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  • 1.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk bakteriologi. Benghazi Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med Microbiol & Parasitol, Benghazi, Libya..
    Svensson, Erik
    Statens Serum Inst, Int Reference Lab Mycobacteriol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk virologi.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Duplex detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and medically important non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene2016Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, nr 11, s. 991-995Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other nonrespiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). There were only nine samples with non-tuberculous mycobacteria detected by culture. Six of them were detected by the PCR assay.

  • 2.
    Abdillahi, Suado M.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Infect Med, Dept Clin Sci, Tornavagen 10, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Maass, Tobias
    Univ Cologne, Fac Med, Ctr Biochem, Ctr Mol Med Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany.
    Kasetty, Gopinath
    Lund Univ, Div Resp Med & Allergol, Dept Clin Sci, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Strömstedt, Adam A.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Farmakognosi.
    Baumgarten, Maria
    Lund Univ, Div Infect Med, Dept Clin Sci, Tornavagen 10, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Tati, Ramesh
    Lund Univ, Div Infect Med, Dept Clin Sci, Tornavagen 10, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Nordin, Sara L.
    Lund Univ, Div Infect Med, Dept Clin Sci, Tornavagen 10, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.
    Walse, Björn
    Sarom Biostruct AB, S-22363 Lund, Sweden.
    Wagener, Raimund
    Univ Cologne, Fac Med, Ctr Biochem, Ctr Mol Med Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany.
    Schmidtchen, Artur
    Lund Univ, Div Dermatol & Venereol, Dept Clin Sci, S-22184 Lund, Sweden;Univ Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Biomed Sci, Copenhagen Wound Healing Ctr, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mörgelin, Matthias
    Lund Univ, Div Infect Med, Dept Clin Sci, Tornavagen 10, S-22184 Lund, Sweden;Colzyx AB, S-22381 Lund, Sweden.
    Collagen VI Contains Multiple Host Defense Peptides with Potent In Vivo Activity2018Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 201, nr 3, s. 1007-1020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collagen VI is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix component that forms extensive microfibrillar networks in most connective tissues. In this study, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge, that the collagen VI von Willebrand factor type A like domains exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in human skin infections in vivo. In silico sequence and structural analysis of VWA domains revealed that they contain cationic and amphipathic peptide sequence motifs, which might explain the antimicrobial nature of collagen VI. In vitro and in vivo studies show that these peptides exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through membrane disruption. Our findings shed new light on the role of collagen VI derived peptides in innate host defense and provide templates for development of peptide-based antibacterial therapies.

  • 3.
    Abdulla, Maysaa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Cancerimmunterapi.
    Sundström, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Cancerimmunterapi.
    Lindskog, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Cancerprecisionsmedicin.
    Hollander, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Cancerimmunterapi.
    Expression of IDO1 and PD-L2 in Patients with Benign Lymphadenopathies and Association with Autoimmune Diseases2023Ingår i: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 13, nr 2, artikel-id 240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression patterns of IDO1 and PD-L2 have not been thoroughly investigated in benign lymphadenopathies. The aim with this study was to elucidate how IDO1 and PD-L2 are expressed in benign lymphadenopathies in patients with autoimmune diseases (AD) compared to patients without AD. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 22 patients with AD and 57 patients without AD were immunohistochemically stained to detect IDO1 and PD-L2. The material was previously stained with EBER in situ hybridization to detect cells harboring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). IDO1 and PD-L2 were generally expressed by leukocytes to low degrees, while follicular IDO1+ cells were very rare. IDO1+ cells in single germinal centers were detected in five patients, and there was a high co-occurrence of follicular EBV+ cells in these cases (three of five patients). There were also significant correlations between interfollicular EBV+ cells and interfollicular IDO1+ cells (Spearman rho = 0.32, p = 0.004) and follicular IDO1+ cells (Spearman rho = 0.34, p = 0.004). High or low amounts of IDO1+ or PD-L2+ cells were not statistically significantly associated with patients with AD. However, the lymphadenopathy with the highest amount of interfollicular IDO1+ cells, which was also the only lymphadenopathy in which endothelial cells expressed IDO1, was in a patient with sarcoidosis. This study further supports that the EBV induces the expression of IDO1 and our findings should be recognized by future studies on IDO1 and PD-L2 in inflammatory and malignant conditions.

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  • 4.
    Abdurahman, Samir
    et al.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine F68, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barqasho, Babilonia
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nowak, Piotr
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cuong, Do Duy
    Infectious Diseases Department, Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam .
    Amogné, Wondwossen
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia .
    Larsson, Mattias
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Oxford University Clinical Research Unit (OUCRU), Hanoi, Viet Nam .
    Lindquist, Lars
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Marrone, Gaetano
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sönnerborg, Anders
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine F68, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden2014Ingår i: Journal of the International AIDS Society, E-ISSN 1758-2652, Vol. 17, s. 18841-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    RESULTS: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome.

  • 5.
    Abedi, Mohammad R.
    et al.
    Region Örebro län. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Transfusion Medicine.
    Doverud, Ann-Charlotte
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Transfusion Medicine, Örebro University Hospital. Örebro, Sweden.
    Preparation and Pathogen Inactivation of Double Dose Buffy Coat Platelet Products using the INTERCEPT Blood System2012Ingår i: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, nr 70, artikel-id UNSP e4414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood centers are faced with many challenges including maximizing production yield from the blood product donations they receive as well as ensuring the highest possible level of safety for transfusion patients, including protection from transfusion transmitted diseases. This must be accomplished in a fiscally responsible manner which minimizes operating expenses including consumables, equipment, waste, and personnel costs, among others.

    Several methods are available to produce platelet concentrates for transfusion. One of the most common is the buffy coat method in which a single therapeutic platelet unit (>= 2.0 x10(11) platelets per unit or per local regulations) is prepared by pooling the buffy coat layer from up to six whole blood donations. A procedure for producing "double dose" whole blood derived platelets has only recently been developed.

    Presented here is a novel method for preparing double dose whole blood derived platelet concentrates from pools of 7 buffy coats and subsequently treating the double dose units with the INTERCEPT Blood System for pathogen inactivation. INTERCEPT was developed to inactivate viruses, bacteria, parasites, and contaminating donor white cells which may be present in donated blood. Pairing INTERCEPT with the double dose buffy coat method by utilizing the INTERCEPT Processing Set with Dual Storage Containers (the "DS set"), allows blood centers to treat each of their double dose units in a single pathogen inactivation processing set, thereby maximizing patient safety while minimizing costs. The double dose buffy coat method requires fewer buffy coats and reduces the use of consumables by up to 50% (e.g. pooling sets, filter sets, platelet additive solution, and sterile connection wafers) compared to preparation and treatment of single dose buffy coat platelet units. Other cost savings include less waste, less equipment maintenance, lower power requirements, reduced personnel time, and lower collection cost compared to the apheresis technique.

  • 6.
    Abelius, Martina S
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Janefjord, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Berg, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping. Helsingborg Hospital, Helsingborg.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Nilsson, Lennart J
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Allergicentrum US.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The Placental Immune Milieu is Characterized by a Th2- and Anti-Inflammatory Transcription Profile, Regardless of Maternal Allergy, and Associates with Neonatal Immunity2015Ingår i: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 73, nr 5, s. 445-459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: How maternal allergy affects the systemic and local immunological environment during pregnancy and the immune development of the offspring is unclear.

    METHOD OF STUDY: Expression of 40 genes was quantified by PCR arrays in placenta, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) from 7 allergic and 12 non-allergic women and their offspring.

    RESULTS: Placental gene expression was dominated by a Th2-/anti-inflammatory profile, irrespectively of maternal allergy, as compared to gene expression in PBMC. p35 expression in placenta correlated with fetal Tbx21 (ρ = -0.88, P < 0.001) and IL-5 expression in PBMC with fetal galectin1 (ρ = 0.91, P < 0.001). Increased expression of Th2-associated CCL22 in CBMC preceded allergy development.

    CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression locally and systemically during pregnancy was partly associated with the offspring's gene expression, possibly indicating that the immunological milieu is important for fetal immune development. Maternal allergy was not associated with an enhanced Th2 immunity in placenta or PBMC, while a marked prenatal Th2 skewing, shown as increased CCL22 mRNA expression, might contribute to postnatal allergy development.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 7.
    Abolhassani, Hassan
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Delavari, Samaneh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Landegren, Nils
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shokri, Sima
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Hazrat e Rasool Gen Hosp, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, Tehran, Iran..
    Bastard, Paul
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Du, Likun
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zuo, Fanglei
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hajebi, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Gen Surg, Sch Med, Sina Hosp, Tehran, Iran..
    Abolnezhadian, Farhad
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Dept Pediat, Abuzar Childrens Hosp, Ahvaz, Iran..
    Iranparast, Sara
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Fac Med Sci, Dept Immunol, Ahvaz, Iran..
    Modaresi, Mohammadreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Childrens Med Ctr, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Div Pediat Pulm Dis, Tehran, Iran..
    Vosughimotlagh, Ahmad
    North Khorasan Univ Med Sci, Dept Pediat, Bojnurd, Iran..
    Salami, Fereshte
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Aranda-Guillen, Maribel
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cobat, Aurelie
    Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Marcotte, Harold
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Shen-Ying
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Zhang, Qian
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Paris, France..
    Rezaei, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Casanova, Jean-Laurent
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France.;Howard Hughes Med Inst, New York, NY USA..
    Kämpe, Olle
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Lennart
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pan-Hammarström, Qiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Genetic and immunologic evaluation of children with inborn errors of immunity and severe or critical COVID-192022Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 150, nr 5, s. 1059-1073Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals are asymptomatic or only exhibit mild disease. In about 10% of cases, the infection leads to hypoxemic pneumonia, although it is much more rare in children. Objective: We evaluated 31 young patients aged 0.5 to 19 years who had preexisting inborn errors of immunity (IEI) but lacked a molecular diagnosis and were later diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications. Methods: Genetic evaluation by whole-exome sequencing was performed in all patients. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, autoantibodies against type I IFN (IFN-I), and inflammatory factors in plasma were measured. We also reviewed COVID-19 disease severity/outcome in reported IEI patients. Results: A potential genetic cause of the IEI was identified in 28 patients (90.3%), including mutations that may affect IFN signaling, T- and B-cell function, the inflammasome, and the complement system. From tested patients 65.5% had detectable virus-specific antibodies, and 6.8% had autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-I. Five patients (16.1%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Eleven patients (35.4%) died of COVID-19 complications. All together, at least 381 IEI children with COVID-19 have been reported in the literature to date. Although many patients with asymptomatic or mild disease may not have been reported, severe presentation of COVID-19 was observed in 23.6% of the published cases, and the mortality rate was 8.7%. Conclusions: Young patients with preexisting IEI may have higher mortality than children without IEI when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Elucidating the genetic basis of IEI patients with severe/critical COVID-19 may help to develop better strategies for prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19 disease and complications in pediatric patients.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Abolhassani, Hassan
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Landegren, Nils
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bastard, Paul
    Rockefeller Univ, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Rockefeller Branch, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Materna, Marie
    Necker Hosp Sick Children, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Modaresi, Mohammadreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Childrens Med Ctr, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Div Pediat Pulm Dis, Tehran, Iran..
    Du, Likun
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge Stockholm, Sweden..
    Aranda-Guillen, Maribel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Sardh, Fabian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zuo, Fanglei
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Peng
    Rockefeller Univ, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Rockefeller Branch, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Marcotte, Harold
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Immunol, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marr, Nico
    Sidra Med, Dept Human Immunol, Doha, Qatar.;Hamad Bin Khalifa Univ, Coll Hlth & Life Sci, Doha, Qatar..
    Khan, Taushif
    Sidra Med, Dept Human Immunol, Doha, Qatar..
    Ata, Manar
    Sidra Med, Dept Human Immunol, Doha, Qatar..
    Al-Ali, Fatima
    Sidra Med, Dept Human Immunol, Doha, Qatar..
    Pescarmona, Remi
    Univ Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard, Ctr Int Rech Infectiol,ENS Lyon, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Inserm,U1111,UMR5308,Lyon 1, Lyon, France.;Hosp Civils Lyon, Ctr Hosp Lyon Sud, Lab Immunol, Pierre Benite, France..
    Belot, Alexandre
    Univ Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard, Ctr Int Rech Infectiol,ENS Lyon, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Inserm,U1111,UMR5308,Lyon 1, Lyon, France.;Hosp Civils Lyon, Mere Enfant, Hop Femme, Paediat Nephrol Rheumatol Dermatol, Bron, France.;Natl Reference Ctr Rheumat & Autoimmune & Syst Di, Lyon, France..
    Beziat, Vivien
    Necker Hosp Sick Children, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Zhang, Qian
    Rockefeller Univ, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Rockefeller Branch, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Paris, France..
    Casanova, Jean-Laurent
    Rockefeller Univ, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Rockefeller Branch, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France.;Howard Hughes Med Inst, New York, NY USA..
    Kämpe, Olle
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Shen-Ying
    Rockefeller Univ, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Rockefeller Branch, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Inst Natl Sante & Rech Med U1163, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France..
    Hammarström, Lennart
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pan-Hammarström, Qiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge Stockholm, Sweden..
    Inherited IFNAR1 Deficiency in a Child with Both Critical COVID-19 Pneumonia and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome2022Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0271-9142, E-ISSN 1573-2592, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 471-483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) and autoantibodies to type I interferons (IFNs) underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 15% of the patients, while the causes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) remain elusive. Objectives To detect causal genetic variants in very rare cases with concomitant critical COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C. Methods Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impact of candidate gene variants was investigated. Plasma levels of cytokines, specific antibodies against the virus, and autoantibodies against type I IFNs were also measured. Results We report a 3-year-old child who died on day 56 of SARS-CoV-2 infection with an unusual clinical presentation, combining both critical COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C. We identified a large, homozygous loss-of-function deletion in IFNAR1, underlying autosomal recessive IFNAR1 deficiency. Conclusions Our findings confirm that impaired type I IFN immunity can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia, while suggesting that it can also unexpectedly underlie concomitant MIS-C. Our report further raises the possibility that inherited or acquired dysregulation of type I IFN immunity might contribute to MIS-C in other patients.

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  • 9.
    Abolhassani, Hassan
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Vosughimotlagh, Ahmad
    North Khorasan Univ Med Sci, Dept Pediat, Bojnurd, Iran.
    Asano, Takaki
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.
    Landegren, Nils
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Autoimmunitet. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk diabetologi och metabolism. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boisson, Bertrand
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, INSERM U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France.
    Delavari, Samaneh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Bastard, Paul
    Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, INSERM U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France.
    Aranda-Guillen, Maribel
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Yating
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Zuo, Fanglei
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sardh, Fabian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marcotte, Harold
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ, Hosp Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Du, Likun
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Zhang, Shen-Ying
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.
    Zhang, Qian
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.
    Rezaei, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr Immunodeficiencies, Pediat Ctr Excellence, Childrens Med Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Kampe, Olle
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Med Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Casanova, Jean-Laurent
    Rockefeller Univ, Rockefeller Branch, St Giles Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA.;Necker Hosp Sick Children, Necker Branch, Lab Human Genet Infect Dis, INSERM U1163, Paris, France.;Univ Paris, Imagine Inst, Paris, France.;Howard Hughes Med Inst, New York, NY USA.
    Hammarstrom, Lennart
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Pan-Hammarstrom, Qiang
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    X-Linked TLR7 Deficiency Underlies Critical COVID-19 Pneumonia in a Male Patient with Ataxia-Telangiectasia2022Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0271-9142, E-ISSN 1573-2592, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to critical conditions. Understanding the mechanism underlying life-threatening COVID-19 is instrumental for disease prevention and treatment in individuals with a high risk.

    Objectives We aimed to identify the genetic cause for critical COVID-19 pneumonia in a patient with a preexisting inborn error of immunity (IEI).

    Methods Serum levels of specific antibodies against the virus and autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed, and the impacts of candidate gene variants were investigated. We also evaluated 247 ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients in the Iranian IEI registry.

    Results We report a 7-year-old Iranian boy with a preexisting hyper IgM syndrome who developed critical COVID-19 pneumonia. IgM only specific COVID-19 immune response was detected but no autoantibodies against type I IFN were observed. A homozygous deleterious mutation in the ATM gene was identified, which together with his antibody deficiency, radiosensitivity, and neurological signs, established a diagnosis of A-T. Among the 247 A-T patients evaluated, 36 had SARS-CoV-2 infection, but all had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic except the index patient. A hemizygous deleterious mutation in the TLR7 gene was subsequently identified in the patient.

    Conclusions We report a unique IEI patient with combined ATM and TLR7 deficiencies. The two genetic defects underlie A-T and critical COVID-19 in this patient, respectively.

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  • 10. Abrahamsson, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Ted
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Oldaeus, Göran
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy2013Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 556-561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Supplementation with the probioticLactobacillus reuteri reduced the incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy. This treatment might therefore also reduce the risk of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in school age.

    Objective: To evaluate whether perinatal and infant supplementation withL.reuteri reduced the prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age and to explore whether this supplementation was associated with any long-term side effects.

    Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with oral supplementation withL.reuteriATCC 55730 (1x10(8)CFU) during the last month of gestation and through the first year of life comprising 232 families with allergic disease, of whom 184 completed a 7-yr follow-up. The primary outcomes at 7yr of age were allergic disease and skin prick test reactivity (ClinicalTrials.govID NCT01285830).

    Results: The prevalence of asthma (15% in the probiotic vs. 16% in placebo group), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (27% vs. 20%), eczema (21% vs. 19%) and skin prick test reactivity (29% vs. 26%) was similar in the probiotic and placebo group. Growth indices and gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in the two groups. No severe adverse events were reported.

    Conclusion: The effect ofL.reuteri on sensitization andIgE-associated eczema in infancy did not lead to a lower prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age. Thus, the effect ofL.reuteri on the immune system seems to be transient. Administration ofL.reuteri during the last weeks of gestation and in infancy was not associated with any long-term side effects.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping. University of Toronto, Canada.
    You Wu, Richard
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gut microbiota and allergy: the importance of the pregnancy period2015Ingår i: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 77, nr 1, s. 214-219Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited microbial exposure is suggested to underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent countries, and bacterial diversity seems to be more important than specific bacteria taxa. Prospective studies indicate that the gut microbiota composition during the first months of life influences allergy development, and support the theory that factors influencing the early maturation of the immune system might be important for subsequent allergic disease. However, recent research indicates that microbial exposure during pregnancy may be even more important for the preventative effects against allergic disease. This review gives a background of the epidemiology, immunology, and microbiology literature in this field. It focuses on possible underlying mechanisms such as immune-regulated epigenetic imprinting and bacterial translocation during pregnancy, potentially providing the offspring with a pioneer microbiome. We suggest that a possible reason for the initial exposure of bacterial molecular patterns to the fetus in utero is to prime the immune system and/or the epithelium to respond appropriately to pathogens and commensals after birth.

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  • 12. Abu-Elyazeed, R R
    et al.
    Heineman, T
    Dubin, G
    Fourneau, M
    Leroux-Roels, I
    Leroux-Roels, G
    Richardus, J H
    Ostergaard, L
    Diez-Domingo, J
    Poder, A
    Van Damme, P
    Romanowski, B
    Blatter, M
    Silfverdal, Sven Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Berglund, J
    Josefsson, A
    Cunningham, A L
    Flodmark, C E
    Tragiannidis, A
    Dobson, S
    Olafsson, J
    Puig-Barbera, J
    Mendez, M
    Barton, S
    Bernstein, D
    Mares, J
    Ratner, P
    Safety and immunogenicity of a glycoprotein D genital herpes vaccine in healthy girls 10-17 years of age: results from a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial2013Ingår i: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 31, nr 51, s. 6136-6143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The investigational AS04-adjuvanted herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit prophylactic vaccine ('HSV vaccine'; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) has been shown to be well tolerated in adults, but limited data exist for pre-teen and adolescent girls, a likely target population. The primary objective of this study was to compare the occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs) over 12 months between HSV vaccine recipients and saline recipients (placebo control group) in pre-teen and adolescent girls. The immunogenicity of the HSV vaccine was also assessed.

    METHODS: Healthy girls aged 10-17 years, stratified by age (10-15 years; 16-17 years), were randomised 2:1:1 to receive the HSV vaccine, a hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix™; HAV control) or placebo (saline) according to a 0-, 1-, 6-month schedule. Participants and study personnel not involved in the preparation or administration of vaccines were blinded to treatment. Safety and immunogenicity analyses were performed overall and by age (10-15 years; 16-17 years) and HSV serostatus.

    RESULTS: No statistically significant difference in the percentage of subjects with SAEs was observed between the HSV and saline group, or between the HSV and pooled control (HAV and saline) groups. The HSV vaccine was well tolerated, although a higher incidence of solicited local symptoms was observed in the HSV group than in the control group. Neither age nor HSV serostatus at the time of study entry had an impact on the safety profile of this vaccine. The HSV vaccine was immunogenic regardless of pre-vaccination HSV serostatus. Higher anti-gD geometric mean concentrations were observed in HSV-1 seropositive participants than in HSV-1 seronegative participants.

    CONCLUSION: The HSV vaccine had an acceptable safety profile, and was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to girls aged 10-17 years regardless of age or HSV pre-vaccination serostatus.

  • 13. Acevedo, Nathalie
    et al.
    Benfeitas, Rui
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Katayama, Shintaro
    Bruhn, Sören
    Andersson, Anna
    Wikberg, Gustav
    Lundeberg, Lena
    Lindvall, Jessica M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Greco, Dario
    Kere, Juha
    Söderhäll, Cilla
    Scheynius, Annika
    Epigenetic alterations in skin homing CD4(+)CLA(+) T cells of atopic dermatitis patients2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 18020Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    T cells expressing the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) mediate pathogenic inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD). The molecular alterations contributing to their dysregulation remain unclear. With the aim to elucidate putative altered pathways in AD we profiled DNA methylation levels and miRNA expression in sorted T cell populations -(CD4(+), -CD4(+)CD45RA(+) naive, -CD4(+)CLA(+), and -CD8(+)) from adult AD patients and healthy controls (HC). Skin homing -CD4(+)CLA(+) T cells from AD patients showed significant differences in DNA methylation in 40 genes compared to HC (p < 0.05). Reduced DNA methylation levels in the upstream region of the interleukin-13 gene (IL13) in -CD4(+)CLA(+) T cells from AD patients correlated with increased IL13 mRNA expression in these cells. Sixteen miRNAs showed differential expression in -CD4(+)CLA(+) T cells from AD patients targeting genes in 202 biological processes (p < 0.05). An integrated network analysis of miRNAs and CpG sites identified two communities of strongly interconnected regulatory elements with strong antagonistic behaviours that recapitulated the differences between AD patients and HC. Functional analysis of the genes linked to these communities revealed their association with key cytokine signaling pathways, MAP kinase signaling and protein ubiquitination. Our findings support that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of AD by affecting inflammatory signaling molecules in skin homing -CD4(+)CLA(+) T cells and uncover putative molecules participating in AD pathways.

  • 14.
    Acevedo, Reinaldo
    et al.
    Biologic Evaluation Department, Finlay Institute of Vaccines, Havana, Cuba.
    Bai, Xilian
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England, Manchester, UK.
    Borrow, Ray
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England, Manchester, UK.
    Caugant, Dominique A.
    Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Carlos, Josefina
    Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of the East – Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Ceyhan, Mehmet
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Christensen, Hannah
    Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Climent, Yanet
    Biologic Evaluation Department, Finlay Institute of Vaccines, Havana, Cuba.
    De Wals, Philippe
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City QC, Canada.
    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri
    Department of Paediatrics, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir, Turkey.
    Echaniz-Aviles, Gabriela
    Center for Research on Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, México.
    Hakawi, Ahmed
    Infectious Diseases Control, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Kamiya, Hajime
    Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
    Karachaliou, Andromachi
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Lucidarme, Jay
    Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England, Manchester, UK.
    Meiring, Susan
    Division of Public Health Surveillance and Response, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Mironov, Konstantin
    Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Safadi, Marco A. P.
    Department of Pediatrics, FCM Santa Casa de São Paulo School of Medical Sciences, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Shao, Zhujun
    National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Smith, Vinny
    Meningitis Research Foundation, Bristol, UK.
    Steffen, Robert
    Department of Epidemiology and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, WHO Collaborating Centre for Travellers’ Health, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Stenmark, Bianca
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Department of Laboratory Medicine.
    Taha, Muhamed-Kheir
    Institut Pasteur, National Reference Centre for Meningococci, Paris, France.
    Trotter, Caroline
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Vazquez, Julio A.
    National Centre of Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Zhu, Bingqing
    National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    The Global Meningococcal Initiative meeting on prevention of meningococcal disease worldwide: Epidemiology, surveillance, hypervirulent strains, antibiotic resistance and high-risk populations2019Ingår i: Expert Review of Vaccines, ISSN 1476-0584, E-ISSN 1744-8395, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 15-30Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The 2018 Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) meeting focused on evolving invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) epidemiology, surveillance, and protection strategies worldwide, with emphasis on emerging antibiotic resistance and protection of high-risk populations. The GMI is comprised of a multidisciplinary group of scientists and clinicians representing institutions from several continents.

    Areas covered: Given that the incidence and prevalence of IMD continually varies both geographically and temporally, and surveillance systems differ worldwide, the true burden of IMD remains unknown. Genomic alterations may increase the epidemic potential of meningococcal strains. Vaccination and (to a lesser extent) antimicrobial prophylaxis are the mainstays of IMD prevention. Experiences from across the globe advocate the use of conjugate vaccines, with promising evidence growing for protein vaccines. Multivalent vaccines can broaden protection against IMD. Application of protection strategies to high-risk groups, including individuals with asplenia, complement deficiencies and human immunodeficiency virus, laboratory workers, persons receiving eculizumab, and men who have sex with men, as well as attendees at mass gatherings, may prevent outbreaks. There was, however, evidence that reduced susceptibility to antibiotics was increasing worldwide.

    Expert commentary: The current GMI global recommendations were reinforced, with several other global initiatives underway to support IMD protection and prevention.

  • 15.
    Adam, Lucille
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    López-González, Moisés
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Björk, Albin
    Pålsson, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Poux, Candice
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Fernández, Carmen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Spetz, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Early Resistance of Non-virulent Mycobacterial Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Is Associated With Rapid Up-Regulation of Antimicrobial Cathelicidin Camp2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, artikel-id 1939Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Early clearance of tuberculosis is the successful eradication of inhaled bacteria before the development of an adaptive immune response. We previously showed, by utilizing a non-virulent mycobacteria infection model, that C57BL/6 mice are more efficient than BALB/c in their control of bacterial growth in the lungs during the first weeks of the infection. Here, we assessed early (within 1-3 days) innate immune events locally in the lungs to identify factors that may contribute to the control of non-virulent mycobacterial burden. We confirmed that C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to infection compared with BALB/c after intranasal inoculation with mycobacterium. Transcriptomic analyses revealed a remarkably silent signature in C57BL/6 mice despite effective control of bacterial growth. In contrast, BALB/c mice up-regulated genes associated with neutrophil and myeloid cell chemotaxis and migration. Flow cytometry analyses corroborated the transcriptomic analyses and demonstrated influx of both neutrophil and myeloid cell populations in BALB/c mice, while these did not increase in C57BL/6 mice. We further detected increased release of TNF-alpha from BALB/c lung cells but limited release from C57BL/6-derived cells. However, C57BL/6 mice showed a marked early up-regulation of the Camp gene, encoding the cathelicidin CRAMP peptide, post-mycobacterial exposure. CRAMP (LL-37 in human) expression in the lungs was confirmed using immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, these findings show that C57BL/6 mice can clear the mycobacterial infection early and that this early control is associated with high CRAMP expression in the lungs without concomitant influx of immune cells. The role of CRAMP/LL-37 during mycobacterial infection may be relevant for novel protective strategies, and warrants further studies of human cohorts.

  • 16. Adam, Lucille
    et al.
    Tchitchek, Nicolas
    Todorova, Biliana
    Rosenbaum, Pierre
    Joly, Candie
    Poux, Candice
    Chapon, Catherine
    Spetz, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ustav, Mart
    Le Grand, Roger
    Martinon, Frédéric
    Innate Molecular and Cellular Signature in the Skin Preceding Long-Lasting T Cell Responses after Electroporated DNA Vaccination2020Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 204, nr 12, s. 3375-3388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA vaccines delivered with electroporation (EP) have shown promising results in preclinical models and are evaluated in clinical trials. In this study, we aim to characterize early mechanisms occurring in the skin after intradermal injection and EP of the auxoGTUmultiSIV DNA vaccine in nonhuman primates. First, we show that EP acts as an adjuvant by enhancing local inflammation, notably via granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and CD1a(int)-expressing cell recruitment. EP also induced Langerhans cell maturation, illustrated by CD86, CD83, and HLA-DR upregulation and their migration out of the epidermis. Second, we demonstrate the crucial role of the DNA vaccine in soluble factors release, such as MCP-1 or IL-15. Transcriptomic analysis showed that EP played a major role in gene expression changes postvaccination. However, the DNA vaccine is required to strongly upregulate several genes involved in inflammatory responses (e.g., Saa4), cell migration (e.g., Ccl3, Ccl5, or Cxcl10), APC activation (e.g., Cd86), and IFN-inducible genes (e.g., Ifit3, Ifit5, Irf7, Isg15, orMx1), illustrating an antiviral response signature. Also, AIM-2, a cytosolic DNA sensor, appeared to be strongly upregulated only in the presence of the DNA vaccine and trends to positively correlate with several IFN-inducible genes, suggesting the potential role of AIM-2 in vaccine sensing and the subsequent innate response activation leading to strong adaptive T cell responses. Overall, these results demonstrate that a combined stimulation of the immune response, in which EP and the auxoGTUmultiSIV vaccine triggered different components of the innate immunity, led to strong and persistent cellular recall responses.

  • 17.
    Adamson, L.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, B.
    Gothenburg Univ, Immunol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kiessling, R.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nasman-Glaser, B.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karlsson-Parra, Alex
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    GMP-production of an allogenic DC-based cancer vaccine (INTUVAX) for treatment of patients with metastatic kidney-or primary liver cancer. Comparison of two production platforms for DC-generation2016Ingår i: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 46, s. 946-947Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18. Adderley, Jack D.
    et al.
    von Freyend, Simona John
    Jackson, Sarah A.
    Bird, Megan J.
    Burns, Amy L.
    Anar, Burcu
    Metcalf, Tom
    Semblat, Jean-Philippe
    Billker, Oliver
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK.
    Wilson, Danny W.
    Doerig, Christian
    Analysis of erythrocyte signalling pathways during Plasmodium falciparum infection identifies targets for host-directed antimalarial intervention2020Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 4015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracellular pathogens mobilize host signaling pathways of their host cell to promote their own survival. Evidence is emerging that signal transduction elements are activated in a-nucleated erythrocytes in response to infection with malaria parasites, but the extent of this phenomenon remains unknown. Here, we fill this knowledge gap through a comprehensive and dynamic assessment of host erythrocyte signaling during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. We used arrays of 878 antibodies directed against human signaling proteins to interrogate the activation status of host erythrocyte phospho-signaling pathways at three blood stages of parasite asexual development. This analysis reveals a dynamic modulation of many host signalling proteins across parasite development. Here we focus on the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) and the MAP kinase pathway component B-Raf, providing a proof of concept that human signaling kinases identified as activated by malaria infection represent attractive targets for antimalarial intervention.

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  • 19.
    Adler, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Initiation of alternative pathway of complement, and development of novel liposomal coatings2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The complement system is a central part of the innate immune system, and is an essential part in recognizing and clearing non/altered-self surfaces in the body. This thesis comprises of projects in which the initiation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement in the fluid phase as well on various artificial and lipid surfaces has been studied. We have also synthesized and evaluated polymer-lipids as liposome coatings to suppress innate immune activation with focus on complement regulation.

    In paper I we investigated how “C3b-like” C3(H2O) is in regards to form an initial fluid phase AP C3 convertase. Even though C3(H2O) could form a C3 convertase, it was much slower in comparison to the convertase generated by C3b. 

    In paper II the contact activation of C3 on various artificial and lipid surfaces as a potential targeted AP activation pathway was explored. C3 bound selectively to lipid surfaces with negatively charged phospholipids and cholesterol, activated platelets and apoptotic cells. Thus, AP was initiated without prior proteolytic cleavage of C3 nor by preformed C3(H2O) on specific surfaces in a selective manner.

    In paper III and IV, synthetic phosphatidylcholine inspired polymer-lipids consisting of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-conjugated lipids (PMPC-lipids) with different degrees of MPC polymerization were synthesized. The protein adsorption, with focus on complement proteins onto the PMPC-lipids were evaluated, indicating that PMPC-lipids with a longer polymer chain are better to suppress protein adsorption. 

    In paper V fragmented heparin-conjugated (fHep) lipids were investigated for their potential ability to recruit complement regulators to a lipid bilayer surface for complement regulation. This study indicated that fHep-liposomes could recruit the main fluid phase regulator of the AP, factor H, as well as the coagulation regulator antithrombin from human plasma. 

    To conclude, the results from this thesis indicates that C3(H2O) in the fluid phase is a poor initiator of the AP, however contact activated C3 could be targeting activation pathway for the AP. We could also successfully synthesize PMPC-lipids and fHep-lipids for protein suppression and potential complement regulation on coated liposomes. 

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  • 20.
    Adler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Fritsch, Marlene
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Leneweit, Gero
    Carl Gustav Carus-Institute, Association for the Promotion of Cancer Therapy, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Germany.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Linnaeus Center of Biomaterials Chemistry, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi.
    Teramura, Yuji
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Vaskulärbiologi. Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology Research Institute (CMB), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central Fifth, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan; Master's/Doctoral Program in Life Science Innovation (T-LSI), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan.
    Regulation of the innate immune system by fragmented heparin-conjugated lipids on lipid bilayered membranes in vitro2023Ingår i: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 11, nr 46, s. 11121-11134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface modification with heparin is a powerful biomaterial coating strategy that protects against innate immunity activation since heparin is a part of the proteoglycan heparan sulfate on cell surfaces in the body. We studied the heparinization of cellular and material surfaces via lipid conjugation to a heparin-binding peptide. In the present study, we synthesized fragmented heparin (fHep)-conjugated phospholipids and studied their regulation of the innate immune system on a lipid bilayered surface using liposomes. Liposomes have versatile applications, such as drug-delivery systems, due to their ability to carry a wide range of molecules. Owing to their morphological similarity to cell membranes, they can also be used to mimic a simple cell-membrane to study protein–lipid interactions. We investigated the interaction of complement-regulators, factor H and C4b-binding protein (C4BP), as well as the coagulation inhibitor antithrombin (AT), with fHep-lipids on the liposomal surface. Herein, we studied the ability of fHep-lipids to recruit factor H, C4BP, and AT using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. With dynamic light scattering, we demonstrated that liposomes could be modified with fHep-lipids and were stable up to 60 days at 4 °C. Using a capillary western blot-based method (Wes), we showed that fHep-liposomes could recruit factor H in a model system using purified proteins and assist in the degradation of the active complement protein C3b to iC3b. Furthermore, we found that fHep-liposomes could recruit factor H and AT from human plasma. Therefore, the use of fHep-lipids could be a potential coating for liposomes and cell surfaces to regulate the immune system on the lipid surface.

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  • 21.
    Adler, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Manivel, Vivek Anand
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Fromell, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    Teramura, Yuji
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi. Cellular & Mol Biotechnol Res Inst CMB, Natl Inst Adv Ind Sci andTechnol AIST, Tsukuba, Japan..
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Ctr Biomat Chem, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Klinisk immunologi.
    A Robust Method to Store Complement C3 With Superior Ability to Maintain the Native Structure and Function of the Protein2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 13, artikel-id 891994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complement components have a reputation to be very labile. One of the reasons for this is the spontaneous hydrolysis of the internal thioester that is found in both C3 and C4 (but not in C5). Despite the fact that approximate to 20,000 papers have been published on human C3 there is still no reliable method to store the protein without generating C3(H2O), a fact that may have affected studies of the conformation and function of C3, including recent studies on intracellular C3(H2O). The aim of this work was to define the conditions for storage of native C3 and to introduce a robust method that makes C3 almost resistant to the generation of C3(H2O). Here, we precipitated native C3 at the isoelectric point in low ionic strength buffer before freezing the protein at -80 degrees C. The formation of C3(H2O) was determined using cation exchange chromatography and the hemolytic activity of the different C3 preparations was determined using a hemolytic assay for the classical pathway. We show that freezing native C3 in the precipitated form is the best method to avoid loss of function and generation of C3(H2O). By contrast, the most efficient way to consistently generate C3(H2O) was to incubate native C3 in a buffer at pH 11.0. We conclude that we have defined the optimal storage conditions for storing and maintaining the function of native C3 without generating C3(H2O) and also the conditions for consistently generating C3(H2O).

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  • 22. Adriaensen, Wim
    et al.
    Dorlo, Thomas P C
    Netherlands Cancer Institute.
    Vanham, Guido
    Kestens, Luc
    Kaye, Paul M
    van Griensven, Johan
    Immunomodulatory Therapy of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Coinfected Patients.2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, s. 1943-, artikel-id 1943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection experience increased drug toxicity and treatment failure rates compared to VL patients, with more frequent VL relapse and death. In the era of VL elimination strategies, HIV coinfection is progressively becoming a key challenge, because HIV-coinfected patients respond poorly to conventional VL treatment and play an important role in parasite transmission. With limited chemotherapeutic options and a paucity of novel anti-parasitic drugs, new interventions that target host immunity may offer an effective alternative. In this review, we first summarize current views on how VL immunopathology is significantly affected by HIV coinfection. We then review current clinical and promising preclinical immunomodulatory interventions in the field of VL and discuss how these may operate in the context of a concurrent HIV infection. Caveats are formulated as these interventions may unpredictably impact the delicate balance between boosting of beneficial VL-specific responses and deleterious immune activation/hyperinflammation, activation of latent provirus or increased HIV-susceptibility of target cells. Evidence is lacking to prioritize a target molecule and a more detailed account of the immunological status induced by the coinfection as well as surrogate markers of cure and protection are still required. We do, however, argue that virologically suppressed VL patients with a recovered immune system, in whom effective antiretroviral therapy alone is not able to restore protective immunity, can be considered a relevant target group for an immunomodulatory intervention. Finally, we provide perspectives on the translation of novel theories on synergistic immune cell cross-talk into an effective treatment strategy for VL-HIV-coinfected patients.

  • 23. Agardh, D
    et al.
    Dahlbom, I
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik och patologi.
    Daniels, T
    Lörinc, E
    Ivarsson, SÅ
    Lernmark, Å
    Hansson, Tony
    Department of Rheumatology, Karolinska Institute.
    Autoantibodies Against Soluble and Immobilized Human Recombinant Tissue Transglutaminase in Children with Celiac Disease.2005Ingår i: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr., Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 322-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Ahl, David
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Sedin, John
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Seignez, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Schwan, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Kreuger, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Christoffersson, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi, Integrativ Fysiologi.
    Turning Up the Heat: Local Temperature Control During in vivo Imaging of Immune Cells2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, artikel-id 2036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravital imaging is an invaluable tool for studying the expanding range of immune cell functions. Only in vivo can the complex and dynamic behavior of leukocytes and their interactions with their natural microenvironment be observed and quantified. While the capabilities of high-speed, high-resolution confocal and multiphoton microscopes are well-documented and steadily improving, other crucial hardware required for intravital imaging is often developed in-house and less commonly published in detail. In this report, we describe a low-cost, multipurpose, and tissue-stabilizing in vivo imaging platform that enables sensing and regulation of local tissue temperature. The effect of tissue temperature on local blood flow and leukocyte migration is demonstrated in muscle and skin. Two different models of vacuum windows are described in this report, however, the design of the vacuum window can easily be adapted to fit different organs and tissues.

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  • 25.
    Ahlberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Al-Kaabawi, Ahmed
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Thune, Rebecka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Simpson, Melanie Rae
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Pedersen, Sindre Andre
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Cione, Erika
    Univ Calabria, Italy.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Tingö, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Breast milk microRNAs: Potential players in oral tolerance development2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1154211Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast milk is an essential source of nutrition and hydration for the infant. In addition, this highly complex biological fluid contains numerous immunologically active factors such as microorganisms, immunoglobulins, cytokines and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we set out to predict the function of the top 10 expressed miRNAs in human breast milk, focusing on their relevance in oral tolerance development and allergy prevention in the infant. The top expressed miRNAs in human breast milk were identified on basis of previous peer-reviewed studies gathered from a recent systematic review and an updated literature search. The miRNAs with the highest expression levels in each study were used to identify the 10 most common miRNAs or miRNA families across studies and these were selected for subsequent target prediction. The predictions were performed using TargetScan in combination with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. The ten top expressed miRNAs were: let-7-5p family, miR-148a-3p, miR-30-5p family, miR-200a-3p + miR-141-3p, miR-22-3p, miR-181-5p family, miR-146b-5p, miR-378a-3p, miR-29-3p family, miR-200b/c-3p and miR-429-3p. The target prediction identified 3,588 potential target genes and 127 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways; several connected to the immune system, including TGF-b and T cell receptor signaling and T-helper cell differentiation. This review highlights the role of breast milk miRNAs and their potential contribution to infant immune maturation. Indeed, breast milk miRNAs seem to be involved in several pathways that influence oral tolerance development.

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  • 26.
    Ahlstrand, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Region Örebro län. Department of Medicine, Hematology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Clinical Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Lennart
    Region Örebro län. Department of Infectious diseases, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mölling, Paula
    Region Örebro län. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tidefelt, Ulf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Department of Infectious diseases & Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a PCR method to determine the clinical significance of blood cultures with Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients with hematological malignancies2014Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 122, nr 6, s. 539-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether the detection and quantification of Staphylococcus epidermidis DNA in blood could distinguish S. epidermidis blood stream infections (BSIs) from blood culture contaminations in patients with hematological malignancies. The hld gene was chosen to identify S. epidermidis DNA and DNA in blood samples was detected by real-time PCR. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously with blood cultures positive for S. epidermidis (n = 30), during blood culture-negative episodes (n = 10) and episodes of bacteremia with other bacteria than S. epidermidis (n = 4) and from healthy blood donors (n = 10). In addition, DNA from S. epidermidis and a selection of other bacterial species were analyzed. Three different sets of criteria were used to classify episodes with positive blood cultures with S. epidermidis as BSIs or contaminations. All DNA preparations from S. epidermidis (n = 48) were hld-positive, but other bacterial species (n = 13) were negative. Sixteen (53%) of 30 blood samples from patients with blood cultures positive for S. epidermidis were hld-positive, but none of the controls. There was no clear association between a positive hld PCR and episodes interpreted as BSIs. In conclusion, hld PCR failed to distinguish S. epidermidis BSIs from blood culture contaminations in patients with hematological malignancies.

  • 27.
    Ahluwalia, Bani
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Calmino Group AB, Sahlgrenska Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Maria K.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro2016Ingår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 179, s. 301-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated polyclonally in the presence or absence of AVH200® and AVE200. The T cell phenotype was investigated by flow cytometry, cell proliferation was determined by CFSE dye and thymidine assay, respectively and cytokine secretion was determined by MSD® Multi-Spot Assay system and ELISA.

    RESULTS: The presence of AVH200® resulted in a reduced expression of CD25 among CD3(+) T cells and suppression of T cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AVH200® reduced the expression of CD28 on CD3(+) T cells. AVH200® also reduced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A in PBMC cultures. The AVH200® dose dependent reduction in T cell activation and proliferation recorded in the cell cultures was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally, AVH200® was found to be more effective as compared to AVE200 in reducing T cell activation and proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: AVH200® has the potential to reduce the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of healthy human blood T cells. Our study suggests that AVH200® has a suppressive effect on human blood T cells in vitro.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Aisha S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Nobel Vag 9, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gedin, Per
    Lowenstromska Hosp, Ortho Ctr Stockholm, S-19489 Upplands Vasby, Sweden.
    Hugo, Anders
    Lowenstromska Hosp, Ortho Ctr Stockholm, S-19489 Upplands Vasby, Sweden.
    Bakalkin, Georgy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Kanar, Alkass
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Swedish Natl Board Forens Med, S-17165 Solna, Sweden.
    Hart, David A.
    Univ Calgary, McCaig Inst Bone & Joint Hlth, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada.
    Druid, Henrik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Swedish Natl Board Forens Med, S-17165 Solna, Sweden.
    Svensson, Camilla
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kosek, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Nobel Vag 9, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Spine Ctr, Lowenstromska Hosp, S-19489 Upplands Vasby, Sweden.
    Activation of NF-kappa B in Synovium versus Cartilage from Patients with Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis: A Potential Contributor to Inflammatory Aspects of Disease Progression2018Ingår i: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 201, nr 7, s. 1918-1927Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to assess the activation and association of the NF-kappa B system across synovial membrane (SM) and articular cartilage (AC) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and ascertain its potential effects on catabolic mediator expression in advanced OA. SM and AC were obtained from 40 OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and from 19 postmortem control subjects. NF-kappa B subunit RelA in nuclear and cytosolic fractions and NF-kappa B1-DNA binding in nuclear extracts was assessed by ELISA, whereas NFKB1, RELA, IL-8, IL-6, and MMP3 gene expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR in tissues. We observed higher SM nuclear RelA protein levels and upregulated NF-kappa B1-DNA binding in OA patients compared with postmortem controls. However, in AC, lower nuclear RelA levels were observed compared with cytosolic extracts in patients. Nuclear RelA levels correlated positively with NF-kappa B1-DNA binding in SM and AC in patients. SM RELA and MMP3 mRNA levels were upregulated, whereas IL-8 and IL-6 as well as AC RELA were downregulated in patients compared with controls. In SM, nuclear RelA levels correlated positively with MMP3 gene expression in patients. A negative correlation was observed between SM nuclear RelA levels and AC NF-kappa B1-DNA binding, and SM nuclear NF-kappa B1-DNA binding correlated negatively with AC MMP3 and NFKB1 mRNA levels in patients. These findings highlight NF-kappa B-triggered cross-talk and feedback mechanisms between SM and AC in OA. Further, our findings strongly support a role for an activated NF-kappa B system in the transcriptional mechanism of inflammatory processes, especially in SM of patients with advanced OA.

  • 29. Ahrenstedt, Örjan
    et al.
    Knutson, L
    Nilsson, B
    Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina
    University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Odlind, B
    Hällgren, R
    Enhanced local production of the complement components in the small intestine in Crohn's disease1990Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 322, s. 1345-1349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is evidence that complement components may be formed locally in inflammatory lesions containing monocytes and macrophages. To investigate the role of complement in Crohn's disease we measured jejunal-fluid concentrations of the complement components C4, C3, and factor B by perfusion of a closed segment of the jejunum in 22 patients with Crohn's disease thought to be limited to the terminal ileum.

    The mean (±SEM) jejunal-fluid C4 concentration was 2.0±0.3 mg per liter, significantly higher than the mean level in 35 healthy controls (0.7±0.1 mg per liter; P<0.001). The mean C3 concentration was 1.0±0.1 mg per liter in the patients and 0.7±0.1 mg per liter in the controls (P<0.05). The factor B levels were similar in the two groups. Calculated rates of intestinal secretion of these components showed differences of the same magnitude. Leakage of protein from plasma was not increased. The jejunal-fluid serum ratios of these complement proteins indicated that their appearance in the lumen of the jejunum was due at least in part to local mucosal synthesis. The increased jejunal secretion of C4, but not C3 or factor B, paralleled the clinical activity of Crohn's disease. Values were normal in first-degree relatives of the patients (n = 13), patients with celiac disease (n = 8), and patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 4).

    We conclude that increased secretion of complement by clinically unaffected jejunal tissue in patients with Crohn's disease reflects the systemic nature of this disorder and may be due to the stimulated synthesis of complement by activated intestinal monocytes and macrophages. 

  • 30. Akeus, Paulina
    et al.
    Langenes, Veronica
    von Mentzer, Astrid
    Yrlid, Ulf
    Sjoling, Asa
    Saksena, Pushpa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Raghavan, Sukanya
    Quiding-Jarbrink, Marianne
    Altered chemokine production and accumulation of regulatory T cells in intestinal adenomas of APC(Min/+) mice2014Ingår i: Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy, ISSN 0340-7004, E-ISSN 1432-0851, Vol. 63, nr 8, s. 807-819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor progression in the colon moves from aberrant crypt foci to adenomatous polyps to invasive carcinomas. The composition of the tumor-infiltrating leukocyte population affects the ability of the immune system to fight the tumor. T cell infiltration into colorectal adenocarcinomas, particularly T helper 1 (Th1) type T cells as well as increased regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies, is correlated with improved prognosis. However, whether Th1 cells and Tregs are already present at the adenoma stage is not known. In this study, the APC(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal adenomatous polyposis was used to investigate tumor-associated lymphocyte subsets and the mechanisms of their accumulation into gastrointestinal adenomas. Compared to unaffected tissue, adenomas accumulated CD4(+)FoxP3(+) putative Treg in parallel with lower frequencies of conventional T cells and B cells. The accumulation of Treg was also observed in human adenomatous polyps. Despite high Treg numbers, the function of conventional T cells present in the APC(Min/+) adenomas was not different from those in the unaffected tissue. Adenomas displayed an altered chemokine balance, with higher CCL17 and lower CXCL11 and CCL25 expression than in the unaffected tissue. In parallel, CXCR3(+) Tregs were largely absent from adenomas. The data indicate that already in early stages of tumor development, the balance of lymphocyte-recruiting chemokines is altered possibly contributing to the observed shift toward higher frequencies of Treg.

  • 31.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Inhibitors of intracellular enzymes for treatment of multiple sclerosis2019Ingår i: Atlas of ScienceArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 32.
    Aksel Jacobsen, Freja
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Scherer, Alexander N.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Mouritsen, Jeppe
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Novozymes A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Bragadóttir, Hera
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark & Xelia Pharmaceuticals A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, B. Thomas
    Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark & BTB Pharma, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sardar, Samra
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Dan
    Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Koleske, Anthony J.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Andersson, Åsa
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för ekonomi, teknik och naturvetenskap, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    A Role for the Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Abl2/Arg in Experimental Neuroinflammation2018Ingår i: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, ISSN 1557-1890, E-ISSN 1557-1904, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 265-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory degenerative disease, caused by activated immune cells infiltrating the CNS. The disease etiology involves both genetic and environmental factors. The mouse genetic locus, Eae27, linked to disease development in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis, was studied in order to identify contributing disease susceptibility factors and potential drug targets for multiple sclerosis. Studies of an Eae27 congenic mouse strain, revealed that genetic variation within Eae27 influences EAE development. The Abl2 gene, encoding the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Arg, is located in the 4,1 megabase pair long Eae27 region. The Arg protein plays an important role in cellular regulation and is, in addition, involved in signaling through the B- and T-cell receptors, important for the autoimmune response. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism causing an amino acid change in a near actin-interacting domain of Arg, in addition to altered lymphocyte activation in the congenic mice upon immunization with myelin antigen, makes Abl2/Arg a candidate gene for EAE. Here we demonstrate that the non-synonymous SNP does not change Arg’s binding affinity for F-actin but suggest a role for Abl kinases in CNS inflammation pathogenesis by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Abl kinases ameliorates EAE, but not experimental arthritis. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 33.
    Akula, Srinivas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi och immunologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lara, Sandra
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi och immunologi.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi och immunologi.
    Quantitative Analysis of the Transcriptome of Two Commonly Used Human Monocytic Cell Lines-THP-1 and Mono Mac 6-Reveals Their Arrest during Early Monocyte/Neutrophil Differentiation2022Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 23, nr 10, artikel-id 5818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell lines of monocyte/macrophage origin are often used as model systems to study monocyte/macrophage biology. A relevant question is how similar these cell lines are to their in vivo counterparts? To address this issue, we performed a detailed analysis of the transcriptome of two commonly used human monocyte/macrophage cell lines, Mono Mac 6 and THP-1. Both of these cell lines originate from leukemic cells with myelo-monocytic characteristics. We found that both Mono Mac 6 and THP-1 represent cells of very immature origin. Their transcriptomes show more similarities to immature neutrophils than cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. They express significant levels of N-elastase, proteinase 3, cathepsin G, and azurocidin but very low levels of CD14, ficolin, and complement factor P. All major MHC class II genes are also expressed at low levels. They show high levels of lysozyme and low levels of one of the immunoglobulin Fc receptors, FCGRIIA, which is characteristic of both neutrophils and monocytes. THP-1, but not Mono Mac 6, also expresses the high-affinity receptor for IgG, FCGRIA. Both cell lines lack the expression of the connective tissue components fibronectin, proteoglycan 4, and syndecan 3, which are characteristics of tissue macrophages but are absent in blood monocytes, indicating that they originate from bone marrow precursors and not yolk sac-derived hematopoietic cells. Both of these cell lines seem, therefore, to represent cells arrested during early myelo-monocytic development, at a branch point between neutrophil and monocyte differentiation. Their very immature phenotype indicates that great care should be taken when using these cell lines as models for normal monocyte/macrophage biology.

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  • 34.
    Akula, Srinivas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi.
    Paivandy, Aida
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Fu, Zhirong
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi.
    Thorpe, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi.
    Quantitative In-Depth Analysis of the Mouse Mast Cell Transcriptome Reveals Organ-Specific Mast Cell Heterogeneity2020Ingår i: CELLS, E-ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells (MCs) are primarily resident hematopoietic tissue cells that are localized at external and internal surfaces of the body where they act in the first line of defense. MCs are found in all studied vertebrates and have also been identified in tunicates, an early chordate. To obtain a detailed insight into the biology of MCs, here we analyzed the transcriptome of MCs from different mouse organs by RNA-seq and PCR-based transcriptomics. We show that MCs at different tissue locations differ substantially in their levels of transcripts coding for the most abundant MC granule proteins, even within the connective tissue type, or mucosal MC niches. We also demonstrate that transcript levels for the major granule proteins, including the various MC-restricted proteases and the heparin core protein, can be several orders of magnitude higher than those coding for various surface receptors and enzymes involved in protease activation, as well as enzymes involved in the synthesis of heparin, histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. Interestingly, our analyses revealed an almost complete absence in MCs of transcripts coding for cytokines at baseline conditions, indicating that cytokines are primarily produced by activated MCs. Bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) are often used as equivalents of tissue MCs. Here, we show that these cells differ substantially from tissue MCs with regard to their transcriptome. Notably, they showed a transcriptome indicative of relatively immature cells, both with respect to the expression of granule proteases and of various enzymes involved in the processing/synthesis of granule compounds, indicating that care should be taken when extrapolating findings from BMMCs to the in vivo function of tissue-resident MCs. Furthermore, the latter finding indicates that the development of fully mature tissue-resident MCs requires a cytokine milieu beyond what is needed for in vitro differentiation of BMMCs. Altogether, this study provides a comprehensive quantitative view of the transcriptome profile of MCs resident at different tissue locations that builds nicely on previous studies of both the mouse and human transcriptome, and form a solid base for future evolutionary studies of the role of MCs in vertebrate immunity.

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  • 35.
    Akula, Srinivas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi och immunologi. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tripathi, Shiva Raj
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Inst Allergol, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Freie Univ Berlinand, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Fraunhofer Inst Translat Med & Pharmacol ITMP, Immunol & Allergol IA, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Franke, Kristin
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Inst Allergol, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Freie Univ Berlinand, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Fraunhofer Inst Translat Med & Pharmacol ITMP, Immunol & Allergol IA, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Wernersson, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Box 7011, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Babina, Magda
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Inst Allergol, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany.;Fraunhofer Inst Translat Med & Pharmacol ITMP, Immunol & Allergol IA, Hindenburgdamm 30, D-12203 Berlin, Germany..
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi, Mikrobiologi och immunologi.
    Cultures of Human Skin Mast Cells, an Attractive In Vitro Model for Studies of Human Mast Cell Biology2024Ingår i: Cells, E-ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of mast cell biology are dependent on relevant and validated in vitro models. Here, we present detailed information concerning the phenotype of both freshly isolated human skin mast cells (MCs) and of in vitro cultures of these cells that were obtained by analyzing their total transcriptome. Transcript levels of MC-related granule proteins and transcription factors were found to be remarkably stable over a 3-week culture period. Relatively modest changes were also seen for important cell surface receptors including the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FCER1A, the low-affinity receptor for IgG, FCGR2A, and the receptor for stem cell factor, KIT. FCGR2A was the only Fc receptor for IgG expressed by these cells. The IgE receptor increased by 2-5-fold and an approximately 10-fold reduction in the expression of FCGR2A was observed most likely due to the cytokines, SCF and IL-4, used for expanding the cells. Comparisons of the present transcriptome against previously reported transcriptomes of mouse peritoneal MCs and mouse bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) revealed both similarities and major differences. Strikingly, cathepsin G was the most highly expressed granule protease in human skin MCs, in contrast to the almost total absence of this protease in both mouse MCs. Transcript levels for the majority of cell surface receptors were also very low compared to the granule proteases in both mouse and human MCs, with a difference of almost two orders of magnitude. An almost total absence of T-cell granzymes was observed in human skin MCs, indicating that granzymes have no or only a minor role in human MC biology. Ex vivo skin MCs expressed high levels of selective immediate early genes and transcripts of heat shock proteins. In validation experiments, we determined that this expression was an inherent property of the cells and not the result of the isolation process. Three to four weeks in culture results in an induction of cell growth-related genes accompanying their expansion by 6-10-fold, which increases the number of cells for in vitro experiments. Collectively, we show that cultured human skin MCs resemble their ex vivo equivalents in many respects and are a more relevant in vitro model compared to mouse BMMCs for studies of MC biology, in particular human MC biology.

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  • 36.
    Al Heydari, Maryam
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Tocilizumab för sjukhusinlagda patienter med covid-19 pneumoni2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Coronavirus eller SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrom coronavirus 2) som fick utbrott i december 2019 har väckt en stor uppmärksamhet och påverkat mänskligheten världen runt och inte minst påverkat den socioekonomiska balansen. Viruset som har ursprung i staden Wuhan i Kina sprider sig snabbt mellan människorna genom frekvent rekombination av det genetiska materialet. Redan efter ett år från utbrottet beräknades antal fall till 98 miljoner och dödsfallen till 2 miljoner globalt. Förutom lunginflammation leder infektionen till högre halter av proinflammatoriska markörer som CRP och höga nivåer av cytokiner som IL-6 som i slutändan kan resultera i en cytokinstorm. Därför anses en blockering av IL6 produktionen och/eller blockering av receptorbindningen vara en terapeutisk lösning för att begränsa patogenicitet. Tocilizumab som är den första immunmodulator som introducerades och testades mot covid-19 pneumoni har i flera studier gett upphov till heterogent resultat angående dess effekt på sjukdomen. Syftet med detta litteraturabete är att studera tocilizumabs effekt på covid-19 sjuka patienter med pneumoni och med måttlig till svår sjukdom. Genom sökning på databasen PubMed hittades sex randomiserade kliniska studier som valdes för att undersökas i detta arbete. Studierna jämförde effekten av standardbehandling med och utan tocilizumab. Resultatet blev heterogent men en signifikant förbättring observerades för tocilizumab vad gäller överlevnad, sjukdomsprogression och hälsostatus. Trots att tocilizumabs fördelar överväger dess nackdelar krävs det dock mer forskning kring läkemedlet för att kunna dra bättre samband mellan tocilizumab och dess effekter. 

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  • 37.
    Alanazi, Sultan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Melo, Fabio Rabelo
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Tryptase Regulates the Epigenetic Modification of Core Histones in Mast Cell Leukemia Cells2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 12, artikel-id 804408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells are immune cells that store large amounts of mast cell-restricted proteases in their secretory granules, including tryptase, chymase, and carboxypeptidase A3. In mouse mast cells, it has been shown that tryptase, in addition to its canonical location in secretory granules, can be found in the nuclear compartment where it can impact core histones. Here we asked whether tryptase can execute core histone processing in human mast cell leukemia cells and whether tryptase thereby can affect the epigenetic modification of core histones. Our findings reveal that triggering of cell death in HMC-1 mast cell leukemia cells is associated with extensive cleavage of core histone 3 (H3) and more restricted cleavage of H2B. Tryptase inhibition caused a complete blockade of such processing. Our data also show that HMC-1 cell death was associated with a major reduction of several epigenetic histone marks, including H3 lysine-4-mono-methylation (H3K4me1), H3K9me2, H3 serine-10-phosphorylation (H3S10p), and H2B lysine-16-acetylation (H2BK16ac), and that tryptase inhibition reverses the effect of cell death on these epigenetic marks. Further, we show that tryptase is present in the nucleus of both viable and dying mast cell leukemia cells. In line with a role for tryptase in regulating nuclear events, tryptase inhibition caused an increased proliferation of the mast cell leukemia cells. Altogether, the present study emphasizes a novel principle for how epigenetic modification of core histones is regulated and provides novel insight into the biological function of human mast cell tryptase.

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  • 38.
    Albrecht, Inka
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wick, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hallgren, Asa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Expt Endocrinol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tjarnlund, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nagaraju, Kanneboyina
    Childrens Natl Med Ctr, Med Genet Res Ctr, Washington, DC 20010 USA..
    Andrade, Felipe
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA..
    Thompson, Kathryn
    Childrens Natl Med Ctr, Med Genet Res Ctr, Washington, DC 20010 USA..
    Coley, William
    Childrens Natl Med Ctr, Med Genet Res Ctr, Washington, DC 20010 USA..
    Phadke, Aditi
    Childrens Natl Med Ctr, Med Genet Res Ctr, Washington, DC 20010 USA..
    Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bottai, Matteo
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Biostat, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nennesmo, Inger
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chemin, Karine
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Herrath, Jessica
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wikberg, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ytterberg, A. Jimmy
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zubarev, Roman A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Danielsson, Olof
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Neurol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Krystufkova, Olga
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 1, Inst Rheumatol, Prague, Czech Republic.;Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 1, Dept Rheumatol, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Vencovsky, Jiri
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 1, Inst Rheumatol, Prague, Czech Republic.;Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 1, Dept Rheumatol, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Landegren, Nils
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Autoimmunitet. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Expt Endocrinol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Expt Rheumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kämpe, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Autoimmunitet. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Expt Endocrinol, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, Ingrid E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Theumatol Unit, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Development of autoantibodies against muscle-specific FHL1 in severe inflammatory myopathies2015Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0021-9738, E-ISSN 1558-8238, Vol. 125, nr 12, s. 4612-4624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutations of the gene encoding four-and-a-half LIM domain 1 (FHL1) are the causative factor of several X-linked hereditary myopathies that are collectively termed FHL1-related myopathies. These disorders are characterized by severe muscle dysfunction and damage. Here, we have shown that patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) develop autoimmunity to FHL1, which is a muscle-specific protein. Anti-FHL1 autoantibodies were detected in 25% of IIM patients, while patients with other autoimmune diseases or muscular dystrophies were largely anti-FHL1 negative. Anti-FHL1 reactivity was predictive for muscle atrophy, dysphagia, pronounced muscle fiber damage, and vasculitis. FHL1 showed an altered expression pattern, with focal accumulation in the muscle fibers of autoantibody-positive patients compared with a homogeneous expression in anti-FHL1-negative patients and healthy controls. We determined that FHL1 is a target of the cytotoxic protease granzyme B, indicating that the generation of FHL1 fragments may initiate FHL1 autoimmunity. Moreover, immunization of myositis-prone mice with FHL1 aggravated muscle weakness and increased mortality, suggesting a direct link between anti-FHL1 responses and muscle damage. Together, our findings provide evidence that FHL1 may be involved in the pathogenesis not only of genetic FHL1-related myopathies but also of autoimmune IIM. Importantly, these results indicate that anti-FHL1 autoantibodies in peripheral blood have promising potential as a biomarker to identify a subset of severe IIM.

  • 39.
    Aleynick, Mark
    et al.
    Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Svensson-Arvelund, Judit
    Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Flowers, Christopher R.
    Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Marabelle, Aurélien
    Cancer Immunotherapy Program, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
    Brody, Joshua D.
    1Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.;4Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York..
    Pathogen Molecular Pattern Receptor Agonists: Treating Cancer by Mimicking Infection2019Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 25, nr 21, s. 6283-6294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    mmunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade have achieved durable benefits for patients with advanced stage cancer and have changed treatment paradigms. However, these therapies rely on a patient's own a priori primed tumor-specific T cells, limiting their efficacy to a subset of patients. Because checkpoint blockade is most effective in patients with inflamed or "hot" tumors, a priority in the field is learning how to "turn cold tumors hot." Inflammation is generally initiated by innate immune cells, which receive signals through pattern recognition receptors (PRR)–a diverse family of receptors that sense conserved molecular patterns on pathogens, alarming the immune system of an invading microbe. Their immunostimulatory properties can reprogram the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and activate antigen-presenting cells to present tumors antigens, driving de novo tumor-specific T-cell responses. These features, among others, make PRR-targeting therapies an attractive strategy in immuno-oncology. Here, we discuss mechanisms of PRR activation, highlighting ongoing clinical trials and recent preclinical advances focused on therapeutically targeting PRRs to treat cancer. 

  • 40.
    Aleynick, Mark
    et al.
    Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Svensson-Arvelund, Judit
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Pantsulaia, Gvantsa
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Kim, Kristy
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Rose, Samuel A.
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Upadhyay, Ranjan
    Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Yellin, Michael
    Celldex Therapeutics Inc, Hampton, New Jersey, USA.
    Marsh, Henry
    Celldex Therapeutics Inc, Hampton, New Jersey, USA.
    Oreper, Daniel
    Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA.
    Jhunjhunwala, Suchit
    Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA.
    Moussion, Christine Carine
    Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA.
    Merad, Miriam
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Brown, Brian D.
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
    Brody, Joshua D.
    Marc and Jennifer Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.
    Pattern recognition receptor agonists in pathogen vaccines mediate antitumor T-cell cross-priming2023Ingår i: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, E-ISSN 2051-1426, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id e007198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cancer immunotherapies are generallyeffective in patients whose tumors contain a prioriprimed T-cells reactive to tumor antigens (TA). Oneapproach to prime TA-reactive T-cells is to administerimmunostimulatory molecules, cells, or pathogens directlyto the tumor site, that is, in situ vaccination (ISV). Werecently described an ISV using Flt3L to expand and recruitdendritic cells (DC), radiotherapy to load DC with TA, andpattern recognition receptor agonists (PRRa) to activateTA-loaded DC. While ISV trials using synthetic PRRa haveyielded systemic tumor regressions, the optimal method toactivate DCs is unknown.Methods To discover optimal DC activators and increaseaccess to clinical grade reagents, we assessed whetherviral or bacterial components found in common pathogenvaccines are an effective source of natural PRRa(naPRRa). Using deep profiling (155-metric) of naPRRaimmunomodulatory effects and gene editing of specificPRR, we defined specific signatures and molecularmechanisms by which naPRRa potentiate T-cell priming.Results We observed that vaccine naPRRa can be evenmore potent in activating Flt3L-expanded murine andhuman DCs than synthetic PRRa, promoting cross-primingof TA-reactive T-cells. We developed a mechanisticallydiverse naPRRa combination (BCG, PedvaxHIB, Rabies)and noted more potent T-cell cross-priming than withany single naPRRa. The naPRRa triplet—as part of Flt3Lprimed ISV—induced greater intratumoral CD8 T-cellinfiltration, T-cells reactive to a newly defined tumorousneoantigen, durable tumor regressions.Conclusions This work provides rationale for thetranslation of pathogen vaccines as FDA-approved clinicalgrade DC activators which could be exploited as immunestimulants for early phase trials.

  • 41.
    Ali, Arwa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi, Cancerimmunterapi.
    Gao, Menghan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Iskantar, Alexandros
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi. Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wang, Hai
    Chinese Acad Sci, CAS Ctr Excellence Nanosci, Natl Ctr Nanosci & Technol, Key Lab Biomed Effects Nanomat & Nanosafety, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Karlsson-Parra, Alex
    Mendus AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yu, Di
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Jin, Chuan
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för immunologi, genetik och patologi.
    Proinflammatory allogeneic dendritic cells enhance the therapeutic efficacy of systemic anti-4-1BB treatment2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1146413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As an immune adjuvant, proinflammatory allogeneic dendritic cells (AlloDCs) have demonstrated promising immune-priming effects in several preclinical and clinical studies. The effector cells, including NK cells and T cells are widely acknowledged as pivotal factors in the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to selectively identify and eradicate malignant cells. 4-1BB, as a costimulatory receptor, plays a significant role in the stimulation of effector cell activation. This study evaluated the anti-tumor effects when combining intratumoral administration of the immune-adjuvant AlloDCs with systemic a4-1BB treatment directly acting on effector cells. In both the CT-26 murine colon carcinoma model and B16 murine melanoma model, AlloDCs demonstrated a significant enhancement in the therapeutic efficacy of a4-1BB antibody. This enhancement was observed through the delayed growth of tumors and prolonged survival. Analysis of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in the combined-treatment group revealed an immune-inflamed TME characterized by increased infiltration of activated endogenous DCs and IFN?(+) CD8(+) T cells, showing reduced signs of exhaustion. Furthermore, there was an augmented presence of tissue-resident memory (T-RM) CD8(+) T cells (CD103(+)CD49a(+)CD69(+)). The combination treatment also led to increased infiltration of CD39(+)CD103(+) tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells and neoantigen-specific T cells into the tumor. Additionally, the combined treatment resulted in a less immunosuppressive TME, indicated by decreased infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and Tregs. These findings suggest that the combination of intratumoral AlloDCs administration with systemic agonistic a4-1BB treatment can generate a synergistic anti-tumor response, thereby warranting further investigation through clinical studies.

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  • 42.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Istituto per la Ricerca e l'Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo, Italy.
    Benada, Oldřich
    Institute of Microbiology of The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.
    Kofroňová, Olga
    Institute of Microbiology of The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.
    Cigna, Diego
    Istituto per la Ricerca e l'Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo, Italy.
    Pinsino, Annalisa
    Istituto per la Ricerca e l'Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo, Italy.
    Sea Urchin Extracellular Proteins Design a Complex Protein Corona on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Surface Influencing Immune Cell Behavior2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, artikel-id 2261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive exploitation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) augments rapid release into the marine environment. When in contact with the body fluids of marine invertebrates, TiO2NPs undergo a transformation and adhere various organic molecules that shape a complex protein corona prior to contacting cells and tissues. To elucidate the potential extracellular signals that may be involved in the particle recognition by immune cells of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, we investigated the behavior of TiO2NPs in contact with extracellular proteins in vitro. Our findings indicate that TiO2NPs are able to interact with sea urchin proteins in both cell-free and cell-conditioned media. The two-dimensional proteome analysis of the protein corona bound to TiO2NP revealed that negatively charged proteins bound preferentially to the particles. The main constituents shaping the sea urchin cell-conditioned TiO2NP protein corona were proteins involved in cellular adhesion (Pl-toposome, Pl-galectin-8, Pl-nectin) and cytoskeletal organization (actin and tubulin). Immune cells (phagocytes) aggregated TiO2NPs on the outer cell surface and within well-organized vesicles without eliciting harmful effects on the biological activities of the cells. Cells showed an active metabolism, no oxidative stress or caspase activation. These results provide a new level of understanding of the extracellular proteins involved in the immune-TiO2NP recognition and interaction in vitro, confirming that primary immune cell cultures from P. lividus can be an optional model for swift and efficient immune-toxicological investigations. 

  • 43.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l’Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Bonura, Angela
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l’Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Barbero, Francesco
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Puntes, Victor F.
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Vall d Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain.
    Gervasi, Fransesco
    Specialistic Oncology Laboratory Unit, ARNAS Hospitals Civico Di Cristina e Benfratelli, Palermo, Italy.
    Pinsino, Annalisa
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l’Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Immunomodulatory Function of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Vibrio-Stimulated Sea Urchin Immune Cells2021Ingår i: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikel-id 2646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the role of the gold nanoparticles functionalized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP–AuNPs) on the innate immune response against an acute infection caused by Vibrio anguillarum in an in vitro immunological nonmammalian next-generation model, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. To profile the immunomodulatory function of PVP–AuNPs (0.1 μg mL−1) in sea urchin immune cells stimulated by Vibrio (10 μg mL−1) for 3 h, we focused on the baseline immunological state of the donor, and we analysed the topography, cellular metabolism, and expression of human cell surface antigens of the exposed cells, as well as the signalling leading the interaction between PVP–AuNPs and the Vibrio-stimulated cells. PVP–AuNPs are not able to silence the inflammatory signalling (TLR4/p38MAPK/NF-κB signalling) that involves the whole population of P. lividus immune cells exposed to Vibrio. However, our findings emphasise the ability of PVP–AuNPs to stimulate a subset of rare cells (defined here as Group 3) that express CD45 and CD14 antigens on their surface, which are known to be involved in immune cell maturation and macrophage activation in humans. Our evidence on how PVP–AuNPs may stimulate sea urchin immune cells represents an important starting point for planning new research work on the topic. 

  • 44.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    NLRP3 inflammasome as a sensor of micro- and nanoplastics immunotoxicity2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1178434Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) are emerging pollutants with scarcely investigated effects on human innate immunity. If they follow a similar course of action as other, more thoroughly investigated particulates, MNPs may penetrate epithelial barriers, potentially triggering a cascade of signaling events leading to cell damage and inflammation. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes and stimulus-induced sensors critical for mounting inflammatory responses upon recognition of pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns. Among these, the NLRP3 inflammasome is the most studied in terms of activation via particulates. However, studies delineating the ability of MNPs to affect NLRP3 inflammasome activation are still rare. In this review, we address the issue of MNPs source and fate, highlight the main concepts of inflammasome activation via particulates, and explore recent advances in using inflammasome activation for assessment of MNP immunotoxicity. We also discuss the impact of co-exposure and MNP complex chemistry in potential inflammasome activation. Development of robust biological sensors is crucial in order to maximize global efforts to effectively address and mitigate risks that MNPs pose for human health.

  • 45.
    Alim, Abdul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mechanisms in Tendon Healing: Pain, Biomarkers and the Role of Mast Cells2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Senskador och tendinopati är vanliga problem, men de underliggande mekanismerna otillräckligt undersökta. Målet med denna avhandling är att öka kunskapen om mekanismer under läkningen av senor, och hur dessa relaterar till smärta och inflammation.

    Syftet med den första studien var att kvantifiera biomarkörer för läkning av Achillessena, genom analys av prokollagen typ I (PINP) och typ III (PIIINP) hos 65 patienter efter ruptur av Achillessenan. Två veckor efter achillesruptur kvantifierades PINP och PIIINP-nivåerna med mikrodialys följt av ELISA-analys. Ett år efter achillesruptur bedömdes patienternas upplevda besvär med användning av ett validerat formulär, Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score. Ökad andel PINP och PIIINP av totala mängden protein vid två veckor var signifikant associerat med mindre smärta men ökad fatigue i skadat ben efter ett år.

    I nästa studie utvärderade vi effekten av intermittent pneumatisk kompression (IPC) under två veckor av senans läkning efter achillesruptur. Patienterna fick antingen tilläggsbehandling med IPC eller vanlig behandling i gipsskena utan IPC. Vi kunde visa att behandling med IPC signifikant ökade nivån av PINP i den skadade senan, vilket tyder på förbättrad läkning.

    I den tredje studien undersökte vi mastcellers roll under läkningen av Achillessena efter ruptur i en råttmodell. Tre veckor postoperativt visade vi ett ökat antal mastceller och en högre andel degranulerade av mastceller i den läkande senan jämfört med senan på den andra (den friska) sidan. Vi kunde också påvisa glutamatreceptorn NMDAR1 hos mastceller i den läkande senan.

    I den fjärde studien bedömde vi effekten av glutamatstimulering in-vitro, på mastceller från benmärg hos mus. Degranulering av mastceller kvantifierades genom frisättning av β-hexosaminidas. För att kvantifiera NMDAR på proteinnivå använde vi immunfluorescens, och för att studera uttrycket av NMDAR och associerade gener använde vi RT-qPCR/mikroarray. Vi kunde visa att glutamat inducerar uppreglering av glutamatreceptorer av både jonotropisk och metabotropisk typ i mastceller, både på mRNA- och proteinnivå. NMDAR1 samlokaliserade med glutamat i membranet på mastceller, vilket därmed bekräftar en interaktion mellan glutamat och dess receptor. Glutamat inducerade också uttryck av pro-inflammatoriska proteiner såsom IL-6 och CCL2, samt transkriptionsfaktorer såsom Egr2, Egr3 och FosB. Dessutom upphävde NMDA-kanalblockeraren MK-801 fullständigt effekten av glutamat på mastceller, vilket talar för en funktionell betydelse av interaktionen mellan glutamat och glutamatreceptorer i mastceller.

    Sammantaget visar de fynd som presenteras i denna avhandling möjliga mekanismer för läkning av Achillessena i relation till smärta och funktion och introducerar en ny princip för hur immunceller kan kommunicera med nervceller efter achillesruptur.

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  • 46.
    Alim, Abdul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Grujic, Mirjana
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Ackerman, Paul W
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Peterson, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Glutamate triggers the expression of functional ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in mast cells2021Ingår i: Cellular & Molecular Immunology, ISSN 1672-7681, E-ISSN 2042-0226, Vol. 18, nr 10, s. 2383-2392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mast cells are emerging as players in the communication between peripheral nerve endings and cells of the immune system. However, it is not clear the mechanism by which mast cells communicate with peripheral nerves. We previously found that mast cells located within healing tendons can express glutamate receptors, raising the possibility that mast cells may be sensitive to glutamate signaling. To evaluate this hypothesis, we stimulated primary mast cells with glutamate and showed that glutamate induced the profound upregulation of a panel of glutamate receptors of both the ionotropic type (NMDAR1, NMDAR2A, and NMDAR2B) and the metabotropic type (mGluR2 and mGluR7) at both the mRNA and protein levels. The binding of glutamate to glutamate receptors on the mast cell surface was confirmed. Further, glutamate had extensive effects on gene expression in the mast cells, including the upregulation of pro-inflammatory components such as IL-6 and CCL2. Glutamate also induced the upregulation of transcription factors, including Egr2, Egr3 and, in particular, FosB. The extensive induction of FosB was confirmed by immunofluorescence assessment. Glutamate receptor antagonists abrogated the responses of the mast cells to glutamate, supporting the supposition of a functional glutamate-glutamate receptor axis in mast cells. Finally, we provide in vivo evidence supporting a functional glutamate-glutamate receptor axis in the mast cells of injured tendons. Together, these findings establish glutamate as an effector of mast cell function, thereby introducing a novel principle for how cells in the immune system can communicate with nerve cells.

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  • 47.
    Alkaissi, Hammoudi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Identification of candidate genes involved in Mercury Toxicokinetics and Mercury Induced Autoimmunity2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune diseases require the involvement and activation of immune cells and occur when the body builds up an immune response against its own tissues. This process takes place due to the inability to distinguish self-antigen from foreign antigen. Systemic autoimmunity represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. The mechanisms triggering autoimmune responses are complex and involve a network of genetic factors. Genome wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful method, used to identify genetic risk factors in numerous diseases, such as systemic autoimmune diseases. The goal of GWAS is to identify these genetic risk factors in order to make predictions about who is at risk and investigate the biological process of disease susceptibility. There are several valuable mouse models to investigate the underlying mechanisms causing systemic autoimmune diseases in which mercury induced autoimmunity (HgIA) is a well- established and relevant model. HgIA in mice includes development of autoantibodies, immune complex glomerulonephritis, lymphocyte proliferation, hypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal B cell activation. In humans, mercury exposure accumulates with considerable concentrations in kidney, liver, and brain. Toxicokinetics of Hg has been studied extensively but the key for inter-individual variation in humans are largely unclear. Differences in accumulation of renal Hg between inbred mouse strains suggest a genetic inter-strain variation regulating retention or/and excretion of Hg.

    OBJECTIVES: To find loci and candidate genes associated with phenotypes involved in the development of autoimmunity and find candidate genes involved in the regulation of renal Hg excretion.

    METHODS: MHC II (H-2s) mice were paired (A.SW x B10.S) to obtain F2 offspring exposed to 2.0 or 4.0 mg Hg in drinking water for 6 weeks. Mercury induced autoimmune phenotypes were studied with immunofluorescence (anti-nucleolar antibodies (ANoA)), ELISA anti-DNP/anti-ssDNA (polyclonal B cell activation), anti-chromatin antibodies (ACA) (4.0 mg Hg), and serum IgG1 concentrations. Mercury accumulation in kidney was performed previously and data was included as phenotype. F2 mice exposed to 2.0 mg Hg were genotyped with microsatellites for genome-wide scan with Ion Pair Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (IP RP HPLC). F2 mice exposed to 4.0 mg Hg were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphisms for genomewide scan with SNP&SEQ technology platform. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) was established with R/QTL. Denaturing HPLC, next generation sequencing, conserved region analysis and genetic mouse strain comparison were used for haplotyping and fine mapping on QTLs associated with Hg concentration in kidney, development of ANoA and serum IgG1 hypergammaglobulinemia. Candidate genes (Pprc1, Bank1 and Nfkb1) verified by additional QTL were further investigated by real time polymerase chain reaction. Genes involved in the intracellular signaling together with candidate genes were included for gene expression analysis.

    RESULTS: F2 mice exposed to 2.0 mg Hg had low or no development of autoantibodies and showed no significant difference in polyclonal B cell activation in the B10.S and F2 strains. F2 mice exposed to 4.0 mg Hg developed autoantibodies and significantly increased IgG1 concentration and polyclonal B cell activation (anti-DNP). QTL analysis showed a logarithm of odds ratio (LOD) score between 2.9 – 4.36 on all serological phenotypes exposed to 4.0 mg Hg, and a LOD score of 5.78 on renal Hg concentration. Haplotyping and fine mapping associated the development of ANoA with Bank1 (B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats 1) and Nfkb1 (nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1). The serum IgG1 concentration was associated with a locus on chromosome 3, in which Rxfp4 (Relaxin Family Peptide/INSL5 Receptor 4) is a potential candidate gene. The renal Hg concentration was associated with Pprc1 (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, Co-activator-Related). Gene expression analysis revealed that the more susceptible A.SW strain expresses significantly higher levels of Nfkb1, Il6 and Tnf than the less susceptible B10.S strain. The A.SW strain expresses significantly lower levels of Pprc1 and cascade proteins than the B10.S strain. Development of ACA was associated with chromosomes 3, 6, 7 and 16 (LOD 3.1, 3.2, 3.4 and 6.8 respectively). Polyclonal B cell activation was associated with chromosome 2 with a LOD score of 2.9.

    CONCLUSIONS: By implementing a GWAS on HgIA in mice, several QTLs were discovered to be associated with the development of autoantibodies, polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia. This thesis plausibly supports Bank1 and Nfkb1 as key regulators for ANoA development and HgIA seems to be initiated by B cells rather than T cells. GWAS on renal mercury excretion plausibly supports Pprc1 as key regulator and it seems that this gene has a protective role against Hg.

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    Identification of candidate genes involved in Mercury Toxicokinetics and Mercury Induced Autoimmunity
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  • 48.
    Allam, Venkata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Hlth, Grad Sch Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Pavlidis, Stelios
    Imperial Coll London, Data Sci Inst, London, England.;Janssen Res & Dev, Computat Sci, High Wycombe, England..
    Liu, Gang
    Centenary Inst, Ctr Inflammat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Technol Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Kermani, Nazanin Zounemat
    Imperial Coll London, Data Sci Inst, London, England..
    Simpson, Jennifer
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Resp Immunol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    To, Joyce
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Sci, Sch Life Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Donnelly, Sheila
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Sci, Sch Life Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Guo, Yi-Ke
    Imperial Coll London, Data Sci Inst, London, England..
    Hansbro, Philip M.
    Centenary Inst, Ctr Inflammat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Technol Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Phipps, Simon
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Resp Immunol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Morand, Eric F.
    Monash Univ, Ctr Inflammatory Dis, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Djukanovic, Ratko
    Univ Southampton, Fac Med, NIHR Southampton Biomed Res Ctr, Clin & Expt Sci, Southampton, England..
    Sterk, Peter
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Univ Med Ctr, Dept Resp Med, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Chung, Kian Fan
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Airways Dis, London, England..
    Adcock, Ian
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Airways Dis, London, England..
    Harris, James
    Monash Univ, Ctr Inflammatory Dis, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Sukkar, Maria B.
    Univ Technol Sydney, Fac Hlth, Grad Sch Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes glucocorticoid resistance of neutrophilic inflammation in a murine model of severe asthma2023Ingår i: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 78, nr 7, s. 661-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Severe neutrophilic asthma is resistant to treatment with glucocorticoids. The immunomodulatory protein macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes neutrophil recruitment to the lung and antagonises responses to glucocorticoids. We hypothesised that MIF promotes glucocorticoid resistance of neutrophilic inflammation in severe asthma.

    Methods: We examined whether sputum MIF protein correlated with clinical and molecular characteristics of severe neutrophilic asthma in the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) cohort. We also investigated whether MIF regulates neutrophilic inflammation and glucocorticoid responsiveness in a murine model of severe asthma in vivo.

    Results: MIF protein levels positively correlated with the number of exacerbations in the previous year, sputum neutrophils and oral corticosteroid use across all U-BIOPRED subjects. Further analysis of MIF protein expression according to U-BIOPRED-defined transcriptomic-associated clusters (TACs) revealed increased MIF protein and a corresponding decrease in annexin-A1 protein in TAC2, which is most closely associated with airway neutrophilia and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In a murine model of severe asthma, treatment with the MIF antagonist ISO-1 significantly inhibited neutrophilic inflammation and increased glucocorticoid responsiveness. Coimmunoprecipitation studies using lung tissue lysates demonstrated that MIF directly interacts with and cleaves annexin-A1, potentially reducing its biological activity.

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that MIF promotes glucocorticoid-resistance of neutrophilic inflammation by reducing the biological activity of annexin-A1, a potent glucocorticoid-regulated protein that inhibits neutrophil accumulation at sites of inflammation. This represents a previously unrecognised role for MIF in the regulation of inflammation and points to MIF as a potential therapeutic target for the management of severe neutrophilic asthma.

  • 49.
    Allam, Venkata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Waern, Ida
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Taha, Sowsan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Akula, Srinivas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wernersson, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pejler, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nafamostat has anti-asthmatic effects associated with suppressed pro-inflammatory gene expression, eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperreactivity2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1136780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionAsthma is characterized by an imbalance between proteases and their inhibitors. Hence, an attractive therapeutic option could be to interfere with asthma-associated proteases. Here we exploited this option by assessing the impact of nafamostat, a serine protease inhibitor known to neutralize mast cell tryptase. MethodsNafamostat was administered in a mouse model for asthma based on sensitization by house dust mite (HDM) extract, followed by the assessment of effects on airway hyperreactivity, inflammatory parameters and gene expression. ResultsWe show that nafamostat efficiently suppressed the airway hyperreactivity in HDM-sensitized mice. This was accompanied by reduced infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes to the airways, and by lower levels of pro-inflammatory compounds within the airway lumen. Further, nafamostat had a dampening impact on goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle layer thickening in the lungs of HDM-sensitized animals. To obtain deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms, a transcriptomic analysis was conducted. This revealed, as expected, that the HDM sensitization caused an upregulated expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. Further, the transcriptomic analysis showed that nafamostat suppressed the levels of multiple pro-inflammatory genes, with a particular impact on genes related to asthma. DiscussionTaken together, this study provides extensive insight into the ameliorating effect of nafamostat on experimental asthma, and our findings can thereby provide a basis for the further evaluation of nafamostat as a potential therapeutic agent in human asthma.

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  • 50.
    Almazan, Nerea Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Microbial Pathogenesis, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Div Pathol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rahbar, Afsar
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Microbial Pathogenesis, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Lund Univ, Ctr Math Sci, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Hoffman, Tove
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionsmedicin. Uppsala Univ, Zoonosis Sci Ctr ZSC, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol IMBIM, S-1477 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kolstad, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala Univ, Zoonosis Sci Ctr ZSC, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol IMBIM, S-1477 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Rönnberg, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala Univ, Zoonosis Sci Ctr ZSC, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol IMBIM, S-1477 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pantalone, Mattia Russel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Microbial Pathogenesis, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fuchs, Ilona Lewensohn
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Microbiol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Naucler, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Microbial Pathogenesis, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ohlin, Mats
    Lund Univ, Dept Immunotechnol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, SciLifeLab Human Antibody Therapeut Infrastruct Un, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Sacharczuk, Mariusz
    Med Univ Warsaw, Fac Pharm, Ctr Preclin Res & Technol, Dept Pharmacodynam,Lab Med Div, Banacha 1B, PL-02091 Warsaw, Poland.;Polish Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Anim Biotechnol, Dept Expt Genom, Postepu 36A, PL-05552 Magdalenka, Poland..
    Religa, Piotr
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Microbial Pathogenesis, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Polish Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Anim Biotechnol, Dept Expt Genom, Postepu 36A, PL-05552 Magdalenka, Poland..
    Amer, Stefan
    Familjelakarna Saltsjdbaden, S-13334 Saltsjdbaden, Sweden..
    Molnar, Christian
    Familjelakarna Saltsjdbaden, S-13334 Saltsjdbaden, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, NVS, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundkvist, Ake
    Susrud, Andres
    Immunor AS, N-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Sorensen, Birger
    Immunor AS, N-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Soderberg-Naucler, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Unit Microbial Pathogenesis, S-17164 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Turku, Inst Biomed, Unit Infect & Immunol, MediCity Res Lab, FI-20014 Turku, Finland..
    Influenza-A mediated pre-existing immunity levels to SARS-CoV-2 could predict early COVID-19 outbreak dynamics2023Ingår i: iScience, E-ISSN 2589-0042, Vol. 26, nr 12, artikel-id 108441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is highly variable and could be mediated by a cross-protective pre-immunity. We identified 14 cross-reactive peptides between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A H1N1, H3N2, and human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A/B with potential relevance. The H1N1 peptide NGVEGF was identical to a peptide in the most critical receptor binding motif in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that interacts with the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor. About 62%-73% of COVID-19-negative blood donors in Stockholm had antibodies to this peptide in the early pre-vaccination phase of the pandemic. Seasonal flu vaccination enhanced neutralizing capacity to SARS-CoV-2 and T cell immunity to this peptide. Mathematical modeling taking the estimated pre -immunity levels to flu into account could fully predict pre-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in Stockholm and India. This cross-immunity provides mechanistic explanations to the epidemiological observation that influenza vaccination protected people against early SARS-CoV-2 infections and implies that flu-mediated cross-protective immunity significantly dampened the first SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks.

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