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  • 1. Abbasi, Umar Aftab
    et al.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nissanka, Sarath Premalal
    Ali, Arshad
    Species α-diversity promotes but β-diversity restricts aboveground biomass in tropical forests, depending on stand structure and environmental factors2022Ingår i: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest plays a vital role in the global biogeochemical cycles through a high rate of carbon sequestration and harboring biodiversity. However, local species diversity is declining while also becoming increasingly homogenized across communities. Although effects of local biotic processes (e.g., species α-diversity and stand structural heterogeneity) and environmental factors on aboveground biomass (AGB) have been widely tested, there is a huge knowledge gap for the effect of regional biotic processes (i.e., taxonomic and functional β-diversity) in forests. Here, we hypothesized that regional and local environmental factors along with biotic processes jointly regulate AGB through species shifts in tropical forests.

    Using piecewise structural equation modeling (pSEM), we linked climatic water availability, soil fertility, stand structural heterogeneity (either tree DBH inequality, height inequality, or stand density), species α-diversity, taxonomic or functional β-diversity (and its two components; β-turnover and β-richness), and AGB across 189 inventory plots in tropical forests of Sri Lanka. Soil fertility and climatic water availability shaped local and regional biotic processes. Stand structural heterogeneity promoted species α-diversity but declined β-diversity (but increased β-taxonomic turnover). Species α-diversity and stand structural heterogeneity promoted AGB whereas taxonomic and functional β-diversity declined (but β-taxonomic turnover increased) AGB.

    The relationships of AGB with species α-diversity and β-diversity varied from significant to nonsignificant positive depending on the specific combinations of stand structural heterogeneity metrics used. This study shows that local biotic processes could increase AGB due to the local and regional niche complementarity effect whereas the regional biotic processes could restrict AGB due to the regional selection or functional redundancy effect under favorable environmental conditions. We argue that biotic homogenization, as well as drought conditions, may have strong divergent impacts on forest functions and that the impacts of tree diversity loss may greatly reduce carbon sequestration.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014Ingår i: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    River Nyando catchment 1
  • 3.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Economics & Rural Development, Arish University, Al-Arish, Egypt.
    Ravula, Padmaja
    Nedumaran, Swamikannu
    Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan
    Perceptions of the impacts of urban sprawl among urban and peri-urban dwellers of Hyderabad, India: a Latent class clustering analysis2022Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 24, nr 11, s. 12787-12812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Like many other developing countries, urban sprawl is a growing phenomenon in India, which poses socio-economic and environmental challenges that worryingly affect urban sustainability. In this study, a latent class clustering approach was used to investigate perceptions of urban sprawl among 622 urban and peri-urban dwellers in Hyderabad. The empirical results clustered the respondents into three distinct classes based on their perceptions of urban sprawl impacts: ‘undecided respondents’, ‘negative perceivers’, and ‘opportunity perceivers’. The majority of respondents were undecided with no strong views towards the impacts of urban sprawl, which may increase their vulnerability and hinder effective adaptation to the adverse economic, social and environmental effects of urban sprawl. This also provokes concerns about the effectiveness of government interventions to build public awareness of urban development and its impacts on the city. With regard to the role of demographic and socio-economic characteristics in shaping the perception of the respondents, the results revealed that social caste plays a determining role in forming dwellers’ perception. In particular, members of marginalised social castes were more likely to form positive perceptions of the impacts of urban sprawl as urban expansion generates better and stable income that improve their social status. In addition, individuals with higher levels of education were more likely to form negative or positive perceptions, implying that efforts to raise social capital could be a useful means for mitigating the impacts of urban sprawl. Finally, membership in community development organisations was a key factor in dictating membership of the negative perceivers’ class. Overall, our findings suggest that an appropriate policy framework and specific programmes are needed for enhancing dwellers’ perception towards the impacts of urban sprawl, which can enhance the design, acceptance, and implementation of a more sustainable governance of urbanisation and contribute to achieving urban sustainability in developing countries.

  • 4. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013Ingår i: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, s. 24-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 5. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 208-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mapping of biodiversity impacts and hotspot products in Nordic food consumption2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of food production has been lively debated over the last decades. It is e.g. well known that some products have a higher climate impact in comparison to other food products. The biodiversity impact of different food products is however less known. To steer the food production in a positive direction as well as to enable consumers, restaurants, public kitchens, and the food industry to make well-informed decisions, we need to address and measure this impact. The aim of this study has been to examine the biodiversity impact of Nordic and European food consumption. In this report we present (1) a brief summary of biodiversity indicators linked to food production and consumption, (2) different methods to evaluate biodiversity impact of food products and (3) a literature review of studies that assess biodiversity impacts of food products and diets. Based on the literature review, we identify food products suggested to have a higher respectively lower negative impact on biodiversity and discuss what changes that could promote a Nordic diet with lower negative impact on biodiversity. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps and possibilities for future work. There are different methods to examine the biodiversity impact on food products, such as life cycle assessment, input-output-model, and mapping tools. Biodiversity footprints are often based on the land use (area and intensity) in combination with parameters linked to where the production takes place and thus what biodiversity values can be affected. The consumed amount of food is also often considered – a product with a low impact per kg can get a high impact when consumed to a high degree and vice versa. Our literature review shows a variety of food products with high negative biodiversity impact. Particularly, products that are known drivers of deforestation in tropical regions, such as palm oil, coffee, and cacao – as well as meat and/or animal products that have been fed with soybeans derived from tropical regions have a high negative impact on biodiversity. On the other hand, consumption of foods as vegetables, starchy roots, and pulses – ideally with domestic origin – are examples of foods indicated to have lower biodiversity impact which would be beneficial to eat more of in the Nordic diet. There are also examples of agricultural systems where human interference is crucial for maintaining a high level of biodiversity, for example keeping grazing animals on high-naturevalue-grasslands. If these lands are abandoned or planted with forest, numerous of species will be extinct. Thus, meat linked to these grasslands can also support biodiversity, especially in the Nordic countries where there are relatively many of these landscapes left (in comparison to the rest of Europe). As the studies reviewed varied in their scope, methods, and results, they are difficult to compare. More research is needed to confirm our conclusions. Furthermore, none of the methods are flawless and there are obvious difficulties with finding a transferable and scalable unit – like CO2-equivalents – since biodiversity impacts are highly dynamic and sitespecific. Additionally, most of the reviewed studies do not consider transformation of natural areas driven by food production, e.g., deforestation, and may therefore be underestimating the impacts. In future studies, the reference systems may also be discussed and further developed, and more taxonomic groups (e.g., arthropods such as insects) should preferably be included.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012Ingår i: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 89-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 8.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Environmental arsenic in a changing world2019Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 8, s. 169-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Ahnström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden; Länsstyrelsen i Uppsala län, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boonstra, Wijnand J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields2013Ingår i: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, artikel-id 617352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

  • 10.
    Akinyemi, Felicia O.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Land transformation across agroecological zones reveals expanding cropland and settlement at the expense of tree-cover and wetland areas in Nigeria2024Ingår i: Geo-spatial Information Science, ISSN 1009-5020, E-ISSN 1993-5153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluating how land cover is being transformed is essential to identify patterns necessary to infer the change trajectories and the driving factors. This study considers the case of Nigeria, where various natural ecosystems are being converted and for which a current national scale assessment at high spatial resolution is lacking. Producing 30 m Landsat-based time-series data, we analyze change among land cover types (i.e. tree-covered area, grassland, wetland, waterbody, cropland, artificial surface, and otherland) across seven agroecological zones. The annual change intensity was assessed at multi-levels across two time-intervals (i.e. 2000–2013, 2013–2022). Distinguishing between natural land cover and human activity-related land-use, we estimate the extent of change signifying how humans have appropriated natural land cover. Insights from analysis at the interval level reveal that land transformation accelerated from 3.3% in 2000–2013 to 4.5% during 2013–2022 in all agroecological zones (e.g. rainforest, mangrove), except in Sudan savannah and Sahel savannah where speed was higher in 2000–2013 as grasslands were increasingly cultivated. Cropland expanded almost two-fold (22% to 37%), whereas tree-cover declined from 50% to 31% and wetland from 7% to 3.7% over the 23 years. Much loss of natural land cover (e.g. tree-cover, grassland, and wetland) to cropland occurred in 2000–2013 (22%) when most irrigation schemes in Nigeria were established. In contrast, the loss of natural land cover to settlement (0.9%) during 2000–2013 increased to 2.0% in 2013–2022. Of all agroecological zones, the mangrove zone was most disturbed as its persisting land cover areas reduced from 69% to 5% between 2000–2013 and 2013–2022. The amount of persisting land cover was highest in the Sudan savannah at 44% in 2000–2013 and 49% in 2013–2022. Processes of human-appropriated natural land cover in Nigeria are related to urbanization and cropland expansion into natural areas with some instances of natural regeneration, especially in croplands and abandoned settlement areas.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Akram, Usman
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Closing nutrient cycles2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Livsmedelsproduktion är grunden för vårt samhälle idag och för den utveckling som skett det senaste århundrandet. Idag är vi åtta miljarder människor i världen med en produktion och handel med livsmedel, där knappt en miljard lever under hunger och svält. Inom de närmaste decennierna förväntas världens befolkning fortsätta växa och stanna av på omkring 11 till 12 miljarder människor under senare hälften av 2000-talet. För att klara livsmedelsförsörjningen bättre idag, och ännu mer så i framtiden, krävs att vi hittar former för att återföra skördade näringsämnen, som fosfor, kväve och kalium, tillbaka till åkermarken. Många av dessa näringsämnen är ändliga resurser som dessutom bidrar till övergödning om de läcker ut till andra habitat. I dag återfinns det mesta av dessa näringsämnen i gödsel, mänsklig exkreta och rötslam från avloppsreningsverk. Avhandlingen har studerat förutsättningarna för att sluta en större del av näringsämnens cykler i Sverige och Pakistan genom återföring av gödsel och mänsklig exkreta till jordbruksmark, samt utifrån detta även dragit slutsatser om de globala förutsättningar och effekterna av att sluta kretslopp för näringsämnen.

    Effekterna av att förbättra återförsel av näringsämnen till åkermark innefattar en minskad belastning i miljön som resultat av minskad användning av handelsgödsel, minskad användning av energi för produktion av handelsgödsel, samt framför allt ökade möjligheter för en långsiktigt hållbar hög skörd på åkerarealen. Det finns dock energikostnader vid återförsel av näringsämnen till följd av många och tunga transporter. Avhandlingen har därför analyserat transportkostnader för effektiv återvinning av näringsämnen från djurhållning och mänsklig exkreta och hur stor del av gödselbehovet som kan täckas av dessa återförda näringsämnen. Speciellt har avhandlingen också studerat hur viktigt det är att ta hänsyn till i vilken skala man skall studera problemet, dvs om det är data på gödselbehov och tillgång som är lokala - ända ner på enskilda fält och gårdar - regionala eller nationella som man skall utgå från när man söker efter effektiva lösningar för att sluta näringsämnes cykler.

    Resultaten visar att större delen av gödselbehovet i både Pakistan och Sverige kan täckas genom återvinning av stallgödsel och mänsklig exkreta. I Sverige kan 81% av fosforbehovet täckas på det viset. Transporterna sker i första hand inom kommuner, 63% av behovet, medan de resterande 18% av behovet som kan täckas kräver transporter som är längre och sker mellan kommuner. Kostnaden för transporterna är däremot höga och motsvarar mer än tre gånger kostnaden för motsvarande handelsgödsel. I Pakistan är kostnadsbilden annorlunda, bl.a. eftersom lönekostnaderna är lägre och handelsgödsel är dyrare än i Sverige. Avhandlingen visar att kostnaden för transporter av gödsel i Pakistan skulle motsvara enbart 13% av kostnaden för motsvarande mängd handelsgödsel. Det mesta av återförandet av näringsämnen sker inom distrikt, till exempel är det bara 6% av kvävebehovet som behöver täckas av transporter utanför distrikten. Pakistans handelsgödselanvändning, och därmed kostnad för detta, skulle vid en effektiv återvinning av näringsämnen kunna reduceras ned till 43% av dagens kostnader för kvävegödsel, för fosfor behövs det 0.28 miljoner ton och behovet av kaliumgödsling skulle helt försvinna. Det krävs därmed handelsgödsel motsvarande 2.77 miljarder USD, vilket till del skulle kunna kompenseras av minskade totala kostnader för kväve- och kaliumgödsel. En sådan återföring av näringsämnen i Pakistan skulle också medföra en högre gödseltillförsel till jordbruket och därmed en möjlighet att reducera skördegapet i landet. Skördegapet i Pakistan är betydande med veteskördar kring 25–30% av de möjliga, och dessa skördegap anses bero just på för små gödselgivor. Pakistan har också tydliga problem med livsmedelsförsörjning på grund av dagens skördegap med 20% av en befolkning på 200 miljoner som är undernärda. För Sveriges del är produktionen och avkastningen per areal till följd av gödsling redan hög. En mer effektiv återförsel av näringsämnen i Sverige skulle därför i första hand bidra till att minska användning av handelsgödsel och därmed begränsa användning av ändliga resurser som fosfor. Analyserna i avhandlingen visar till exempel att i Sverige skulle användning av fosfor som handelsgödsel kunna minska med 67% om återförsel av stallgödsel och mänsklig exkreta effektiviserades.

    Analyser av globala data för år 2000 – 2016 visar att den årliga tillgången på näring i gödsel (från djur och människor) motsvarar minst 48% av grödornas N behov, 57% av P behovet och 81% av K behovet. Även om den total mängden näring i stallgödsel och mänsklig exkreta inte räcker för att täcka det årliga globala behovet av näring, så visar data på ett överskott på N i minst 29 länder, ett överskott på P i minst 41 länder och 71 länder har ett K-överskott i stallgödsel och exkreta. Om man dessutom räknar in användningen av handelsgödsel blir det ytterligare 42 länder som har överskott på N, 17 länder till med P-överskott och 8 ytterligare med K-överskott. En stor del av resterande länder har ett underskott av näringsämnen (när man summerar gödsel, mänsklig exkreta och handelsgödsel), 57 länder har brist på N, 70 länder behöver mer P och 51 har brist på K i sitt jordbruk, och har därmed lägre skördar än möjligt. Det totala överskottet av näringsämnen i de andra länderna under denna period motsvarar dock rätt väl den brist som länder med underskott uppvisar. Tyvärr är trenden den att de länder som visade på överskott av näringsämnen år 2000 har sammantaget tydligt ökat på överskottet till 2016, medan även underskotten har ökat i flera av länderna med bristande tillförsel av N, P eller K. Sådana globala obalanser har tydliga implikationer för den framtida matförsörjningen och för miljön.

    Avhandlingen visar att vi idag skulle kunna använda mindre handelsgödsel totalt i världen, och ändå reducera de skördegap som finns, om vi skapar en effektiv återförsel av näringsämnen såväl inom som mellan länder och ett mer behovsanpassat användande av handelsgödsel.

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  • 12.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

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    Social-Ecological Urbanism - Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus (Abstract)
  • 13.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundberg, Per
    Nutrient addition extends flowering display, which gets tracked by seed predators, but not by their parasitoids2008Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 117, s. 473-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although phenological matching between two and three trophic interactions has received some attention, it has largely been disregarded in explaining the lack of strong cascade dynamics in terrestrial systems. We studied the response of the specialist seed predator, Paroxyna plantaginis (Tephritidae) and associated generalist parasitoids (Chalcidoidea) to controlled fertilisation of individuals of naturally growing Tripolium vulgare (Asteraceae) on four island populations (Skeppsvik Archipelago, Sweden). We consistently found evidence of nutrient limitation: fertilised plants increased their biomass, produced more capitula (the oviposition units for tephritid flies), were more at risk of attack by the tephritids, and puparia were heavier in fertilised plants. During some parts of the season tephritids became more heavily parasitized, supporting the presence of cascade dynamics, however net parasitism over season decreased in response to nutrient addition. We found no evidence that capitulum size complicated parasitoid access to the tephritids, however the extended bud production prolonged the flowering season. Thus, tephritids utilized the surplus production of capitula throughout the entire season, while parasitoids did not expand their oviposition time window accordingly. Implications for top down regulation and cascade dynamics in the system are discussed.

  • 14.
    Ali, Muatasem Latif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Riskkommunikation generellt exemplifierat genom branden i Halmstad 20122017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical accident can cause damage in individuals, groups or entire communities. The injury may concern human life, property or the environment. An accident can affect a large part of society and requires cooperation between the actors involved. Different stakeholders need to be informed, but it is not certain how a message should be delivered and who should do it.

    The study's purpose is to study risk communication generally, as exemplified by the accident in Halmstad September 21, 2012, when a fire broke out in a warehouse in Halmstad harbor. How the involved persons experienced communication,

    What factors could affect the communication at such types of critical situations.

    In the study, two methods have been used. The first used method was a web-survey of people working in civil protection in Halmstad municipality, environmental office in Halmstad, the public living in the municipality, police, Coast Guard, industries and media. The second method was semi-structured interviews addressed to some of those affected who worked in media, police, coast guard, the company, emergency services and the local authority.

    This study showed that there were differences between the respondents' answers on how respondents perceived that there were risks to human health or the environment in this accident. Many of the respondents who responded to the survey felt that the risk communication worked well after the fire. This survey and semi- structured interviews showed that respondents felt that the municipality's website was a good information channel and the internet and social media could be a good source for the responsible authorities to quickly disseminate information to the public. This study showed that the municipality and emergency services were actors most concerned in this context when it came to communicating risks in major accidents where chemicals were involved and all respondents had great confidence to the emergency services and municipality. 

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  • 15.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, HansLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Grimvall, AndersLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 16.
    Ambros, Pontus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Granvik, Madeleine
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Trends in Agricultural Land in EU Countries of the Baltic Sea Region from the Perspective of Resilience and Food Security2020Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 14, artikel-id 5851Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land is crucial for the production of food and is, thereby, directly connected to food security. Agriculture is threatened by a multitude of hazards, such as climate change, peak oil, peak soil and peak phosphorus. These hazards call for a more resilient food system that can deliver food security for the global population in the future. In this paper, we analyse the Baltic Sea region's ten European Union (EU) member states, investigating which trends are to be found in statistics between 2005 to 2016 on the development of agricultural land. In our paper, we analyse these trends of agricultural land by looking at three categories of data: (1) utilised agricultural area, (2) number of farms and (3) agricultural labour input. The results showed a trend that agricultural land is increasingly dominated by large farms, whilst over 1 million predominantly small farms have disappeared, and agricultural-labour input has dropped by more than 26%. These trends point towards a mechanisation of production, where larger and less labour-intensive farms take over production. This could partly be due to the EU common agricultural policy, which tends to favour large farms over small. Further, we argue for the importance of farm-size diversity, and about the dangers to food security that a system that is dominated by large farms possesses. Lastly, we conclude that the concept of resilience needs to be better included in policy development and food-system planning, and that more research needs to be done, analysing how existing agricultural policies impact the parameters studied in this paper.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, s. 606-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, K.
    Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measuring social – ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007Ingår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1267-1278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, S.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, A.
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: Stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services2016Ingår i: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy, CRC Press , 2016, s. 29-45Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hughes, Alice C.
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jernelöv, Arne
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Fish, Wildlife and Environmental Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    McNeely, Jeffrey A.
    Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section, Petchburi, Thailand.
    Mohr, Claudia
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mustonen, Tero
    Snowchange Cooperative, Lehtoi, Finland.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Centre for Sustainable Development, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria
    Institució Catalana de Recerca I Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (ICTA-UAB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Rusch, Graciela M.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England at Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thomas, David N.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wulff, Angela
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Söderström, Bo
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ambio fit for the 2020s2022Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, s. 1091-1093Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Isac
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för skog och träteknik (SOT).
    Riskhantering vid naturvårdsbränning: En critical incident studie (CIT)2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsbränning är en åtgärd som avser att återskapa effekterna avnaturliga skogsbränder genom att påverka det ekologiska systemet. Trotsfördelarna föreligger risker, såsom oönskad eskalering och spridning av eld,rök och glöd, vilket kan negativt påverka mark, människor och samhällen.Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur ansvariga inom Länsstyrelsen hanterarrisker genom identifiering av kritiska incidenter utifrån Critical IncidentTechnique (CIT) baserad på intervjuer, samt att bidra till att öka den allmännakunskapen kring åtgärden.Resultatet visade att naturvårdsbränningsansvariga tar stor hänsyn till riskeroch arbetar kontinuerligt för att minimera dem. Dock identifierades treförbättringsområden inom riskhanteringsarbetet: säkerhet under bränningar,kommunikation under bränningar och kommunikation med samhället.Förbättringar inom dessa områden kan minimera risker under bränningar,minska oron i samhället och antalet falsklarm samt öka tryggheten igenomförandet för allmänheten och naturvårdsbränningspersonal vidnaturvårdsbränningar.

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    Riskhantering vid naturvårdsbränning
  • 22. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mácsik, Josef
    van der Nat, Dimitry
    Reducing Highway Runoff Pollution: sustainable design and maintenance of stormwater treatment facilities2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Management practices for handling highway runoff differ between the various European national road administrations. These differences manifest themselves in different approaches related to planning, construction and operation of runoff treatment facilities. For example, Sweden, Norway and Germany, use different standard guidelines when managing stormwater. Proprietors, owners, consultants and building contractors involved in design and construction of treatment facilities are accountable for meeting the requirements set by the national road administrations or by the national environmental authorities. With the aim of compiling current practice and knowledge of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) and the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) initiated the collaborative project “Reducing Highway Runoff Pollution” (REHIRUP). This project aims to provide a basis for design, operation and management of environmentally safe and cost-effective stormwater BMPs. Thereby, REHIRUP endeavours to contribute to the overall goal of improved pollutant retention efficiencies, enhanced degradation of organic pollutants, optimised multiple use of the land utilised for runoff management, and an overall better utilization of resources. One of the project objectives is to provide recommendations for maintenance of future BMPs such as settling ponds, subterranean stormwater storage facilities and filters, and thereby improve road runoff management in an environmentally and economically sustainable way. This report summarizes outcomes of two work packages (WPs) of the REHIRUP project, namely Maintenance (WP2) and Sustainable design (WP4).

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    Omslagsbild
  • 23.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agriculture.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agriculture / Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Axelsson, Robert
    County Administrative Board Västmanland.
    Bax, Gerhard
    Limited GIS skills hamper spatial planning for green infrastructures in Sweden2022Ingår i: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 80, nr 1, s. 16-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The term green infrastructure captures the need to conserve biodiversity and to sustain landscapes’ different ecosystem services. Maintaining green infrastructures through protected areas, management and landscape restoration requires knowledge in geography, spatial data about biophysical, anthropogenic and immaterial values, spatial comprehensive planning, and thus geographical information systems (GIS). To understand land use planning practices and planning education regarding GIS in Sweden we interviewed 43 planners and reviewed 20 planning education programmes. All planners used GIS to look at data but did not carry out spatial analyses of land covers. BSc programmes included more GIS than MSc programmes but very few taught analyses for spatial planning. As key spatial planning actors, municipalities’ barriers and bridges for improved GIS use for collaborative learning about green infrastructures are discussed. A concluding section presents examples of how GIS can support spatial planning for green infrastructures.

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    Limited-GIS-skills-hamper-spatial-planning
  • 24.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palme, Ulrika
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markanvändningens effekter på växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vatten2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten fokuserar på skötselmetoder inom skogsoch jordbruk och vilka effekter de får för växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vattenkvalitet/kvantitet. Skogen spelar en allt större roll i klimatarbetet för att minska atmosfärens halter av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid. För den fysiska samhällsplaneringen är det viktigt att kunna diskutera olika utfall för olika markanvändning, både i tid och rum. Rapporten visar genom en systemanalytisk ansats att: De flesta skötselmetoder kan möta målen för växthusgasminskning, minimera påverkan på biologisk mångfald och vattensäkerhet, med undantag för intensivskogsbruk. Rapporten kan användas som diskussionsunderlag när olika miljömål konkurrerar.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

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  • 26.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Fredriksson, Lena M
    Tidningen Utemiljö.
    Att värdera ekosystemtjänster2017Ingår i: Gröna Fakta från Utemiljö, ISSN 0284-9798, nr 8, s. I-VIIIArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ekosystemtjänster används allt oftare och värdet av ekosystemtjänsterna ska, enligt Naturvårdsverkets etappmål, vara allmänt kända och integrerade i olika ställningstaganden och beslut senast 2018. Här förklaras begreppet i korthet och några tips om hur det kan implementeras i kommuner ges. Därefter beskriver forskarna Yvonne Andersson-Sköld och Jenny Klingberg ett forskningsprojekt som de har deltagit i och vars resultat är en handbok om hur ekosystemtjänster kan värderas.

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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård, Sverige.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet, Sverige.
    Metod för bedömning och värdering av ekosystemtjänster i staden (VEKST): Handbok version 1.02018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2013–2016 genomfördes forskningsprojektet Värdering av ekosystemtjänster av urban grönska med syftet att kartlägga, synliggöra och värdera den urbana grönskan. Inom forskningsprojektet studerades bland annat hur ekosystemtjänsterna klimatreglering, förbättrad luftkvalitet, dagvattenhantering, bullerdämpning, rekreation och välbefinnande kan bedömas och värderas. Dessutom kartlades delar av den biologiska mångfalden (träd, buskar, örter, bin och fåglar). För att kunna bedöma och värdera de ekosystemtjänster som ingick i projektet utvecklades en stegvis metod. Metoden baseras på mätningar och inventeringar i sju fallstudieområden i Göteborg, intervjuer och enkätstudier samt relevant litteratur. I denna handbok presenteras metoden samt mallar som guidar användaren genom metodens fem steg. Handboken innehåller också exempel på hur metoden har använts. Viktigt att poängtera är att metoden som beskrivs i denna handbok inte är en slutprodukt utan en första version. I takt med ökad kunskap kan, och bör, metoden utvecklas, kompletteras och förbättras. Till exempel kan fler ekosystemtjänster bedömas och värderas. Metoden är utvecklad med tanken att den ska vara enkel att använda, systematisk och transparent i alla steg. Denna handbok vänder sig bland annat till stadsplanerare och konsulter som på uppdrag av planerare arbetar med beslutsstöd i planprocessen. Metoden kan användas för att bedöma inverkan av förändringar i stadsbilden, t ex vid förtätning, eller för att följa förändringar över tid.

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    fulltext
  • 28.
    Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikel-id e0146053Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  • 29.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991Ingår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, s. 233-241Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 30.
    Asghari, M.
    et al.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Noaparast, M.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Shafaie, S. Z.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghassa, S.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.
    Recovery of coal particles from a tailing dam for environmental protection and economical beneficiations2018Ingår i: International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, ISSN 2095-8293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable amounts of coal particles are accumulated in the tailing dams of washing plants which can make serious environmental problems. Recovery of these particles from tailings has economically and environmentally several advantages. Maintaining natural resources and reducing discharges to the dams are the most important ones. This study was examined the possibility to recover coal particles from a tailing dam with 56.29% ash content by using series of processing techniques. For this purpose, gravity separation (jig, shaking table and spiral) and flotation tests were conducted to upgrade products. Based the optimum value of these processing methods, a flowsheet was designed to increase the rate of recovery for a wide range of coal particles. Results indicated that the designed circuit can recover over 90% of value coal particles and reduce ash content of product to less than 14%. These results can potentially be used for designing an industrial operation as a recycling plant and an appropriate instance for other areas to reduce the environmental issues of coal tailing dams.

  • 31. Askjær, Thomas Gravgaard
    et al.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Schenk, Frederik
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS). Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden.
    Lu, Zhengyao
    Brierley, Chris M.
    Hopcroft, Peter O.
    Jungclaus, Johann
    Shi, Xiaoxu
    Lohmann, Gerrit
    Sun, Weiyi
    Liu, Jian
    Braconnot, Pascale
    Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.
    Wu, Zhipeng
    Yin, Qiuzhen
    Kang, Yibo
    Yang, Haijun
    Multi-centennial Holocene climate variability in proxy records and transient model simulations2022Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 296, artikel-id 107801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability on centennial to multi-centennial timescales is mentioned as a feature in reconstructions of the Holocene climate. As more long transient model simulations with complex climate models become available and efforts have been made to compile large proxy databases, there is now a unique oppor-tunity to study multi-centennial variability with greater detail and a large amount of data than earlier. This paper presents a spectral analysis of transient Holocene simulations from 9 models and 120 proxy records to find the common signals related to oscillation periods and geographic dependencies and discuss the implications for the potential driving mechanisms. Multi-centennial variability is significant in most proxy records, with the dominant oscillation periods around 120-130 years and an average of 240 years. Spectra of model-based global mean temperature (GMT) agree well with proxy evidence with significant multi-centennial variability in all simulations with the dominant oscillation periods around 120-150 years. It indicates a comparatively good agreement between model and proxy data. A lack of latitudinal dependencies in terms of oscillation period is found in both the model and proxy data. However, all model simulations have the highest spectral density distributed over the Northern hemi-sphere high latitudes, which could indicate a particular variability sensitivity or potential driving mechanisms in this region. Five models also have differentiated forcings simulations with various combinations of forcing agents. Significant multi-centennial variability with oscillation periods between 100 and 200 years is found in all forcing scenarios, including those with only orbital forcing. The different forcings induce some variability in the system. Yet, none appear to be the predominant driver based on the spectral analysis. Solar irradiance has long been hypothesized to be a primary driver of multi -centennial variability. However, all the simulations without this forcing have shown significant multi -centennial variability. The results then indicate that internal mechanisms operate on multi-centennial timescales, and the North Atlantic-Arctic is a region of interest for this aspect.

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  • 32.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991Ingår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, s. 474-483Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 33.
    Axelsson, Jesper
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jämförelse av trädartsrikedom och diversitet inom tätortsområden och naturskogsområden i Dalsland2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mänskliga aktiviteter som till exempel urbanisering, har bidragit till förlusten av biologisk mångfald. En metod som man har föreslagit är att introducera gröna områden och plantera träd i stadsområden. Hypoteserna som testades i den här studien är att det finns en signifikant skillnad i trädartrikedom och trädartsdiversitet mellan tätorter och omgivande naturskogar i centrala Sverige; och att artrikedomen och diversiteten varierar mellan olika habitat i tätorterna. Studien utfördes inom fyra kommuner i Dalsland: Bengtsfors, Åmål, Dals-Ed och Mellerud. Man inventerade träd i fem olika habitater per kommun inom ett tätortsområde, samt ett naturskogsområde som ligger nära orten. Antalet trädarter och individuella träd beräknades och diversiteten inom varje kommun beräknades med hjälp av Shannon-Weavers diversitetsindex för det senare fallet. En signifikant skillnad i trädartrikedom och trädartsdiversitet uppmättes mellan ett tätortsområde och ett naturskogsområde (medianvärde på 10 respektive 3,5). Trädartrikedomen var högst i Bengtsfors med 13 olika trädarter och trädartdiversiteten var högst i Dals-Eds kommun (H’ = 1,22). En signifikant skillnad i trädartrikedom hittades, men inte i trädartsdiversitet. I tätorterna hade vattendrag det högsta medelvärdet i trädartrikedom tillsammans med förskolor med 4 trädarter. Den tidigare har också det högsta medelvärdet i trädartsdiversitet (H’ = 1,07). Resultaten stämde överens med den första hypotesen, men inte med den andra hypotesen. Sammanfattningsvis, är det välgörande att bibehålla och återställa gröna områden och träd i tätorter, och att det krävs mer forskning, för att föreslå strategier om att skydda biologisk mångfald och städerna från klimatförändringar och andra faror.

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  • 34. Bager, S. L
    et al.
    Dinesh, D
    Olesen, A.S
    Andersen, S.P
    Eriksen, S.L
    Friis, A
    Scaling-Up Climate Action in Agriculture: Identifying Successes and Overcoming Challenges2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing food production in the face of a growing population, while adapting to and mitigating climate change constitutes a main challenge for the global agricultural sector. This study identifies, analyses and contextualizes regional initiatives related to agriculture and climate change in developing countries. In order to identify needs for improvements and possibilities for replication or scale-up, a review of recently launched initiatives is combined with a SWOT analysis. Moreover, the study places initiatives in the context of INDCs of Sub-Saharan African countries submitted under the UNFCCC. As a result, recommendations on how to develop and implement best practice agriculture climate change initiatives are presented.

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  • 35.
    Balasubramanya, Abhijith Nag
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Shaafiu, Fathimath Zainy
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Empowering Smallholder Farmers to Achieve Food Sovereignty Through Soil-Less Agriculture2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the question of how soil-less agriculture through hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics can empower smallholder farmers to achieve food sovereignty as portrayed in documentaries. It addresses the power imbalance between large corporations and smallholder farmers in the traditional agriculture industry. Documentary research approach is used to understand the various applications and research aspects of soil-less agriculture from around the world. Real-life examples from different countries where these methods have been successfully implemented in the agriculture industry, ranging from large industrial settings to smallholder farmers in disadvantaged communities, are analyzed. Further, content analysis is done on these documents by constructing a matrix that combines the process of empowerment and the six pillars of food sovereignty to analyze the different forms of empowerment. The study also investigates how the use of soil-less agriculture can build capabilities through enhanced “well-being freedom” and “agency freedom” and empower smallholder farmers to achieve food sovereignty.

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  • 36.
    Ballester, Jordi
    et al.
    Université de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, Dijon, France.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    Université de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, Dijon, France.
    Peyron, Dominique
    Université de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, Dijon, France.
    Valentin, Dominique
    Université de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, Dijon, France.
    Exploring minerality of Burgundy Chardonnay wines: A sensory approach with wine experts and trained panellists2013Ingår i: Australian journal of grape and wine research, ISSN 1322-7130, E-ISSN 1755-0238, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 140-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: The use of minerality as a wine descriptor has increased in the last few years. Minerality always suggests high quality and evokes a link between wine and the soil. The sensory meaning of minerality, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study was designed to understand how wine experts conceptualise minerality and to explore whether they can judge wine minerality in a consensual way.

    Methods and Results: Experts carried out an orthonasal free sorting task on 16 Chardonnay wines. Afterwards, they rated their mineral character according to two conditions: orthonasally and on the palate while wearing a nose-clip. The experts also answered a questionnaire in which they defined minerality. A trained panel independently performed a sensory description of the samples. The wine experts showed strong disagreement in their minerality judgements under both conditions. Three groups of experts emerged for each condition. Each group considered as mineral wines with quite different sensory characteristics which prevents any generalisation concerning the sensory meaning of minerality. Surprisingly, definitions of minerality by the experts showed some commonality despite the use of idiosyncratic terms.

    Conclusions: Minerality is an ill-defined sensory concept, despite the apparent consistency emerging from verbal definitions by the experts.

    Significance of the Study: Minerality is nowadays a popular term in wine marketing. Some attempts to understand its chemical origin have been made; however, this study has shown that a sensory definition of minerality should first be developed.

  • 37.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    History and local management of a biodiversity-rich, urban cultural landscape2005Ingår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the coevolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces. Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

  • 38.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vis, Ben
    University of Kent, UK.
    Drescher, Axel
    University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.
    Evans, Dan
    Lancaster University, UK.
    van Timmeren, Arjan
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    Global urbanization and food production in direct competition for land: Leverage places to mitigate impacts on SDG2 and on the Earth System2019Ingår i: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, s. 71-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization and food production are in direct competition for land. This paper carries outa critical review of how displacing crop production from urban and peri-urban land to other areas– because of issues related to soil quality – will demand a substantially larger proportion of theEarth’s terrestrial land surface than the surface area lost to urban encroachment. Such relationshipsmay trigger further distancing effects and unfair social-ecological teleconnections. It risks also settingin motion amplifying effects within the Earth System. In combination, such multiple stressors set thescene for food riots in cities of the Global South. Our review identifies viable leverage points on whichto act in order to navigate urban expansion away from fertile croplands. We first elaborate on thepolitical complexities in declaring urban and peri-urban lands with fertile soils as one global commons.We find that the combination of an advisory global policy aligned with regional policies enablingrobust common properties rights for bottom-up actors and movements in urban and peri-urbanagriculture (UPA) as multi-level leverage places to intervene. To substantiate the ability of aligningglobal advisory policy with regional planning, we review both past and contemporary examples whereempowering local social-ecological UPA practices and circular economies have had a stimulatingeffect on urban resilience and helped preserve, restore, and maintain urban lands with healthy soils.

  • 39. Baskaran, Preetisri
    et al.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Soucémarianadin, Laure N.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik. CNRS, Laboratoire de Géologie de l’ENS, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Lindahl, Björn D.
    Nitrogen dynamics of decomposing Scots pine needle litter depends on colonizing fungal species2019Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 95, nr 6, artikel-id fiz059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal ecosystems plant production is often limited by low availability of nitrogen. Nitrogen retention in below-ground organic pools plays an important role in restricting recirculation to plants and thereby hampers forest production. Saprotrophic fungi are commonly assigned to different decomposer strategies, but how these relate to nitrogen cycling remains to be understood. Decomposition of Scots pine needle litter was studied in axenic microcosms with the ligninolytic litter decomposing basidiomycete Gymnopus androsaceus or the stress tolerant ascomycete Chalara longipes. Changes in chemical composition were followed by C-13 CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy and nitrogen dynamics was assessed by the addition of a N-15 tracer. Decomposition by C. longipes resulted in nitrogen retention in non-hydrolysable organic matter, enriched in aromatic and alkylic compounds, whereas the ligninolytic G. androsaceus was able to access this pool, counteracting nitrogen retention. Our observations suggest that differences in decomposing strategies between fungal species play an important role in regulating nitrogen retention and release during litter decomposition, implying that fungal community composition may impact nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem level.

  • 40.
    Bassler,, Arnd
    et al.
    BLE, Germany.
    Abu Hatab, Assem
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zebeli, Quendrim
    University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.
    Deliverable of Work Package 7: Common Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energisystemanalys.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, nr 12, s. 7896-7906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 42.
    Beffa, Giorgia
    et al.
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Gobet, Erika
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Hächler, Luc
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Isola, Ilaria
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy.
    Morlock, Marina A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Sadori, Laura
    Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Schläfli, Patrick
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rey, Fabian
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.
    van Vugt, Lieveke
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Zander, Paul D
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland; Climate Geochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany.
    Zanchetta, Giovanni
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, University of Pisa, Italy.
    Grosjean, Martin
    Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Tinner, Willy
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    A novel, continuous high-resolution palaeoecological record from central Italy suggests comparable land-use dynamics in Southern and Central Europe during the Neolithic2024Ingår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although rare, temporally and taxonomically highly-resolved palaeoecological studies with high chronological precision are essential to perform detailed comparisons with precisely dated independent evidence such as archaeological findings, historical events, or palaeoclimatic data. Using a new highly-resolved and chronologically precise sedimentary record from Lago di Mezzano (central Italy), we reconstruct decadal-scale vegetation, species diversity, and fire dynamics, aiming to better understand the linkages between climate, land use, fire, and plant communities from the Neolithic to the Copper Age (c. 5100–3100 cal. BC). Closed, mixed beech-oak forests, including evergreen Quercus ilex, dominated the landscape around Lago di Mezzano during the Neolithic and were disturbed by repeated opening phases, with important implications for lake biogeochemistry and mixing regimes. This was in conjunction with increasing fire activity to promote agro-pastoral practices, as inferred from increasing charcoal, Cerealia type, Triticum type, Hordeum type, Plantago lanceolata type, and Urtica pollen. Fires, on their turn, augmented species diversity (richness and evenness). The comparison of the Mediterranean record from Lago di Mezzano with available continuous and high-precision submediterranean and cool-temperate palynological sequences suggests comparable land use pulses across Southern and Central European regions, most likely in connection with climate change. The outcomes of this study are not only of palaeoecological and archaeological interest; they may also help to improve projections of ecosystem dynamics under future global change.

  • 43.
    Behramaj, Ermira
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US). Malmö universitet.
    Vegetation, arkitektur och människan i den urbana miljön.: Påverkar de varandra?2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städerna växer och allt fler strukturer av olika material byggs upp, och med detta minskar de gröna ytor som finns. Träd huggs ned och olika växter dras ut med rötterna och ersätts av metall, betong, lera m.m. De ytor som en gång varit gröna och fulla av liv blir allt mer gråa och livlösa. Människan skapar större städer, med höga och stora byggnader som ersätter den vegetation som en gång legat på platsen. Den fråga som då uppstår är: Hur kan vi fortsätta bygga strukturer, men samtidigt inte minska på de gröna ytor som finns? Ett alternativ kan vara att integrera grönska och vegetation på byggnadernas fasader, terrasser och tak, samtidigt skapa ytor på olika nivåer som ersätter den mark som finns under byggnaderna.

    Samtidigt är det viktigt att fundera över den påverkan som grönska har på oss människor och arkitekturen som den vistas bland. I Sverige, som i många andra delar av världen, väljer en stor mängd människor att vistas bland vegetation/grönska eller tycker om att ta hand om sin trädgård och befinna sig i den. Bland vackra och väldoftande blommor och växter. Därför är syftet med arbetet att både fundera över hur man kan integrera grönska i arkitekturen, men även undersöka vilken påverkan denna integrering kan komma att ha på människans psykiska och fysiska välmående.

    Resultatet av den studie som utförts visar en positiv inverkan av integration av grönska på arkitektur, men att mängden spelar en stor roll för de som besvarade enkätens frågor. Likaså visar experternas påståenden att detta stämmer in på det arbete de tidigare utfört och/eller det arbete de strävar efter. Dessutom kan resultatet av dessa stärkas med hjälp av den teoretiska bakgrund som stödjer studien, där ett flertal forskare för diskussionen vidare i sin forskning och belyser vikten av att utföra fler studier av denna sort för att säkerställa vikten av ämnet i fråga. Integreringen av grönska på terrasser, fasader och tak blir allt mer aktuellt, även här i Sverige, och med denna studie hoppas den studieansvariga att frågan tas upp ännu mer och vidare forskas inom den nordiska, eller mer specifikt den svenska sektorn.

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  • 44.
    Belfrage, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Salomonsson, Lennart
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of farm size and on-farm landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity-case study of twelve farms in a swedish landscape2015Ingår i: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 170-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study in Sweden, six small (<50 ha) and six large farms (>135 ha) participated. The aims of the study were to a) measure differences between small and large farms regarding on-farm landscape heterogeneity, and b) evaluate relations between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity, measured as numbers of breeding bird species, bird territories, butterflies, bumblebees, and herbaceous plant species. Sample area of the same size, placed on each farm, was used for the biodiversity assessments and on-farm landscape heterogeneity studies. On-farm landscape heterogeneity was classified with the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Linear regression was applied to analyze relationships between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and biodiversity indicators. Multivariate regression was used to analyze relations between single bird species and specific on-farm habitats. Small farms had significantly higher on-farm landscape heterogeneity than large farms. Strong positive relations between on-farm landscape heterogeneity and number of breeding birds, butterflies, and herbaceous plant species were found. Total on-farm landscape heterogeneity seems to be more important for bird diversity than do specific landscape elements. The study indicates that, to increase biodiversity, farm size should be taken into consideration.

  • 45.
    Bengtsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Märgelgravar i Åstorps kommun: Förändringar i förekomst över tid och lokalisering i landskapet2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Märgelgravar är småbiotoper i odlingslandskapet som ofta hyser höga naturvärden och är viktiga för bevarandet av den biologiska mångfalden i slättlandskapet. De utgör också synliga kulturlämningar från 1800 - talets jordbruk och den agrara utveckling som skedde då. Märgelgravarna är idag skyddade som generella biotopskyddsområden. Biotopskyddsområdena bidrar till att uppfylla de svenska miljökvalitetsmålen samt FN - konventionen om biologisk mångfald. Märglingen var som mest omfattande mellan cirka 1850 fram till 1890 i södra Sveriges slättbygd. Märgeln användes som jordförbättringsmedel och grävdes upp där det fanns kalkhaltig lera. Där den bröts bildades bestående gravar som ofta vattenfylldes. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga hur många märgelgravar som försvunnit i Åstorps kommun, var de ursprungligen placerades och vad som kännetecknar de som finns kvar idag. Undersökningen grundas på kartmateriel från ca. 1930, ca. 1970 och 2015 som bearbetats och analyserats i ett GIS - program. Resultaten visar att endast 23% av märgelgravarna finns kvar 2015 jämfört med 1930 och att de ursprungligen grävdes i lerjordar nära bebyggelse, men att de som finns kvar idag i högre utsträckning ligger längre ifrån bebyggelse och till större del i sluttningar. Borttagandet av märgelgravarna tros bero på de omfattande rationaliseringar som jordbruket genomgick speciellt efter andra världskriget, då de sågs som odlingshinder eller som lämpliga platser att dumpa sopor och rivningsmateriel i. 

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  • 46. Berg, Anna
    et al.
    Östlund, Lars
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    A century of logging and forestry in a reindeer herding area in northern Sweden2008Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 256, s. 1009-1020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forest ecosystems are generally highly sensitive to logging and other forestry activities. Thus, commercial forestry has had major effects on the forests and landscape structure in northern Sweden since the middle of the 19th Century, when it rapidly extended across the region. Lichens (which constitute up to 80% of reindeer forage in winter and early spring) have often been amongst the most severely affected ecosystem components. The overall aim of the present study was to analyze how forestry has influenced the potential supply of ground-growing lichens as winter forage for the reindeer in this region over the past ca. 100 years. For this purpose, we analysed changes in forest and stand structure in Scots pine-dominated (Pinus sylvestris L.) reindeer wintering areas in the southern part of the county Norrbotten (covering ca. 58,000 ha) using detailed historical forest inventories and management plans. We found that the amount of the forest types considered potentially good pasture (mainly middleaged and old pine forests) decreased during the first part of the 20th Century. However, the quality of grazing grounds was improved by forestry during this time mainly because selective logging made the forests more open which benefits lichen growth. During the last part of the 20th century forestry impaired the quality of grazing grounds in several ways, e.g. by clear-cutting and intensified use of various silviculturalmeasures. We conclude that ca. 30–50% of the winter grazing grounds have been lost in the study area because of intensive forest management during the last century. The spatially precise historical information about the affects of forestry on lichen pasture provided in this study can be used to direct forest management which will facilitate and promote reindeer herding in the future.

  • 47.
    Berger, Casper
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US).
    Goos, Damay
    Malmö universitet, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle (KS), Institutionen för Urbana Studier (US).
    Farm to Future: Stakeholder Roles and Institutional Barriers in the Integration of Urban Agriculture into Smart Cities in the Netherlands2024Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the integration of urban agriculture into smart cities in the Netherlands, with an emphasis on stakeholder roles and the institutional environment. The study investigates the complex interaction between local governments, businesses, academic institutions, community groups, and residents using the theoretical frameworks of Scott's institutional theory, stakeholder salience theory, and Moore's business ecosystem theory. The study uses semi-structured interviews with important stakeholders to identify each group's power, legitimacy, and urgency, as well as to investigate their relationships and collaboration. Key findings show that local governments play an important role in regulatory support, land use facilitation, and financial incentives, whereas businesses promote technological innovation and economic viability. Academic institutions make significant contributions to research and technological developments, while community groups promote social sustainability and local participation. Residents, as end users, affect urban agriculture by their engagement and demand. Institutional barriers such as regulatory hurdles, financial constraints, and cultural resistance hinder the integration of urban agriculture. Supportive policies, financial incentives, community engagement, and educational initiatives have been stated as crucial facilitators. To address these barriers, the study underlines the importance of streamlining regulatory processes, developing comprehensive food strategies, and increasing public awareness. Urban agriculture can be successfully integrated into smart city frameworks by leveraging the collaborative potential of varying stakeholders and building a supportive institutional environment. This integration fosters sustainable urban development, improves community well-being, and addresses food security, environmental management, and social cohesion issues. The study offers practical recommendations for policymakers and practitioners to build resilient, innovative, and inclusive urban ecosystems, adding valuable insights to the field of sustainable urban development.

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  • 48.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, s. 10-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 49. Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Axenborg, Anders
    Wahlman, Henrik
    Trafikbuller i värdefulla naturmiljöer: metodbeskrivning2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägtrafikbuller påverkar både människor och vilda djur negativt. Buller upplevs störande, och leder till stress och ohälsa. Hittills har Trafikverket hanterat detta problem främst i bebyggd miljö. Men även i naturmiljöer är buller en allvarlig störningsfaktor, som för människor leder till minskade upplevelsevärden och försämrad rekreation, och för många djur kan ha drastiska effekter såsom ökad dödlighet och försämrad reproduktion. I detta dokument redovisas en metodik för att identifiera värdefulla naturområden där det kan finnas störningskänsliga fågelarter. Metodiken identifierar också konfliktpunkter mellan dessa områden och trafikbuller. Metoden genererar ett nationellt planeringsunderlag som kan utnyttjas på flera sätt inom Trafikverket.

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  • 50.
    Berkes, F.
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Natural Resources Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resources Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as adaptive management2000Ingår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 1251-1262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous groups offer alternative knowledge and perspectives based on their own locally developed practices of resource use. We surveyed the international literature to focus on the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in monitoring, responding to, and managing ecosystem processes and functions, with special attention to ecological resilience. Case studies revealed that there exists a diversity of local or traditional practices for ecosystem management. These include multiple species management, resource rotation, succession management, landscape patchiness management, and other ways of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. Social mechanisms behind these traditional practices include a number of adaptations for the generation, accumulation, and transmission of knowledge; the use of local institutions to provide leaders/stewards and rules for social regulation; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and the development of appropriate world views and cultural values. Some traditional knowledge and management systems were characterized by the use of local ecological knowledge to interpret and respond to feedbacks from the environment to guide the direction of resource management. These traditional systems had certain similarities to adaptive management with its emphasis on feedback learning, and its treatment of uncertainty and unpredictability intrinsic to all ecosystems.

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