure the analysis. The results illustrate how the participating students used both modalities for ‘Legitimation’ and ‘Domination’ to justify positions that accept or reject new technology. The analysis also showed how norms and knowledge can be used to justify opposing positions in relation to building trust in science and technology, or in democratic decisions expected to favour personal norms. Here, students accepted or rejected the authority of experts based on perceptions of the knowledge base that the authority was seen to be anchored in. Difficulty in discerning between material risks (reduced safety) and immaterial risks (loss of norms) was also found. These outcomes are used to draw attention to the educational challenges associated with students’ using knowledge claims (Domination) to support norms (Legitimation) and how this is related to the development of a sense of agency in terms of sharing norms with experts or with laymen.

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