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  • 1.
    Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Adelphi University, NY 21402 USA; University of Oxford, England.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cooper, Angela
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Macdonald, James
    Headington Psychotherapy, England.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Patients Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2.
    Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Adelphi University, USA.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Cooper, Angela
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Macdonald, James
    Headington Psychotherapy, England.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University.
    Patients Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 3. Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cooper, Angela
    McDonald, James
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Patients’ Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients’ in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients’ adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients’ immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients’ in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 4.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wernh, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

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  • 5.
    Aasen, Linn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thunberg, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En utvärdering av arbetspsykologiska testet Shapes med test-retestmetod2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många rekryteringsmetoder som används i dag, som CV och referenstagning, har enligt studier låg validitet, däremot visar många studier att personlighet är stabilt över tid och därför är en mer valid prediktor för att kunna predicera arbetsprestation. Studiens syfte var att undersöka Shapes, ett internetbaserat personlighetstest, och dess arton kompetensdimensioner med test-retest utifrån tre frågeställningar. En datainsamling med 91 deltagare (29 män och 62 kvinnor) gjordes vid två tillfällen med tre veckors mellanrum. Deltagarna delades upp i kön- och åldersgrupper för att se skillnad över tid inom grupperna. Medelvärdesskillnader och korrelationer över tid jämfördes där resultatet visade att det fanns positiva samband mellan båda testtillfällena på samtliga dimensioner. Sju av de arton dimensionerna hade skillnader på medelvärde från testtillfälle ett och testtillfälle två. Detta skulle kunna bero på att Shapes inte är tillräckligt tillförlitligt för att mäta dessa dimensioner eller att dessa dimensioner inte är stabila över tid.  

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  • 6. Aasmundsen, Wibeke
    et al.
    Flodman, Hjördis
    Bedömning av begåvningsmässigt funktionshinder i vuxen ålder: en studie av neuropsykologers metoder2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 7. Aazh, Hashir
    et al.
    Knipper, Marlies
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Cavanna, Andrea E.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schecklmann, Martin
    Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment2018In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 95, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. 

    Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis.

    Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis.

    Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

  • 8.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

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  • 9.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Peters, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Lidström, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

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  • 10.
    Abarzúa Gonzalez, Roberto
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Motivationsfaktorer för förändring av våldsbeteende: Tre män berättar om sin motivationsprocess före, under och i slutet av behandlingen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att genom intervjuer beskriva olika betingelser som motiverar män att söka hjälp för sitt våldsutövande i nära relationer samt beskriva olika betingelser som är avgörande för om man fullföljer den planerade behandlingen eller inte. Den tredje frågeställning var om de här beskrivningarna kunde ge idéer om vilka behandlingsinslag som bidrar till att män fullföljer behandlingen som syftar till att man slutar använda våld. Tre män intervjuades tre gånger under sin behandling, det vill säga i början, i mitten och i slutet av behandlingen. Intervjuerna genomfördes under sammanlagt sex månader. Intervjuerna följde en intervjuguide och var halvstrukturerade.

    Gemensamt för alla tre män som är avgörande för att de söker hjälp och fullföljer sin behandling är när de upplevde att deras våldshandlingar fick allvarliga konsekvenser både för sig själva och för sin omgivning.

    En annan avgörande motiverande faktor för dessa män var att de upplevde att gruppledarna för behandlingsgruppen gav utrymme för allas berättelser. Männen uttrycker att de får ett utrymme för att själva reflektera över den situation som de befinner sig i utan en alltför styrande, kontrollerande attityd från gruppledarna. Detta förhållningssätt från gruppledarna verkar stärka männens motivation till att fortsätta behandlingen och därmed göra förändringen möjligt.

     Mötet med de andra deltagarna är en central motivationsfaktor för att genomföra behandlingen. Känslan att man inte är ensam, att man delar med sig av sina egna erfarenheter, att man känner igen sig, att se värre konsekvenser för andra deltagare är viktiga faktorer i förändringsarbetet.

    Motivationen verkar vara motorn eller drivkraften i själva förändringsarbetet. Denna undersökning pekar i riktning att motivationen verkligen är en dynamisk och föränderlig process som påverkas av många olika komponenter, inte minst i relation till andra människor.

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  • 11. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Town, Joel
    On Paolo Migione's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, p. NP18-NP22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    On Paolo Migone's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, p. NP18-NP22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ogrodniczuk, John
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Trial Therapy: Effectiveness and Role of Unlocking the Unconscious2017In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 205, no 6, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of trial therapy interviews using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy with 500 mixed sample, tertiary center patients. Furthermore, we investigated whether the effect of trial therapy was larger for patients who had a major unlocking of the unconscious during the interview compared with those who did not. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Significant outcome effects were observed for both the BSI and the IIP with small to moderate preeffect/posteffect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.52 and 0.23, respectively. Treatment effects were greater in patientswho had a major unlocking of the unconscious comparedwith thosewho did not. The trial therapy interview appears to be beneficial, and its effects may relate to certain therapeutic processes. Further controlled research is warranted.

  • 14.
    Abd Alrahman, Asma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ataei, Miragha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfällig ändring av lag för asylsökande: En kvalitativ studie om HVB-hemspersonals uppfattning av lagändringens konsekvenser för ensamkommande barn.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to investigate HVB-home staff's perceptions of the temporary asylum law's impact on unaccompanied minors’ motivation for integration into Swedish society. On 24 November 2015, the government presented a temporary law to reduce the number of asylum seekers. The temporary law was intended to apply for three years and meant that Sweden went from having generous asylum legislation to following the EU's line for a minimum level for receiving asylum seekers. All asylum-seeking groups, such as refugees and people in need of protection, would receive temporary residence permits, except that there were exceptions for quota refugees who could obtain permanent residence permits. In the study, we used a qualitative method and conducted semi-structured interviews with five staff who had previously worked with unaccompanied children. Results from both interviews and previous research show that there are several factors that affect the mood of unaccompanied children and their integration into Swedish society. The study showed that previous psychological trauma, long waiting times for information about residence permits, loneliness and lack of meaningful activity had a negative impact on unaccompanied children's mood and motivation for integration.

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  • 15.
    Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen
    et al.
    Department of Organization, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark; The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Special issue editorial: new perspectives on workplace interventions2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current special issue is to promote and foster development, debate, and knowledge of workplace Interventions. It is fitting that SJWOP, being a Scandinavian journal, has taken on the task of foregrounding intervention research. Scandinavian work and organizational psychologists have since the late 1990’s been at the forefront of the development of research into organizational interventions, for example by promoting a focus on not only effect, but also on process evaluation. This tradition has been kept alive by new generations of Scandinavian researcher who share the ideals of increasing our knowledge about the working mechanisms of interventions. But organizational interventions have proven to be much broader than just participatory interventions, and the current special issue contains a range of intervention approaches and methodological approaches. The papers in the special issue each present different areas and approaches in advancing our knowledge about interventions. We are pleased to publish both conceptual papers on evaluation and new forms of intervention as well as evaluations of interventions expanding our methodological toolbox.

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  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Nina Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Sandström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag känner mig ju hel med extra tillagt liksom": En diskursanalytisk intervjustudie med personer som kan kategoriseras som mixed race i dagens Sverige2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kritiska mixed race-studier är ett forskningsområde som internationellt växer sig allt större, men i en svensk kontext saknas forskning på personer som klassificeras som mixed race. I denna studie har tretton personer intervjuats med syfte att se hur de talade om sitt identitetsskapande i förhållande till sin blandade identitet samt om omgivningens bemötande. För att analysera materialet användes Foucauldiansk diskursanalys som metod.

    Resultatet visar att deltagarna på varierande sätt konceptualiserar vad den blandade identiteten innebär och om eller hur den har betydelse för dem. De diskurser som var tillgängliga för deltagarna när de talade om sin blandade identitet, var diskurser kring kultur, etnicitet, nationalitet, ras och svenskhet. Den blandade identiteten konceptualiserades som något en får genom tillgång till flera kulturer eller genom blodsband samt som kroppsliga markörer. Hur deltagarna förhållit sig till den beskrivs ha varierat under deras liv liksom i olika kontexter. Deltagarna förhåller sig till att benämnas halv: vissa använder själva detta som beskrivande benämning medan andra tar avstånd från den och beskriver sig som hela, dubbla och trippel.

    Deltagarna beskriver hur deras svenskhet ifrågasätts och hur de på olika sätt förhandlar om sin tillgång till den. Det framställs hur de ofta ställs inför frågan ”var kommer du ifrån, egentligen?”. Vissa framställer praktiker som lättare ska låta dem klassas som svensk/vit, alternativt gör motstånd mot att klassas som detta. Ytterligare framförs hur deras utseende låter dem uppfattas som tillhörande gruppen invandrare, och att detta ibland kan ge fördelar. Slutligen beskrivs även rasifierande praktiker som sker i en skärningspunkt mellan ras och kön. Deltagare som identifierar sig som kvinnor beskriver hur de översexualiseras och hur deras utseende exotifieras medan de som kategoriseras som män talar om hur de misstänkliggörs. I vårt resultat blir det tydligt att ras som en socialt konstruerad kategori påverkar individers erfarenheter och villkor i dagens Sverige.

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  • 17.
    Abrahimy, Roza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Suomela, Sabina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hur upplever unga kvinnor att de påverkas av sociala medier2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle har sociala medier stort inflytande på människor. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur unga kvinnor upplever att deras mentala hälsa påverkas till följd av användning av sociala medier. Tio semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med unga kvinnor mellan 20–35 år som är aktiva på Facebook och Instagram. Analysen visade på två centrala teman: positiva mentala effekter och negativa mentala effekter med subteman ökad stressnivå och beroendeframkallande. Deltagarna upplever att deras psykiska hälsa påverkas både positivt och negativt. Dock visar resultatet att det var övervägande negativt. Vilket är i linje med tidigare studier. Författarna resonerar att social gemenskap vid användning av sociala medier var en gemensam positiv faktor för deltagarna, medan minskad självkänsla var en gemensam negativ faktor. Vi kommer att diskutera resultat i enlighet med den sociokulturella teorin, då det diskuterades att sociala medier har en viktig roll gällande hur de påverkar unga kvinnors mentala hälsa utifrån samtida kultur.

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  • 18.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Anund, A.
    Fors, C.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2017In: EMBEC & NBC 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 19.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2018In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 65, p. 149-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems.

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 20. Ackaret, N
    et al.
    Röthlin, P
    Allemand, M
    Krieger, T
    Berger, T
    Znoj, H
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Birrer, D
    Horvath, S
    Six-month Stability of Individual Differences in Sports Coaches’ Burnout, Self-compassion and Social Support.2022In: Proceedings from the 16th European Congress of Sport & Exercise Psychology (FEPSAC), FEPSAC , 2022, p. 237-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a three-wave prospective cross-lagged panel design, the study examined six-month stability of burnout, self-compassion and social support among sports coaches in terms of measurement invariance, mean-level change, rank-order stability, and structural stability. The participating coaches (N = 422; Mage = 44.48, SD = 11.03) completed an online questionnaire measuring self-compassion, social support, coach burnout and demographics at baseline and two follow-ups at three months and six months. The various forms of stability were assessed using structural equation modeling. There was no significant mean-level change in burnout, self-compassion, or social support, and all three constructs exhibited measurement invariance. Rank-order stability remained relatively high, ranging from .78 to .94 across the three time points. For all three constructs, covariances between latent factors were invariant over time, indicating high structural stability. While self-compassion and social support were positively related, both were negatively related to coach burnout. These results confirm the importance of preventing and addressing symptoms of burnout, low self-compassion and poor social support in sports settings.

  • 21.
    Ackeret, Nadja
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland; Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Röthlin, Philipp
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Allemand, Mathias
    Department of Psychology and URPP Dynamics of Healthy Aging, University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Krieger, Tobias
    Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Berger, Thomas
    Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Znoj, Hansjörg
    Department of Psychology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics.
    Birrer, Daniel
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Horvath, Stephan
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Six-month stability of individual differences in sports coaches’ burnout, self-compassion and social support2022In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 61, article id 102207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a three-wave prospective cross-lagged panel design, the study examined six-month stability of burnout, self-compassion and social support among sports coaches in terms of measurement invariance, mean-level change, rank-order stability, and structural stability. The participating coaches (N = 422; Mage = 44.48, SD = 11.03) completed an online questionnaire measuring self-compassion, social support, coach burnout and demographics at baseline and two follow-ups at three months and six months. The various forms of stability were assessed using structural equation modeling. There was no significant mean-level change in burnout, self-compassion, or social support, and all three constructs exhibited measurement invariance. Rank-order stability remained relatively high, ranging from 0.78 to 0.94 across the three time points. For all three constructs, covariances between latent factors were invariant over time, indicating high structural stability. While self-compassion and social support were positively related, both were negatively related to coach burnout. These results confirm the importance of preventing and addressing symptoms of burnout, low self-compassion and poor social support in sports settings.

  • 22.
    Adell, Emeli
    et al.
    Trivector Traffic.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Cyclists' use of mobile IT in Sweden: usage and self-reported behavioural compensation2014In: 3rd International Cycling Safety Conference (ICSC2014), 18-19 November, Gothenburg, Sweden: proceedings, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of mobile phones while cycling has raised safety concerns. In this paper two studies of mobile phone use by cyclists are presented.

    The first study was designed to characterize mobile phone use by cyclists in Sweden, while the second studied how mobile phone use affected cyclist behaviour and compensation strategies. Mobile phone use was observed in about 20 percent of all urban bicycle trips. The usage varied with cyclist age with the highest usage among young cyclists. Of those using phones, 90% of the cyclists observed used head-phones.

    In parallel, standardized, interviews 15% of cyclists under 15 years old stated that they always used mobile phones while cycling. Listening to music in headphones was the most fre-quent self-reported activity. To converse using hand-held phones was also rather common, and was the only mobile phone usage reported by women above 50 years old.

    In the second study twenty-two young cyclists (age 16-25 years) completed a route in real traffic five times while listening to music, receiving and making calls, receiving and sending text messages, searching for information on the internet and while cycling normally without using the phone. The route and the types of tasks were controlled, but the cyclists could choose rather freely when, where and how to carry out the tasks. When the cyclist returned to the starting point, a short interview was conducted. During the interviews cyclists reported their experiences and the compensation strategies they used while cycling.

  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Rosenqvist, Michelle
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    7 LEDARE I FASTIGHETSMÄKLARBRANSCHENS SYN PÅ, OCH HANTERING AV, FASTIGHETSMÄKLARES GRÄNSLÖSA ARBETSFÖRHÅLLANDEN.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to get an idea of ​​how the leaders in the real estate industry perceive and manage boundless working conditions. Questions that were answered were how the leaders in the service influence and control the employees' working conditions. Also how the communication strategies are designed to facilitate the work towards common goals, when tasks are not limited to the workplace. The study examine if boundless working conditions is characterized by unspoken expectations. Based on the current view, seven interviews were conducted with leaders from six organizations in the real estate brokerage. The results showed that the industry is controlled by few limits and that leaders use different strategies to maximize performance and wellbeing. It is a commission-based industry in which all work is according to individual performance where results are measured before the time spent at work. By explicit strategies of working and labor leaders are trying to reduce inequalities, and so they try to also reduce the scope of the psychological contract in certain aspects.

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  • 24.
    Adolfsson, Marica
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Sarheim, Frida
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Dela eller dölja?: En kvantitativ studie om kunskapshantering och avsikten att lämna arbetsplatsen2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish labour market, there is a skills shortage, which means that employers must lower the formal education and experience requirement during recruitment and instead offer internal training to those candidates who are considered to have the ability to learn afterwards. Since the employees´ human capital is many organizations main competitive advantages, it is important that the potential candidate and existing employees want to stay within the organization.

    This study focuses on investigating the relationship between knowledge sharing, knowledge hiding and the employee's intention to leave the organization. The survey was carried out with a quantitative method approach. The data collection was carried out through a digital questionnaire survey, which generated quantitative data that could be analyzed in the statistical program SPSS analytics version 29. The data collection instrument included the TIS 6, which is a validated instrument for measuring employee's intention to leave the organization. In addition to the TIS 6 instrument, 11 questions about knowledge sharing and 9 about knowledge hiding were included to measure the respective phenomena. The instrument for knowledge sharing is based on a basis developed by Wangand Kwek (2018), Wang et al . (2017) and Xiao et al. (2017). The instrument for measuring knowledge hiding is based on a basis developed by Shirahada and Zang (20 22). A convenience sample was applied, resulting in a participant base of 214 respondents.

    The results show no significant relationship between knowledge sharing and the employee's intention to leave the organization. In contrast, the study shows a weak positive relationship between knowledge hiding and the intention to leave the organization , which suggests that employees who experience knowledge hiding with in the organization are more likely to leave.

  • 25.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 26.
    Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Limbu, Yam B.
    Feliciano School of Business, Montclair State University, United States.
    Al Mamun, Md.
    Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Facebook usage intensity and compulsive buying tendency: The mediating role of envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion and the moderating role of depression2021In: International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, ISSN 1741-1025, E-ISSN 1741-1033, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 69-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Facebook usage intensity (FBUI) and compulsive buying tendency (CBT) have individually received increased research attention, very little is known about the mechanisms through which FBUI affects CBT. This study proposes and tests a multiple mediation model in which the effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by personality characteristics (envy, self-esteem, and self-promotion). The study also explores the moderating effect of depression on these mediated relationships. The results of a self-administered survey of 393 Bangladeshi adults support the proposed moderated mediation model. The effect of FBUI on CBT is mediated by envy and self-esteem independently. The FBUI indirectly affects CBT through serial mediators: 1) envy and self-esteem; 2) envy and self-promotion. These serial mediating effects are moderated by depression. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. 

  • 27.
    Ahlesten, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykometriska egenskaper hos Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykologisk inflexibilitet är ett centralt begrepp inom Acceptance and committment therapy (ACT). I enlighet med teorin bakom ACT är människor psykiska lidande starkt sammankopplat med komponenterna som utgör psykologisk inflexibilitet; upplevelsemässigt undvikande och kognitiv fusion. Det psykiska måendet bland barn och ungdomar tenderar att försämras och behovet av psykologiska vårdinsatser ökar. I det sammanhanget är det viktigt med fungerande skattningsinstrument som möjliggör bedömningar och utvärderingar av vårdbehov och vårdinsatser. I uppsatsen undersöktes psykometriska egenskaper hos självskattningsinstrumentet Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) i en grupp ungdomar som vårdas av Statens institutionsstyrelse. Av resultaten framgick att såväl reliabilitet som validitet var god i de utvalda måtten, faktorstrukturen tolkades som endimensionell. Även graden av psykologisk inflexibilitet i gruppen undersöktes. Bland undersökningsdeltagarna hade flickorna signifikant högre AFQ-Y-resultat jämfört med normpopulationen. Pojkarna avvek inte från normpopulationen.

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  • 28.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 29.
    Ahlin, Klas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Konradsson-Åström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    SAMBAND MELLAN KBT-TERAPEUTERS KOMPETENS OCH ANVÄNDNING AV MINDFULNESS I TERAPI: - olika typer av kompetens och deras betydelse2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The science about competence in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, MBI is still scarceand unclear. It has for example so far not been able to show that MBI-competence effects treatment outcome. Other correlations have also not yet been found. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between Swedish cognitive behavioural therapists’ level of competence in MBI, and their proneness of using MBI in therapy. The study grouped competence as self-assessed competence, formal competence (level of MBI education), and informal competence (level of own practise). The study was designed as a cross-sectional, web survey-based study. 71 therapists, with an average age of 55, responded. The study found that there was a statistically significant correlationbetween MBI competence and use of MBI in individual therapy, and that informal competence best predicted MBI use. Most therapists (74 %) said that formal MBI competence was rather or very important, while 86 % found informal MBI competence rather or very important. The conclusion was that the higher level of MBI competence, the more therapists used MBI in the individual therapy they offered. And it was informal competence that best explained the therapist's proneness to use MBI. To increase the availability of MBI, informal competence should thus be encouraged.

  • 30.
    Ahlstedt, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Moberg, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Brulin, Emma
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unite Occupat Med, Solna, Sweden..
    Nyberg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health equity and working life.
    Do illegitimate tasks matter for registered nurses' work motivation?: A cross-sectional study based on a nationally representative sample of Swedish nurses2023In: The International Journal of Nursing Studies Advances (IJNS Advances), E-ISSN 2666-142X, Vol. 5, article id 100159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A challenge in Western countries is the growing need for registered nurses (RNs') in hospitals, primary care and home healthcare. Decreasing illegitimate tasks and strengthening RNs' work motivation are some strategies to address this challenge.

    Objective: Our overall aim was to explore the association between RNs' experiences of illegitimate tasks and work motivation operationalised as four dimensions: work engagement, opportunities to provide high-quality care, employer satisfaction and intention to remain at the workplace. To address this aim, three specific research questions were asked: (1) Is there an association between illegitimate tasks and work motivation? (2) Do the levels of reported illegitimate tasks differ between RNs working in hospitals and those working in primary care or home healthcare settings? (3) Do associations between illegitimate work tasks and work motivation differ with type of workplace?

    Design: A cross-sectional design.

    Methods: We used responses from a stratified population of RNs in Sweden, n = 2,333, working either in hospitals, primary care or home healthcare. Calibrating weights were applied in all analyses to ascertain the generalisability of the findings. Illegitimate tasks were measured with the Bern Illegitimate Tasks Scale. Data were analysed using chi-squared tests and linear or logistic regression analysis. Interaction was measured on the multiplicative scale by adding an interaction term to the fully adjusted models.

    Results: Overall, approximately 25 % of RNs reported frequently experiencing illegitimate tasks. There were statistically significant associations between higher perceptions of illegitimate tasks and lower ratings in the four dimensions of work motivation: work engagement [beta coefficient [beta] = -0.14, confidence interval [CI] 95 % = -0.18; -0.10], opportunities to provide highquality care [beta = -0.46, CI 95 % = -0.51; -40] and employer satisfaction [beta = -0.60, CI 95 % = -0.67; -0.54]. Experiencing higher levels of illegitimate tasks also related to a decreased intention to remain at the workplace [illegitimate tasks: odds ratio = 0.32, CI 95 % = 0.27; 0.29]. RNs who worked in home healthcare reported higher levels of illegitimate tasks than RNs who worked in hospitals.

    Conclusions: Reducing the amount of illegitimate tasks may contribute to counteracting the shortage of RNs by increasing work motivation and willingness to remain at the workplace.

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  • 31.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 32.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The effect of daylight versus darkness on driver sleepiness: A driving simulator study2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness studies are often carried out with alert drivers during daytime and sleep-deprived drivers during night-time. This design results in a mixture of different factors (e.g. circadian effects, homeostatic effects, light conditions) that may confound the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 ± 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove on a rural road. A 2 × 2 design was used with the conditions daylight versus darkness, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results show that light condition had an independent effect on the sleepiness variables. The subjective sleepiness measured by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, lateral position more left-oriented, speed lower, electroencephalogram alpha and theta higher, and blink durations were longer during darkness. The number of line crossings did not change significantly with light condition. The day/night condition had profound effects on most sleepiness indicators while controlling for light condition. The number of line crossings was higher during night driving, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, blink durations were longer and speed was lower. There were no significant interactions, indicating that light conditions have an additive effect on sleepiness. In conclusion, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and blink durations increase primarily with sleep deprivation, but also as an effect of darkness. Line crossings are mainly driven by the need for sleep and the reduced alertness at the circadian nadir. Lane position is, however, more determined by light conditions than by sleepiness.

  • 33. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    The effect of daylight versus darkness on driver sleepiness: a driving simulator study2018In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, no 3, article id e12642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness studies are often carried out with alert drivers during daytime and sleep-deprived drivers during night-time. This design results in a mixture of different factors (e.g. circadian effects, homeostatic effects, light conditions) that may confound the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 ± 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove on a rural road. A 2 × 2 design was used with the conditions daylight versus darkness, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results show that light condition had an independent effect on the sleepiness variables. The subjective sleepiness measured by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, lateral position more left-oriented, speed lower, electroencephalogram alpha and theta higher, and blink durations were longer during darkness. The number of line crossings did not change significantly with light condition. The day/night condition had profound effects on most sleepiness indicators while controlling for light condition. The number of line crossings was higher during night driving, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was higher, blink durations were longer and speed was lower. There were no significant interactions, indicating that light conditions have an additive effect on sleepiness. In conclusion, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and blink durations increase primarily with sleep deprivation, but also as an effect of darkness. Line crossings are mainly driven by the need for sleep and the reduced alertness at the circadian nadir. Lane position is, however, more determined by light conditions than by sleepiness.

  • 34.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

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  • 35.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Förares användning av kommunikationsutrustning under färd: Del 1: Enkätstudie. Del 2: Användning enligt objektiv mätning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av resultaten från denna enkät är något av det mest tydliga att saker som funnits i en bil en längre tid, exempelvis att ställa in radio, använda navigationsutrustning och prata i telefon, görs i betydligt högre utsträckning än nyare saker som att skicka meddelanden, surfa på internet eller spela spel. Överlag tycks det vara låg acceptans för de nyare företeelserna och en stor andel av urvalet tycker att det är felaktigt eller olämpligt att hålla på med dessa aktiviteter. Att prata i telefon med handsfree tycks uppfattas av många som säkrare och mer lämpligt än att inte använda det. Detta avspeglas även i inställning till införandet av förbud, där en relativt stor andel accepterar att det ska vara lagligt att använda handsfreefunktioner men att annan användning av kommunikationsutrustning borde förbjudas.

    I den andra delen genomfördes en mätning av mobilanvändning under färd genom installerande tav en mobilapp. Den genomförda undersökningen är den första av sitt slag åtminstone i Sverige, så att den, trots vissa brister och begränsningar, kan leverera information som hittills har varit okänt. I detta del diskuteras resultaten, även i förhållande till enkätsvaren, följt av en reflektion över metoden och möjliga förbättringar, som är önskvärda inför en fortsättningsstudie.

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  • 36.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Jansson, Sabina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Local changes in the wake electroencephalogram precedes lane departures2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate if lane departures are associated with local sleep, measured via source-localized electroencephalography (EEG) theta power in the 5-9 Hz frequency range. Thirty participants drove in an advanced driving simulator, resulting in 135 lane departures at high levels of self-reported sleepiness. These lane departures were compared to matching non-departures at the same sleepiness level within the same individual. There was no correspondence between lane departures and global theta activity. However, at the local level an increased risk for lane departures was associated with increased theta content in brain regions related to motor function.

  • 37.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL. Linköping University.
    Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system: A field study2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real-world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway.

    The results show that drivers look at the system for 5–8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (>2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice.

  • 38.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Linköpings Universitet.
    A gaze-based driver distraction warning system and its effect on visual behaviour2013In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 965-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver distraction is a contributing factor to many crashes; therefore, a real-time distraction warning system should have the potential to mitigate or circumvent many of these crashes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the usefulness of a real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. The evaluation is based on data from an extended field study comprising seven drivers who drove on an average of 4351 ± 2181 km in a naturalistic setting.

    Visual behavior was investigated both on a global scale and on a local scale in the surroundings of each warning. An increase in the percentage of glances at the rear-view mirror and a decrease in the amount of glances at the center console were found. The results also show that visual time sharing decreased in duration from 9.94 to 9.20 s due to the warnings, that the time from fully attentive to warning decreased from 3.20 to 3.03 s, and that the time from warning to full attentiveness decreased from 6.02 to 5.46 s. The limited number of participants does not allow any generalizable conclusions, but a trend toward improved visual behavior could be observed. This is a promising start for further improvements of the algorithm and the warning strategy.

  • 39.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nystrom, Marcus
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Wolfe, Benjamin
    Univ Toronto Mississauga, Canada.
    Eye Tracking in Driver Attention Research-How Gaze Data Interpretations Influence What We Learn2021In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROERGONOMICS, ISSN 2673-6195, Vol. 2, article id 778043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking (ET) has been used extensively in driver attention research. Amongst other findings, ET data have increased our knowledge about what drivers look at in different traffic environments and how they distribute their glances when interacting with non-driving related tasks. Eye tracking is also the go-to method when determining driver distraction via glance target classification. At the same time, eye trackers are limited in the sense that they can only objectively measure the gaze direction. To learn more about why drivers look where they do, what information they acquire foveally and peripherally, how the road environment and traffic situation affect their behavior, and how their own expertise influences their actions, it is necessary to go beyond counting the targets that the driver foveates. In this perspective paper, we suggest a glance analysis approach that classifies glances based on their purpose. The main idea is to consider not only the intention behind each glance, but to also account for what is relevant in the surrounding scene, regardless of whether the driver has looked there or not. In essence, the old approaches, unaware as they are of the larger context or motivation behind eye movements, have taken us as far as they can. We propose this more integrative approach to gain a better understanding of the complexity of drivers' informational needs and how they satisfy them in the moment.

  • 40.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Nyström, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wolfe, Benjamin
    University of Toronto Mississauga, Canada.
    Eye Tracking in Driver Attention Research: How Gaze Data Interpretations Influence What We Learn2021In: Frontiers in Neuroergonomics, E-ISSN 2673-6195, Vol. 2, p. 1-6, article id 778043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking (ET) has been used extensively in driver attention research. Amongst other findings, ET data have increased our knowledge about what drivers look at in different traffic environments and how they distribute their glances when interacting with non-driving related tasks. Eye tracking is also the go-to method when determining driver distraction via glance target classification. At the same time, eye trackers are limited in the sense that they can only objectively measure the gaze direction. To learn more about why drivers look where they do, what information they acquire foveally and peripherally, how the road environment and traffic situation affect their behavior, and how their own expertise influences their actions, it is necessary to go beyond counting the targets that the driver foveates. In this perspective paper, we suggest a glance analysis approach that classifies glances based on their purpose. The main idea is to consider not only the intention behind each glance, but to also account for what is relevant in the surrounding scene, regardless of whether the driver has looked there or not. In essence, the old approaches, unaware as they are of the larger context or motivation behind eye movements, have taken us as far as they can. We propose this more integrative approach to gain a better understanding of the complexity of drivers' informational needs and how they satisfy them in the moment.

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  • 41.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Vater, Christian
    Institute of Sport Science, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Strategical use of peripheral vision in driving2022In: DDI 2022 Gothenburg: Abstract book, Göteborg: Safer , 2022, p. 71-73Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To successfully get around in traffic it is often necessary to keep track of several relevant targets at the same time. This can be done by combining foveal and peripheral visual information sampling. Especially if no detailed input is needed, for example when confirming the absence of road users, it may be enough to use peripheral vision only. Using a driving simulator with an urban scenery, 35 participants passed three zebra crossings with a) no pedestrians nearby, b) pedestrians standing nearby and c) pedestrians nearby of whom one started walking towards the street. In the last case, all participants foveated the walking person, albeit around one third of the participants already released the throttle before the first glance at the pedestrian. The standing pedestrians were foveated in almost all instances, whereas the roadside nearby the zebra crossing without people nearby was not foveated by around a quarter of the participants. Taken together, the results indicate that peripheral vision may suffice to confirm the absence or presence of pedestrians. With people present, a glance towards them is initiated, likely to check for additional information. Throttle release before foveation is an indication that the walking pedestrian was detected as relevant with peripheral vision.

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  • 42.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Leeuwen, Wessel van
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Jansson, Herman
    Smart Eye AB, Sweden.
    Finér, Svitlana
    Smart Eye AB, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Real-Time Adaptation of Driving Time and Rest Periods in Automated Long-Haul Trucking: Development of a System Based on Biomathematical Modelling, Fatigue and Relaxation Monitoring2022In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 4758-4766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hours of service regulations govern the working hours of commercial motor vehicle drivers, but these regulations may become more flexible as highly automated vehicles have the potential to afford periods of in-cab rest or even sleep while the vehicle is moving. A prerequisite is robust continuous monitoring of when the driver is resting (to account for reduced time on task) or sleeping (to account for the reduced physiological drive to sleep). The overall aims of this paper are to raise a discussion of whether it is possible to obtain successful rest during automated driving, and to present initial work on a hypothetical data driven algorithm aimed to estimate if it is possible to gain driving time after resting under fully automated driving. The presented algorithm consists of four central components, a heart rate-based relaxation detection algorithm, a camera-based sleep detection algorithm, a fatigue modelling component taking time awake, time of day and time on task into account, and a component that estimates gained driving time. Real-time assessment of driver fitness is complicated, especially when it comes to the recuperative value of in-cab sleep and rest, as it depends on sleep quality, time of day, homeostatic sleep pressure and on the activities that are carried out while resting. The monotony that characterizes for long-haul truck driving is clearly interrupted for a while, but the long-term consequences of extended driving times, including user acceptance of the key stakeholders, requires further research.

  • 43.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Nilsson, Emma
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The impact of driver sleepiness on fixation-related brain potentials.2020In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 29, no 5, article id e12962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of driver sleepiness are often quantified as deteriorated driving performance, increased blink durations and high levels of subjective sleepiness. Driver sleepiness has also been associated with increasing levels of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, especially in the alpha range. The present exploratory study investigated a new measure of driver sleepiness, the EEG fixation-related lambda response. Thirty young male drivers (23.6±1.7years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment in which they drove on rural and suburban roads in simulated daylight versus darkness during both the daytime (full sleep) and night-time (sleep deprived). The results show lower lambda responses during night driving and with longer time on task, indicating that sleep deprivation and time on task cause a general decrement in cortical responsiveness to incoming visual stimuli. Levels of subjective sleepiness and line crossings were higher under the same conditions. Furthermore, results of a linear mixed-effects model showed that low lambda responses are associated with high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings. We suggest that the fixation-related lambda response can be used to investigate driving impairment induced by sleep deprivation while driving and that, after further refinement, it may be useful as an objective measure of driver sleepiness.

  • 44.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Wachtmeister, Jesper
    Mobile Behaviour.
    Nyman, Mattias
    Designingenjörerna Sverige AB.
    Nordenström, Axel
    Designingenjörerna Sverige AB.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Using smartphone logging to gain insight about phone use in traffic2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of mobile phone usage in traffic has been studied by road-side counting, naturalistic driving data, surveillance cameras, smartphone logging, and subjective estimates via surveys. Here, we describe a custom-made smartphone logging application along with suggestions on how future such applications should be designed. The developed application logs’ start and end times of all phone interactions (mobile phone applications, incoming/outgoing phone calls and text messages, audio output, and screen activations). In addition, all movements are automatically classified into transport, cycling, walking, running, or stationary. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated in a pilot study with 143 participants. Examples of results that can be gained from smartphone logging include prevalence in different transportation modes (here found to be 12% while driving, 4% while cycling, and 7% while walking), which apps are being used (here found to be 19% navigation, 12% talking, 12% social media, and 10% games) and on which road types (rural, urban, highway etc.). Smartphone logging was found to be an insightful complement to the other methods for assessing phone use in traffic, especially since it allows the analyses of which apps are used and where they are used, split into transportation mode and road type, all at a relatively low cost.

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  • 45.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Wörle, Johanna
    Würzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences (WIVW), Germany.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Cars Safety Centre, PV22, Sweden.
    Frederik, Diedrichs
    Fraunhofer IOSB, Germany.
    Road Vehicle Automation and Its Effects on Fatigue, Sleep, Rest, and Recuperation2023In: The Handbook of Fatigue Management in Transportation: Waking Up to the Challenge / [ed] Christina M. Rudin-Brown and Ashleigh J. Filtness, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2023, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assisted and automated driving brings new challenges and opportunities when it comes to driver fatigue. With lower levels of vehicle automation, driver monotony and boredom in combination with demanding attentive monitoring leads to higher levels of fatigue, especially during the night when the sleep pressure is high. With higher levels of vehicle automation, when the driver is not required to continuously monitor the roadway and the automation system, task-related fatigue can be counteracted by engaging in non-driving-related activities. Finally, with the highest levels of vehicle automation, it may even become possible for drivers to sleep while on the move. Aside from making it possible for private car drivers to take strategic naps during a drive, this also opens up the possibility for more flexible, risk management-based, hour of service regulations for professional drivers. This chapter summarises the current state of the art on how assisted and piloted driving affects driver fatigue and how automation may facilitate recovery and recuperation from fatigue while on the move. It also covers how automated functions will impact driver monitoring systems and how new ways of counteracting driver fatigue may arise when automation is available.

  • 46.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden; VTI, Olaus Magnus vag 35, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zemblys, Raimondas
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Finer, Svitlana
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Alcohol impairs driver attention and prevents compensatory strategies2023In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 184, article id 107010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the negative effects of alcohol on driving performance are undisputed, it is unclear how driver attention, eye movements and visual information sampling are affected by alcohol consumption. A simulator study with 35 participants was conducted to investigate whether and how a drivers level of attention is related to self-paced non-driving related task (NDRT)-engagement and tactical aspects of undesirable driver behaviour under increasing levels of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) up to 1.0 %o. Increasing BrAC levels lead to more frequent speeding, short time headways and weaving, and higher NDRT engagement. Instantaneous distraction events become more frequent, with more and longer glances to the NDRT, and a general decline in visual attention to the forward roadway. With alcohol, the compensatory behaviour that is typically seen when drivers engage in NDRTs did not appear. These findings support the theory that alcohol reduces the ability to shift attention between multiple tasks. To conclude, the independent reduction in safety margins in combination with impaired attention and an increased willingness to engage in NDRTs is likely the reason behind increased crash risk when driving under the influence of alcohol.

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  • 47.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Linköpings universitet.
    Zemblys, Raimondas
    SmartEye AB, Sverige.
    Finér, Svitlana
    SmartEye AB, Sverige.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Alcohol impairs driver attention and prevents compensatory strategies2023In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 184, article id 107010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the negative effects of alcohol on driving performance are undisputed, it is unclear how driver attention, eye movements and visual information sampling are affected by alcohol consumption. A simulator study with 35 participants was conducted to investigate whether and how a driver's level of attention is related to self-paced non-driving related task (NDRT)-engagement and tactical aspects of undesirable driver behaviour under increasing levels of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) up to 1.0 ‰. Increasing BrAC levels lead to more frequent speeding, short time headways and weaving, and higher NDRT engagement. Instantaneous distraction events become more frequent, with more and longer glances to the NDRT, and a general decline in visual attention to the forward roadway. With alcohol, the compensatory behaviour that is typically seen when drivers engage in NDRTs did not appear. These findings support the theory that alcohol reduces the ability to shift attention between multiple tasks. To conclude, the independent reduction in safety margins in combination with impaired attention and an increased willingness to engage in NDRTs is likely the reason behind increased crash risk when driving under the influence of alcohol. © 2023

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  • 48.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Olaus Magnus Vag 35, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zemblys, Raimondas
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Jansson, Herman
    SmartEye AB, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Christian
    Autol Dev AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Autol Dev AB, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Olaus Magnus Vag 35, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Effects of partially automated driving on the development of driver sleepiness2021In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 153, article id 106058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare the development of sleepiness during manual driving versus level 2 partially automated driving, when driving on a motorway in Sweden. The hypothesis was that partially auto-mated driving will lead to higher levels of fatigue due to underload. Eighty-nine drivers were included in the study using a 2 ? 2 design with the conditions manual versus partially automated driving and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results showed that night-time driving led to markedly increased levels of sleepiness in terms of subjective sleepiness ratings, blink durations, PERCLOS, pupil diameter and heart rate. Partially automated driving led to slightly higher subjective sleepiness ratings, longer blink durations, decreased pupil diameter, slower heart rate, and higher EEG alpha and theta activity. However, elevated levels of sleepiness mainly arose from the night-time drives when the sleep pressure was high. During daytime, when the drivers were alert, partially automated driving had little or no detrimental effects on driver fatigue. Whether the negative effects of increased sleepiness during partially automated driving can be compensated by the positive effects of lateral and longitudinal driving support needs to be investigated in further studies.

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  • 49.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Zemblys, Raimondas
    SmartEye AB.
    Jansson, Herman
    SmartEye AB.
    Forsberg, Christian
    Autoliv Research.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Autoliv Research.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Effects of partially automated driving on the development of driver sleepiness2021In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 153, p. 1-9, article id 106058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare the development of sleepiness during manual driving versus level 2 partially automated driving, when driving on a motorway in Sweden. The hypothesis was that partially automated driving will lead to higher levels of fatigue due to underload. Eighty-nine drivers were included in the study using a 2 × 2 design with the conditions manual versus partially automated driving and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived). The results showed that night-time driving led to markedly increased levels of sleepiness in terms of subjective sleepiness ratings, blink durations, PERCLOS, pupil diameter and heart rate. Partially automated driving led to slightly higher subjective sleepiness ratings, longer blink durations, decreased pupil diameter, slower heart rate, and higher EEG alpha and theta activity. However, elevated levels of sleepiness mainly arose from the night-time drives when the sleep pressure was high. During daytime, when the drivers were alert, partially automated driving had little or no detrimental effects on driver fatigue. Whether the negative effects of increased sleepiness during partially automated driving can be compensated by the positive effects of lateral and longitudinal driving support needs to be investigated in further studies. © 2021 The Author(s)

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  • 50.
    Ahlström, Christian
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gymnasieelevers syn på feedback i skolämnet idrott & hälsa2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine how high school students wish to receive feedback in physical education, if positive feedback from the P.E. teacher is perceived as beneficial to the students’ motivation and also to examine if the motivational climate is perceived as task oriented or ego oriented by the students. In total 8 high school students (4 boys, 4 girls) at the age of 16 participated. Semi structured interview guides were used during the interviews who took place in a private and neutral location. The informants wanted positive feedback and instructive feedback. Positive feedback was perceived as beneficial to the informants’ motivation. They also perceived encouragement as beneficial to their motivation. Both task oriented and ego oriented motivational climate were experienced. However the P.E. teacher was perceived as using a task oriented approach. The informants’ answers related to both Self determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and Achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989). According to the study, the P.E. teacher’s feedback approach should concentrate on positive, encouraging, instructing and constructive feedback and have a task oriented approach.

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