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  • 1.
    Abbatelli, Daniele
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Material flows in the waterjet industry: an environmental perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abrasive Waterjet cutting (AWJ) presents many advantages over competing machining techniques, but several issues are related to the high volume of materials (and in particular of abrasive) used in the process.

    In this study, the environmental impact of the material flows in the abrasive waterjet industry has been analyzed adopting a life cycle perspective in order to individuate which phases place the largest burden on the environment. Moreover, three alternative abrasives (crushed rock, recycled glass and synthetic abrasive) and three disposal practices (in-site recycling, off-site recycling and recycling as construction material) have been also evaluated to estimate the benefits that can be achieved if these could be used in place of garnet abrasives and landfilling.

    The transportation of the abrasive resulted to be the phase that has the largest influence in every case and thus should be reduced as much as possible. For what concerns the alternative options, the usage of recycled glass and the in-site recycling of the abrasive were the two alternatives with the best environmental performances. However, crushed rock could be the best option for what concerns the global warming potential if carbon sequestration due to carbonation of silicate rocks is taken into account. Off-site recycling and recycling as construction material are good options only if the transportation to the recycling site can be reduced. Synthetic abrasive are instead found to have a much larger impact compared to every other alternative examined.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bachofner Gran, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    de Afonseca, Ana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kalla, Christelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Livscykelanalys av förbrukningsvaror: En studie för minskad klimatpåverkan inom Landstinget i Uppsala län2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Landstinget i Uppsala län (LUL) presenterade år 2014 ett miljöprogram med målet att minskasin klimatpåverkan inom bland annat transport, energi och förbrukningsmaterial. Syftet meddenna studie var att undersöka möjligheten för LUL att minska sina utsläpp av växthusgasergenom att välja mer miljövänliga varianter av två välanvända förbrukningsvaror inom vården:operationsset och tvättlappar. Detta utfördes genom att tillämpa metoden livscykelanalys(LCA), där tre varianter av operationsset, två sorters tvättlappar samt ett jämförbartavtorkningspapper följdes ”från vaggan till graven”.Studiens resultat skulle besvara frågan om vilken produkt inom de två användningsområdenasom avgav minst växthusgaser i form av koldioxid, metan samt lustgas under en livscykel, föratt uppfylla samma funktion inom avdelningarna operation samt geriatrik. Resultatet skullepresenteras i enheten koldioxidekvivalenter (eCO2). Dessutom identifieradesförbrukningsvarorna som medförde de minsta årsförbrukningskostnaderna för LUL.Operationsseten som undersöktes bestod av polylaktid (PLA), polypropen (PP) samt viskos.Avtorkningspappret bestod av pappersmassa och tvättlapparna bestod bland annat av viskossamt skumplast. Studien avgränsades till att inkludera växthusgasutsläpp från tillverkning avråmaterial, tillverkning av förpackningsmaterial, transporter samt förbränning.Efter utförd LCA kunde det observeras att en årsförbrukning av operationssetet i PLA släppteut minst växthusgaser med cirka 11 100 kg eCO2 per år, operationssetet i PP släppte ut mestmed 25 100 kg eCO2 per år och operationssetet i viskos bidrog med 20 300 kg eCO2 per år. Enårsförbrukning av avtorkningspappret bidrog med minst växthusgasutsläpp med 67,1 kg eCO2per år, medan tvättlappen i viskos släppte ut 134 kg eCO2 per år och tvättlappen i skumplastbidrog med det största utsläppsvärdet på 1 150 kg eCO2 per år.En årsförbrukning av båda operationsseten i PLA och PP kostade cirka 127 000 kr medansamma mängd av operationssetet i viskos ungefär kostade 125 000 kr. Avtorkningspappretkostade 4 790 kr för en årsförbrukning, tvättlappen i viskos kostade 21 000 kr och tvättlappeni skumplast kostade 19 800 kr.Resultatet från denna studie tydde på att LUL skulle kunna minska sin klimatpåverkan frånförbrukningsmaterial genom att upphandla operationssetet i PLA samt avtorkningspappretistället för de alternativen som används i dagsläget. Det finns en osäkerhet i resultatet då flertaletantaganden gjordes i brist på tillgänglig information. Resultatet anses dock ge en rimlig bild avmiljöpåverkan från produkterna då de minst klimatpåverkande förbrukningsvarorna till stor delutgjordes av förnyelsebart material.

  • 3.
    Ahlfors, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bergkrantz, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Energieffektivisering av en bandybana: Analys av kompressorkylteknik och fjärrvärmedriven absorptionskylteknik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the energy consumption in the world is increasing and Sweden is not an exception. Therefore, the continued work towards a sustainable development is essential in order for future generations to have the same opportunities as the people today. An important step towards this goal is to improve the energy efficiency until the next generations technology has been developed. As a result of this the energy resources of the earth could be saved which would lead to cost savings, due to the fact that operating costs would decrease with reduced energy consumption. A reduced electrical power generation would lead to reduced emissions of substances that affect the environment as well. The municipality of Västervik has worked towards a sustainable development for a long time; therefore energy efficiency in the public sector has been implemented.

    An analysis is done, based on a literature study and calculations, in purpose to decide if a change of the cooling system used for the outdoor ice rink in Gamleby would lead to reduced energy consumption and cost savings. The two different machines analysed are the existing compressor cooling machine and an alternative absorption cooling machine in combination with district heat from a local source. If excess of distinct heat could be used as heat source it would be positive for the environment and for sustainable development.

    Through calculations of the cooling demand, the sustainable economy and the CO2-emissions the following conclusions have been made. Since the coefficient of cooling performance is lower for the absorption cooling machine a switch of cooling system would result in a higher demand of energy (heat and power). Due to the different CO2-emission coefficients of the two energy sources a switch would lead to increase of CO2-emissions as well as reduce the efficiency of the resources of the earth.

    The investment cost for an absorption cooling machine is double the investment cost for a commercial compressor cooling machine. Therefore, calculations have shown that it would take 18 years until a change of the cooling system can be seen as cost-effective. This calculation is based on the most optimal conditions such as free district heating and a high value on the coefficient of performance. As well if the district heat would cost, a change would never be cost-effective. The life span of a cooling machine is approximately 25 years and due to the fact that the calculations for the optimal case are based on assumptions that are not confirmed, for instance the energy from the district heat would be free of charge, the authors of this study cannot recommend the change of cooling method for the ice rink seen through an economical perspective. To sum up, the conclusion is that a switch to absorption cooling will not result in an improvement in terms of energy efficiency, cost benefits or emission reduction. Instead, an analysis of the existing system should be made in order to identify efficiency improvement opportunities in areas such as optimization of the control system and reducing the cooling demand of the bandy ice by reducing heat transfer from the environment. 

  • 4.
    Aid, Graham
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The take-make-waste approach to resource management in human production and consumption systems is contributing to a variety of environmental and social problems worldwide. Additionally, as the world’s population and affluence increase, so do the negative impacts of poor resource management. Lifting the waste management (WM) sector into a new phase of development, which takes its lead from the ideals of Industrial Ecology and circular economy, is seen by many scholars and practitioners as one potential to assist in alleviating these impacts. While there are many studies on how more efficient inter-organizational resource management is (or could be) constructed, there are relatively few business development studies which have explored novel approaches (from roles to tactics) that WM organizations might operationalize toward more efficient resource management.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of knowledge and understanding of how the waste management sector can operationalize more effective and efficient resource management. In approaching this aim, two research questions guided the exploration of: 1) novel roles for WM and 2) support tactics for such roles. Grounded in the broader context of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Business Development, five studies were performed. Two studies, focused on the novel roles of inter-organizational resource management and high value secondary resource extraction, were performed through literature review and interviews, and market driver analysis respectively. In exploring support tactics, two design and proof of concept studies were carried out to investigate data analysis tools for inter-organizational resource management, and one long-term action research engagement project was coordinated to study hands-on inter-organizational collaboration tactics.

    The studies highlighted that the Swedish WM sector holds some key capacities for operationalizing (and in some cases, is already developing) the novel resource management roles identified: industrial symbiosis facilitator, eco-industrial park manager, holistic facility management, and high value resource extractor. However, depending on the portfolio of services to be performed in such roles, several capacities may need to be developed or strengthened. Main opportunities seen for these roles were – staying ahead of market developments, and aligning activities with organizational goals. The main general risk related to these roles was insufficient returns on investment. Looking forward, the main enablers identified were policy leadership for more balanced market mechanisms, increasing use of external knowledge, developing long term partnerships, lobbying, stockpiling resources, and carefully crafting new business models.

    The tools developed for strategically applying external information toward the identification of opportunities within new roles showed tactical potential. However, their implementation in broader development processes has yet to be fully validated. The hands-on exploration of change oriented collaboration, highlighted collective system framing and goal setting and face-to-face interaction as key activities for inter-organizational approaches within roles such as industrial symbiosis facilitator.

    Throughout the studies, several novel roles were investigated. Each of these roles will need to be individually evaluated by directing bodies of WM organizations, and evaluated from the organization’s vision and strategy. If certain roles are chosen to be explored in more detail, they will need to be developed within full business models - addressing issues such as income structure, internal processes and capacities to be developed, and key customers. Through applying IE and business development concepts and findings, WM organizations have possibilities to translate ambitious visions into novel offerings.

  • 5.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Action Research In Waste Management: Application to construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region2010In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH ´10 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Linnaeus University , 2010, 1009-1019 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The action research methodology and several of its methods have previously been highlighted and described by the authors as a fitting and rigorous framework approach for complex waste management systems.  This was in response to criticism of the ex ante selection of traditional empiric systems analysis tools to provide decision support and ‘sustainable improvement’ in such complex systems which often involve strong human and political factors.   Several of the action research methods described have recently been utilized in a case study around mineral (aggregate) construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  These methods were integrated through a series of workshops and work areas undergone together with project members from several private and public sectors.  Leaving the problem fuzzy (loosely defined) in the beginning; utilizing convergent interviewing, rich pictures and focus groups allowed the researchers and partner stakeholders to identify not one but several problem areas within the system of focus.  Indicator creation and a dialectic processes were then used to identify qualitative and quantitative aspects of salience around these problem areas.  These resulting indicators were strengthened through a process of verification.  Each indicator was then analyzed by what was deemed to be appropriate and transparent means.  It is argued that this approach may create better communication, transparency, and understanding by the stakeholders.  These factors in turn allowing stronger stakeholder ownership of the process and assisting in more informed decisions and help to provide stability for desired change. However the process was not without its drawbacks such as intense communication and time requirements.

  • 6.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, 85-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

  • 7.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 8. Alhola, Katriina
    et al.
    Salmenperä, Hanna
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    Busch, Niels J.
    Circular Public Procurement in the Nordic Countries2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a framework for circular procurement and discusses its possibilities to promote circular economy. Several best practice examples in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway illustrate how and in which sectors and product groups circular procurement could be applicable. Different approaches to circular procurement and tendering criteria supporting circular aspects are also illustrated.The study was carried out in Nordic co-operation by Finnish Environment Institute, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and Copenhagen Resource Institute. The project was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM), administrated by the NCM Sustainable Consumption and Production Working Group and guided by a steering group consisting representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

  • 9. Alnaami, Zurya
    et al.
    Duenas, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wind Power Integration and Operational Challenges2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power generation has gained considerable relevance in global energy markets in the last few decades. The technology behind wind turbines and their integration to the power grid are still the focus of considerable research. How exactly does this energy source influence the existing power distribution grid is still a matter of interest to many parties. The method used in this report is based on a literature study which intends to examine what is the current state of energy generation based on wind power in Sweden. In the report we have analyzed some of the integration and operational challenges of connecting a large amount of wind generated electricity to the power grid and attempted to provide an accurate and up to date summary of what these challenges will entail in the coming decade. Our results show that further research would greatly improve the current technology used in wind power generation to allow such a high level penetration. 

  • 10.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 4, 572-606 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 11.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xu, Yixuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Waste of Opportunities - A Holistic Study of the Current Situation of Municipal Waste Management in Shandong Province, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the municipal waste management. The result of the study is organised into social, economical, technical and environmental parameters. It mostly covers the years 2006 to 2010. In the discussion, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats to the management are analysed, which gives an overview of the complex situation.

    The final conclusion is that there are a lot of opportunities in developing municipal solid waste management in Shandong province since the work and planning is new and economy is good. Threats are for example a larger waste stream. The municipal waste management has some strengths, such as a lot of projects going on, but also a lot of weakness for instance implementation of the regulations and laws.

  • 12.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental management systems and environmental performance2007In: Strategic sustainability: the state of the art in corporate environmental management systems / [ed] Robert Sroufe and Joseph Sarkis, Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 2007, 242-257 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental management systems (EMSs) are tools that can be used to steer and controlan organisation’s environmental efforts. This chapter focuses on standardisedEMSs, those that deal with fulfilling the requirements of the international standard ISO14001 (ISO 1996) and/or the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) (EC 2001).These standardised EMSs have been applied for about a decade; the number of organisationsthat are certified in accordance with them worldwide is steadily rising and nowhas reached over 100,000 (ISO World 2007).Early EMS work focused on issues relating to implementation. Often, positive environmentaleffects were taken for granted. More recently, however, questions addressingthe effects of standardised EMSs have become more popular in the research literature.The extent and types of effects of a standardised system are critical issues from anenvironmental perspective. The information presented within this chapter will helpuncover and capture some of the nuances of the connection between EMSs and environmentalperformance. Important lessons learned as a result of this study include arelative lack of understanding of EMSs even after more than a decade of practical application.Additional insights include the extent to which EMSs are useful tools in achievingbetter organisational environmental conditions and identification of the importantfactors influencing the effectiveness and efficiency of such systems. While the focus ofthis chapter is on the use of standardised EMSs to reduce environmental impacts, themethods used in this study build on the author’s findings from several earlier studies—a meta-analytic perspective—and are summarised where appropriate. Some key strategicEMS issues addressed here include:

    ● Environmental aspects, their identification, formulation and assessment

    ● The scope of EMSs, including their relationship with product development

    ● Environmental policy, targets and objectives

    ● External environmental auditing

    ● Continual improvement in environmental performance

    ● EMSs and the supply chain

  • 13.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljömanagement: miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete i företag och andra organisationer2012 (ed. 2 [rev.])Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger läsaren kunskap om viktiga förutsättningar när det gällerföretags, och andra typer av organisationers, arbete med miljö- och hållbar utveckling. Det gäller både förutsättningar utanför och inom organisationer. Boken behandlar även relevanta strategier, metoder och koncept inom området.

    I den första delen – Omvärlden – behandlas områden som främst påverkar företag och andra typer av organisationer utifrån. Inledningsvis beskrivs exempelvis miljöproblematiken och ”hållbar utveckling”. Därefter behandlas miljöpolitik, miljölagstiftning, de ekonomiska systemen samt etiska frågor.

    I den andra delen – Hållbarhetsstrategiskt arbete med fokus på miljö – behandlas delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet som ofta berör hela organisationen. Först introduceras intressentperspektivet och därefter grunderna avseende strategiskt arbete. Vidare finns en kort introduktion till organisationsteori med en beskrivning av hur miljö- och hållbarhetsarbete kan organiseras och genomföras. Därefter följer två kapitel om ledningssystem, först ges en allmän introduktion för flera olika områden och sedan en mer ingående beskrivning. Den andra delen avslutas med ett kapitel om miljöarbete i olika typer av organisationer.

    I bokens tredje del – Viktiga delar i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet – berörs andra ”områden” i miljö- och hållbarhetsarbetet, som kan vara mycket viktiga men ofta inte är lika övergripande. Det innefattar miljörevision; miljöarbete med fokus på produkter; miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar; riskhantering; samt marknadsföring och extern kommunikation.

    Boken är i första hand skriven för kurser i miljömanagement eller miljöledning vid högskolor och universitet, men kan också användas för utbildningar på företag och inom andra typer av organisationer.

  • 14.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 98, 145-155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 15.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 16.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, 388-404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

  • 17. Andersen, Jes Sig
    et al.
    Jespersen, Morten Gottlieb
    A Protocol for Black Carbon Emissions: A Protocol for Measuring Emissions of Elemental Carbon and Organic Carbon from Residential Wood Burning2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This protocol was developed and subsequently tested in 2012-2015 by Nordic test and research institutes, with Danish Technological Institute (DTI) as project manager. This protocol describes a potential standardized procedure for measurements of BC (Black Carbon) in terms of both EC (Elemental Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon) from residential wood burning stoves. Such a standardized test can then be used for voluntary eco-labeling of wood stoves, and by manufacturers interested in testing and developing extremely low-emission, low-black carbon, “climate-friendly” stoves. This testing protocol is part of a project supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), and implemented by the International Cryosphere Climate Initiative (ICCI).

  • 18.
    Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Sandberg, Kenneth
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Lundqvist, Per
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Thulin, Jens
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Kirkeby, Janus
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Neidel, Trine Lund
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Weidling, Asbjørn
    Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Council of Ministers Secretariat.
    Plastic sorting at recycling centres: Guideline2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres. The aim is to give assistance to the choices made by the management of recycling centres in order to collect plastic of better quality and in greater quantities. In the guideline, the potential plastic categories are listed and described, also with respect to potential content of hazardous substances. Issues to take into account when choosing how to organise the collection of plastic at the recycling centre are described. A separate chapter looks at how the public could be assisted with the sorting of plastics at the recycling centres.

    The guideline is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers' overall green growth initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” - read more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org or at www.norden.org/greengrowth

  • 19. Andersen, Lizzi
    et al.
    Wejdling, Asbjørn
    Neidel, Trine Lund
    Plastic sorting at recycling centres: Background report2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a background report for the "Guideline for plastic sorting at recycling centres". The background report describes the methodology used in preparing the guideline, including information from existing systems and the stakeholders that can be used by the recycling centres in their decision process. The report describes the importance of communicating with purchasers about the expected purity and traceability of the plastic further down the value chain.

    The report is part of the Nordic Prime Ministers’ initiative: “The Nordic Region – leading in green growth” – read also more in the web magazine “Green Growth the Nordic Way” at www.nordicway.org

  • 20.
    Andersson, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Olausson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Identifiering av mervärden i EPC-projekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report a study is carried out with the aim to identify added values of EPC projects implemented in schools in order to increase the interest of EPC projects on the market. The report examines how the planned maintenance, supervision, maintenance and corrective maintenance is affected, how insurance premiums and terms are affected, the indoor environment and how the tasks of the operating staff is changing. A literature study of energy savings, energy use in schools, maintenance and insurance as well as how energy efficiency improvements are related to the Swedish environmental objectives has been made. Visits were carried out in Ludvika, interviews were also carried out with operation technicians and local strategists in Ludvika as well as employees of insurance companies.

    Schools often have neglected maintenance and problems with ventilation and indoor environment. Schools also have a large energy saving potential due to their low utilization, mainly because they are empty parts of the year. All Swedish schools could reduce their electricity consumption by 1 TWh per year, which in money equivalents to the salary costs of about 2,000 teaching positions.

    8 schools in Ludvika and 10 schools in Piteå who has completed EPC projects have been studied. The time periods studied are seven years for Ludvika, 2006 – 2012, and for Piteå five years, 2010 – 2014. The data of fault reports and maintenance costs are taken from the municipalities, and descriptions of schools and EPC projects have been received from Caverion who has carried out the EPC projects. Data for maintenance has to some extent been selected in consultation with employees at the municipalities.

    The number of error reports in Piteå schools have shown a slight downward trend with a peak while the EPC project was carried out and one year after. Ludvika has shown an upward trend in maintenance costs, but this is probably due to previously accumulated maintenance. The amount of corrective maintenance is reduced, but only after the project when newly found errors have been fixed and the systems have been properly adjusted. The tasks related to supervisory and maintenance has changed when remote control of systems was installed which leads to a better overview and simplifies troubleshooting. The indoor temperature got more stable, but only after they fixed the weaknesses revealed in connection with the operational optimization. However, there are complaints in Ludvika of low temperatures, but it is caused the target temperature being set too low by the municipality. Insurance is only marginally affected, and only when damage prevention measures are implemented in the properties, which is not done in the studied properties. However, the underlying data sets are too small and over a too small time period to prove any certain changes.

    An added value identified is the ability to use EPC projects as a tool to address deferred maintenance in the real estate portfolio outside the normal budgetary framework while achieving energy savings. 

  • 21.
    Andersson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling waste material is still one of the most common methods to take care of waste in a big part of the world. Gaborone, the capital of Botswana located in the southern part of Africa is no different in this way. The major part of all waste is landfilled in Gaborone and there is only a minor part of all collected material that is recycled. One solution that earlier studies suggest is to build a transfer and recycling station in the city of Gaborone that can contribute to a more sustainable waste management. This study aims to identify the major waste streams of recyclable waste and also the major stakeholders that are active in this area through an exploratory study involving interviews, a workshop and a survey. The result of this thesis can hopefully assist in the preparations for such a transfer station. The conclusions of this study are many and contains of both hard facts and also loose ends that can contribute to pursue further studies. The first important result is that all the waste collection companies transports everything they collects to a landfill and it is only recycling organizations that are working with collection and recycling in Gaborone. These recycling organizations are a few but smaller compared to the waste collection companies in collected amounts of material. Besides these collection organizations, Gaborone City Council, the local municipality works with collection of household waste and the collaboration between these three groups that operates in the same environment is very poor. All the interviewed stakeholders showed a positive interest in the transfer and recycling station but there is only a small part of the commercial business in Gaborone that believes in a more serious waste management than landfilling. Despite that one major shopping mall actually sort out recyclables and saves 30% in waste management costs thanks to that. Another issue is the prevailing cultural contradictions that is obvious among the organizations in Gaborone. The last two bigger issues is the tremendously dull political bureaucracy that is appearing in Botswana and also that voices are raised that corruption is great beneath the surface.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden .
    The Effects of Environmental Management Systems on Source Separation in the Work and Home Settings2012In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 4, no 6, 1292-1308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures that challenge the generation of waste are needed to address the global problem of the increasing volumes of waste that are generated in both private homes and workplaces. Source separation at the workplace is commonly implemented by environmental management systems (EMS). In the present study, the relationship between source separation at work and at home was investigated. A questionnaire that maps psychological and behavioural predictors of source separation was distributed to employees at different workplaces. The results show that respondents with awareness of EMS report higher levels of source separation at work, stronger environmental concern, personal and social norms, and perceive source separation to be less difficult. Furthermore, the results support the notion that after the adoption of EMS at the workplace, source separation at work spills over into source separation in the household. The potential implications for environmental management systems are discussed.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmös strategi för social hållbarhet med fokus på förorten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers the social sustainability agenda in the suburbs Rosengård and Kroksbäck, situated in Malmö. These suburbs where constructed mainly in the years 1960-1975 and are now in need of refurbishing. There is also a housing shortage in Malmö and the demand is mainly for inexpensive apartments. Young adults, students, immigrants, senior citizens and families alike are looking for places where they can afford to live. The high demand for living space and the need of renovation could spark a gentrification process which would not be socially sustainable. The main actors whose social sustainability agendas are reviewed are the municipality of Malmö and the municipal owned housing company of MKB as well as the tenants’ association. The report also covers how the dialogue between the residents in Rosengård, the civil servants of the city and the landlords is carried out. Reactions from the residents in Rosengård have been researched in newspapers, but it proved hard to find while criminal reports where abundant. Lastly two examples on how the social sustainability agenda have been carried out in Gothenburg is presented. The methodology which the results are based on is a literature review.

    The report finds that both Malmö and Gothenburg are using a matrix formed decision tool in order to incorporate social aspects in all planning decisions. This is something which works well in both cities. The municipality of Malmö took a decision in 2014 that the social justice will increase when building new apartments. They do however realize the most of the newly constructed homes might be too expensive but they hope that this will eventually free up cheaper apartments. Different investment programs have been initiated in Rosengård, Rosengård I förvandling is one of them. Part of this program was based on local farming and different pedagogical activities. MKB are using social clauses when hiring different contractors, they stipulate that ten percent of the workforce should be locals or people who previously have been unemployed. This would be one the few tangible solutions which MKB is contributing with to solving the problem with lack of social sustainability. The tenants’ association is mainly focusing on minimizing the rent increase. They do however see a potential in so called neighborhood effects such as social learning were tenants are affecting other tenants in a positive way. The tennants’ association believes, as do the municipality of Malmö, that this can be achieved partly by constructing new houses among the older ones.

    The dialogue between the residents and the municipality used to be characterized as too little too late in the planning process. The revised aim with the dialogue is now to bring the citizens opinions into the decision process at an earlier stage. A potential problem could be the language barriers as there are many immigrants living in suburban Malmö. However in projects where the dialogue where given a priority the outcome became a success and the decision enjoys a broad support. As a recommendation for future research, a survey or deep interviews with the residents on their thoughts about actions taken to increase the social sustainability could be carried out. This is something which this report is lacking, good feedback from the residents. 

  • 24.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, 374-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values.

    The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved.

    The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 25.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, 31-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 26.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jonsson, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Svaret är 42, men vad är frågan?: En analys av EMEC-modellen och dess effekter på svensk klimatpolitik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EMEC is a computational general equilibrium (CGE) model used for calculation of societal costs and evaluation of cost-effectiveness in the decision basis of Swedish climate policy. The model has been criticized for exaggerating societal costs of policies, exemplified by Sweden's relative decoupling of GDP and carbon dioxide emissions during 1990-2010. Thereby, one could argue that the model results possibly have led to less ambitious climate targets in Sweden. With the model's suitability being questioned and an expressed need for better climate policy evaluation, this master thesis aims to analyse EMEC and its effects on Sweden's climate policy. It also aims to highlight key aspects for improved climate policy evaluation. Literature and interview studies were conducted in order to form a balanced framework of different actors' perspectives on the issue. This related to several identified aspects that were considered important by the authors in the context of the EMEC model. The subsequent empirical study of three periods of Swedish climate-political processes used these results as a basis for discussion.

    The results imply that the critique about exaggerated costs very likely is justified, which probably also has affected Sweden's climate-political direction. Regarding the model itself, the principal reasons are argued to be its static nature and the difficulties associated with predicting future technological- and world-market price developments. Connected to the model's role, the principal reasons are argued to be rooted in its relatively short-term perspective and one-dimensional definition of benefits, compared to the long-term and multi-dimensional nature of a transition to a low-carbon society. These features have, in this study, been argued to weaken the long-term cost-effectiveness of Sweden's climate policy. The EMEC-model's principal effects in this respect have been constituted in the arguments for general policies over sector-specific goals as well as emission reductions abroad.

    An alternative evaluation framework would include a wider range of benefits and costs associated with climate policy, for example dynamic costs of lock-in effects in carbon intensive structures. This would decrease the costs of climate policy in a counter-factual comparison. It could be argued that a qualitative decision basis would be more appropriate considering the complexities and difficulties associated with modelling a largely uncertain future. Especially, since model results are based on the same historic trends that need to be abandoned in order to reach future climate targets. However, considering that the climate-political process demands a quantitative decision-basis, qualitative aspects should function as a complement and gain increased emphasis in the Swedish climate- political decision basis. This would purposively broaden the framework and serve as a necessary balance to the indications given by results on GDP. Given that the EMEC model to some extent continues to constitute a basis for climate policy, suggestions for alternative interpretations of the model results have also been provided. 

  • 27.
    Andréen, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Social-ecological resilience thinking in Environmental Management Systems for municipal strategic planning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human actions are significantly affecting natural environments from local to global scales. At the same time, our current and future well-being is not decoupled from the continuous function of the natural ecosystems. An emerging issue, from an anthropocentric point of view, is then under what conditions the ecosystems will be able to continue delivering services that we as humans benefit from. A concept within the theory of social-ecological resilience that deals with this issue is thresholds.

    This thesis addresses how the concept of thresholds can be operationalized in a local authority and what gains and challenges that could entail for strategic planning in the municipality. The thesis also addresses how the operationalization of thresholds could benefit from a standardized Environmental Management System (EMS) in a local authority, and if there are any difficulties in doing so. My research questions are addressed by studying Eskilstuna municipality, a local authority in Sweden that uses both an EMS and is part of an on-going resilience assessment in collaboration with Stockholm Resilience Centre. The studied case and issues described above are approached interdisciplinary by using literature and document studies, participant observations, a survey, and semi-structured interviews with actors at the municipality.

    My research shows that thresholds potentially could be operationalized in a local authority either through strategic action plans, or as a way of constructing scenarios in comprehensive planning. Both ways of operationalizing thresholds need to occur in early stages of strategic planning. The thesis shows that thresholds could entail a potential comprehensive gain for strategic planning by providing an argument as to why it is important that certain development trajectories within the municipality are changed. The results also show synergistic effects between the EMS and thresholds in the sense that the EMS could systematize the implementation of overarching strategic plans, influenced by the concept of thresholds, in the municipality’s organization. Challenges in using thresholds in a local authority related mainly to the issues of quantifying thresholds, and to a tension between the different system boundaries suggested by resilience theory and continuous improvement in an EMS.

  • 28.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    College of Engineering and Technology, East Carolina University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Textile Sustainability: Living Within Our Means2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is defined by Brundtland as “….development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. An evaluation of the current ‘pulse of the planet’ which consists of nature’s core business of creating diversity, abundance and continuance yields a bleak future. It suggests limited supplies of natural resources that pose an obstacle to future worldeconomic growth. This paper makes an assessment of a sustainable future for textiles based on economic, social,and environmental dimensions. Both strategic and tactical remedies for the textile value chain are provided. Thecollective actions suggested will not ensure success but rather provide a framework for a better and safer planet.

  • 29.
    Apostolopoulou - Kalkavoura, Varvara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Effects of Varying Sludge Quality on the Permeability of a Membrane Bioreactor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis firstly includes a theory part describing, the conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and especially the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process. As Stockholm municipality want to retrofit the current activated sludge system at Henriksdal into a membrane bioreactor (MBR), an extensive description of the MBR and its advantages and disadvantages are included.

    Fouling is considered a really important issue for the operation of an MBR since it reduces an MBR’s productivity over time. Therefore, description of the fouling mechanisms and the potential foulants is included as well as a description of the membrane cleaning procedures. Sludge composition is considered a very important parameter which contributes to membrane fouling and thus this master thesis aims to identify the effects of varying sludge quality on the membranes operation. Precipitation chemicals used for phosphorus chemical precipitation and especially ferrous sulphate which is examined in this master thesis are also affecting the sludge quality and the membranes operation.

    The report includes description of Henriksdal reningsverk and line 1 of the pilot MBR at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk where the experimental work was performed. The following chapter describes the experimental work performed in the laboratory including the determination of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge’s filterability. The filterability was determined by performing the time to filter (TTF) method and the sludge filtration index (SFI) method. Furthermore, the samples were also examined in the optical microscope to determine their bulkiness and their filaments content. The iron content in the sludge was also measured from Eurofins Environment Testing Sweden AB.

    In the results section, the different parameters measured are illustrated in charts and they are compared to each other in order to define which factors contribute positively or negatively to the sludge’s filterability and thus affect the sludge quality and the membranes operation. The results indicate that SFI is a more reliable method for measuring filterability compared to TTF. Furthermore, the iron content in the sludge is proportional to the permeability as well as the filaments content observed during microscopy is proportional to the SFI or TTF. Finally, this master thesis includes recommendations for future research which basically include more analyses to identify the sludge biology and more samples taken for longer time periods. 

  • 30. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Wik, Ola
    Engelsen, Christian J.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Hjelmar, Ole
    Wahlström, Margareta
    How Does the European Recovery Target for Construction & Demolition Waste Affect Resource Management?2017In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, no 5, 1491-1504 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revised EU Waste Framework Directive (WFD) includes a 70 % target for recovery of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. In order to study the potential change in the resource management of the main C&D waste fractions, as a consequence of fulfilling the WFD target, a Nordic project (ENCORT-CDW) has been performed. Waste fractions studied included asphalt, concrete, bricks, track ballast, gypsum-based construction materials and wood. Recovery scenarios were identified and estimations were made regarding expected savings of primary materials, impact on transport, and pollution and emissions. For wood waste, the main differences between re-use, material recycling and energy recovery were evaluated in a carbon footprint screening based on life cycle assessment methodology. The study concluded that the EU recovery target does not ensure a resource efficient and environmentally sustainable waste recovery in its present form since: It is very sensitive to how the legal definitions of waste and recovery are interpreted in the Member States. This means that certain construction material cycles might not count in the implementation reports while other, less efficient and environmentally safe, recovery processes of the same material will count. It is weight-based and consequently favours large and heavy waste streams. The result is that smaller flows with equal or larger resource efficiency and environmental benefit will be insignificant for reaching the target. It does not distinguish between the various recovery processes, meaning that resource efficient and environmentally safe recovery cannot be given priority. Improved knowledge on C&D waste generation and handling, as well as on content and emissions of dangerous substances, is required to achieve a sustainable recovery.

  • 31.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Edlund, Lena
    Fallgren, Per
    Forsberg, Lars
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Gustavii, Jonathan
    Herzing, Mathias
    Häckner, Jonas
    Jacobsson, Adam
    Jacobsson, Eva-Maria
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Källmén, Håkan
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Lundström, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Muren, Astri
    Sjöberg, Eric
    Thuresson, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    Wickström, Hans
    Effektiv miljötillsyn: Slutrapport2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målsättningen har varit att ta fram ny kunskap inom miljötillsynen och därigenom uppnå en effektivare miljötillsyn samt att få in nya vetenskapliga perspektiv på miljötillsyn.

    I rapporten studeras metoder för inspektioner och det kommunikativa samspelet mellan inspektören och företrädare för den verksamhet som inspekteras, hur den institutionella ramen för inspektionsprocessen fungerar samt visar på möjligheter att mäta effekterna av inspektioner och tillsyn.

    Naturvårdsverket kommer att ha resultatet som ett kunskapsunderlag i fortsatt arbete med tillsynsvägledning och utveckling av hur tillsyn och tillsynsvägledning kan följas upp och utvärderas.

  • 32.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener Petersen, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Asa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    A framework for sustainability assessment of ICT futures Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT-societies2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has an influence on all societal sectors and can have both positive and negative consequences. To support ICT for sustainability (ICT4S), we need to learn when and how ICT can enable sustainable development. It is important to take into account all types of potential impacts environmental and social, direct and indirect. Looking at future ICT societies and their potential environmental and social implications is of special interest, as this can provide valuable knowledge for planning and policy-making today to enable ICT4S. A methodological framework for environmental and social assessment of future ICT societies with a consumption perspective was developed as a part of a joint project with researchers at KTH, ICT industry, municipality and county. The overall goal of the project was to develop five different future scenarios for Swedish ICT societies and to assess the risks and opportunities for environmental and social consequences in those scenarios. This paper presents the framework for environmental and social assessment of future scenarios and discusses the challenges experienced and lessons learned in the process of the framework development. The framework is aimed to deal with a broad and complex object and scope of assessment, the inherent uncertainty and data restrictions of future scenarios, and is applying qualitative analysis.

  • 33.
    Arvanitis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    MACROALGAE IN THE BIOREFINERY: A SUBSTANCE FLOW ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN EXTRACTION PROCESS OF THE MAJOR COMPONENTS IN SACCHARINA LATISSIMA2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A turn to more sustainable resources has lead the research during the last decades to algae. Algae is a resource that has been utilized for thousands of years offering a variety of possibilities. Nevertheless modern technology were able to uncover algae’s great potential and pave the way for alternative uses such as biofuel and biomaterial production. Towards that direction, ‘Seafarm’ aims in utilizing algae in the most efficient and sustainable way. For that purpose various steps have been established, including the biorefinery step which entail among other the extraction of carbohydrates from brown algae.

    The current thesis is based on an extraction of carbohydrates from Saccharina latissima, a brown algae species, which was developed by Viktor Öberg during his master thesis at KTH. The aim of this work is to assist in the scaling up of that laboratory process by analyzing the basic steps and substances of the process, investigating its environmental performance and identifying improvement areas for theoretical optimization. The results of the aforementioned analysis include a substance flow analysis which reveals the basic steps of the process and constitute the basis for further analysis. The second step examines the environmental performance of the process based on the chemical selection. Hence the results are a risk assessment of chemicals with performance indicators for each chemical as well as the whole process. The final part provides a theoretical optimization of the process based on literature studies where the recommendations are divided in production optimization and environmental performance.

    The above results constitute the basis of the analysis of the process and sets the foundations for scaling up the process at an industrial level. The current analysis in combination with an energy and economic assessment could be used for the designing of the process and its integration in the biorefinery. 

  • 34. Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Nordborg, Maria
    Cederberg, Christel
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sörme, Louise
    Palm, Viveka
    Stamyr, Kristin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Molander, Sverker
    The Zinc Paradox – a Problem for USETox-based indicators of national chemical footprint2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the immense problem of chemical pollution worldwide, there is a great need for methods that can be used to calculate indicators of chemical footprints. Such indicators can be calculated for products and services using life cycle assessment (LCA), but also for whole nations. Indicators of natio- nal chemical footprints may include emissions within the nation’s borders only, or also emissions related to consumption (thus having a life cycle perspective). A limited number of studies (< 5) have attempted to calculate indicators of national chemical footprints using the USEtox consensus model for toxicity impact assessment in LCA. One of these is our calculation of indicators of a national chemical footprint for Sweden. Two other studies have made similar assessments for Europe. Using the national perspective of these studies enables a rough validation of USEtox results, since the indicators of national chemiABSTRACTS 62 63 cal footprint based on USEtox can be compared to non-LCA toxicity assessments done on national levels. Such validations are not possible for LCA studies of single products. Notably, the results of existing assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints, including our Swedish study, all pinpoint zinc as the dominating substance. Zinc typically accounts for >50% of the toxicity impacts for both ecotoxicity and human toxicity. For ecotoxicity, this is not unreasonable considering the notable toxicity of zinc to aquatic organisms. For human toxicity, this result is more surprising. Zinc is an essential trace element for humans that many take as a dietary supplement to prevent zinc deficiency. Non-LCA sources describe zinc as “relatively harmless” to human health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) does not list zinc among the top ten chemicals of major public health concern, although there are other metals on the list (mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic). These contradictory claims about zinc’s health impact seem to constitute a paradox. We present a review of existing studies assessing indicators of national chemical footprints, and of toxicological research related to zinc. We further discuss potential causes of this zinc paradox, as well as implications for assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints with USEtox.

  • 35. Ask, Amalie
    et al.
    Anker-Nilssen, Tycho
    Herzke, Dorte
    Trevail, Alice
    Franeker, Jan A. van
    Gabrielsen, Geir Wing
    Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate whether the amount of ingested plastic affects the concentration of certain plastic-adsorbed toxicants in their tissues. Marine plastic pollution is a field of utmost importance. It is our hope that this continues to be an area which receives increased attention in order to elucidate the potential harmful effects plastics have on the northern fulmar and ocean health, in general.

  • 36.
    Askew, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Carlberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Office chairs in circular business models2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a master’s thesis project of 30 credits written with guidance from the Swedish research institute ICT Viktoria and Industrial Ecology at KTH. This thesis is conducted by two students at KTH, one with a background in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Ecology and the other with a background in Energy and Environmental Technology. This study focuses on circular economy linked to the furniture industry in Sweden and how the transition from theoretical to practical concepts can be improved.

    The methods of this thesis consist of three semi-structured interviews, a survey and an analytical comparative literature review. The interviews, survey and literature review is analyzed with the purpose of finding important criteria relevant for office chairs in circular business models. The interviews are performed face-to-face with three different key persons; an office supply manager, a CEO at a refurbishing company and a product manager.

    The study focuses on product design within the Swedish furniture industry although some aspects regarding circular business models, logistics and psychological values are included.

    The results are design criteria for office chairs in circular business models and a design evaluation program for the industry built on these. The program, based on multi criteria analysis, can help reduce the gap between theory and practice of how circular economy should be implemented in the industry. By giving early feedback during the design phase on how well an office chair and a company’s structure meet circular economy criteria the authors hope to ease and speed up this transition.

    The main characteristics of an office chair designed for circular business models are:

    • Durable

    • Easy to service

    • Adaptable

    • Modular

    • Homogeneous material composition in modules

      Although the transition to circular business models can be a comprehensive process the authors believe that if furniture manufacturers would integrate circular business models for office chairs into their business structure this would be both economically viable and highly beneficial for their environmental profile which can strengthen their position on the market. 
  • 37. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Sælen, Håkon
    Pauw, Pieter
    From Lima to Paris, and Beyond: Options for Ex Ante Assessment of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions under the UNFCCC2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial question in the development of a new climate change agreement centres on the “intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) that parties have agreed to communicate before the COP 21 in Paris in December 2015. This paper explores options for the design, organization and timing of the ex ante assessment process of the INDCs. It identifies key choices to be made in Lima, and the implications of these choices for the road to Paris. Finally, it discusses the implications of the design, organization and timing of the assessment for future review processes under a Paris agreement.

  • 38.
    Ast, Eric
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    The state of long-term climate action planning in megacities: Planning and demographic trends among 17 of the world’s leading cities aiming to reduce emissions by 80% by the year 20502015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report reviews the current state of long-term climate action planning in 17 cities which have publicly communicated carbon reducttargets in line with the IPCC recommended 80% reduction by 2050 (80x50) for stabilizing the impacts of climate change at 2°C.  The aim of this report is to provide a foundation of support for cities in achieving their deep carbon reduction goals through a comprehensive understanding of leading climate action plans and the context under which they were created, including current city emissions and demographic data, climate plan reduction strategies and targets, and feedback on plan creation and needs from city planning staff.  By achieving this aim, cities are in a better position to understand where their plans fit in the global context and connect with other cities around common issues, research institutions have a new benchmark analysis of leading action plans to build further research upon, and city-level climate action organizations have a clearer idea of how to focus efforts in helping cities achieve carbon reduction goals.  This aim is achieved through the application of a framework for comparing city plans and targets, an analysis of current city emissions and demographic data, and synthesis of key findings from city planning staff discussions.  

    Key findings show no clear demographic and environmental biases exist within these 17 cities, indicating long-term climate action planning can be undertaken by cities across the full spectrum of size, climate, and current per capita emissions output, though regional geographic and development bias exists.  Plans for carbon reduction are highly concentrated among a small number of actions, indicating the movement has coalesced around a standard set of strategies for achieving deep carbon reductions.  Finally, the relative newness of plans, with the majority less than 5 years old, and the lack of commonality among cities in emissions methodology and communication of reduction strategies, shifts a short-term focus towards standardization methodologies which enable deeper comparison between cities and plans.

  • 39.
    Axelius, Torun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hellström, Josefine
    Torpner, Jessie
    Trinh, Yvonne
    von Greyerz, Karin
    Office Recycling: Analys utifrån Triple Bottom Line2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Office Recycling Sverige AB efterfrågade en hållbarhetsrapport som kan användasinom företaget men även mot kunderna. I studien analyserades processer i företagetför att undersöka och kunna optimera verksamheten där resultatet sedan kan användassom underlag till en hållbarhetsrapport. Som metod valdes Triple Bottom Line därekonomiska, miljömässiga och sociala aspekter ingår. Alla undersökningar sompresenteras i rapporten utfördes enligt denna modell.I studien undersöktes hur utformningen av en hållbarhetsrapport utförs samt hurimplementering av Triple Bottom Line sker i företagets verksamhet. Undersökningarutfördes dessutom på företaget i helhet vilket innefattar företagets verksamhet,transporter inom företaget, produkten Miljörör och certifieringar. Studien har givitkunskap om företagets struktur och vilka områden som behöver optimeras ochförbättras i framtiden.Ett flödesschema över företagets processer skapades för att bättre förståkommunikationen inom Office Recycling men även hur det ser ut mot kunderna. Deresultat som har erhållits är att kommunikationen inom företaget är bristfällig enligtenkätundersökningen som skickades ut till servicepersonalen. Enkäten gav ävenresultat om arbetsmiljön där servicepersonalen anser att arbetet är stressigt och tungt.Office Recycling är märkta med Bra Miljöval för företagets val av biogas somdrivmedel i transporterna vid hämtning av verksamhetsavfall. Företaget är ävencertifierad med Fossilfritt Sverige och ISO-standarderna inom kvalité och miljö, ISO9001 respektive ISO 14001.Office Recycling har fått en utökning av kunder vilket bidrar till investeringen i tvånya servicebilar. Servicebilarna måste placeras på ett optimalt sätt för att underlättaarbetsbördan hos servicepersonalen, därför har tre förslag tagits fram som har utgåttfrån ekonomiska, sociala och miljömässiga aspekter. Resultatet är att förslag två ärdet mest optimala av de tre förslagen.

  • 40.
    Axelsson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jennerot, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Restaurangers förhållningssätt till hållbar matkonsumtion: En studie av restauranger på KTH campus med tonvikt på animaliska livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s food production constitutes nearly 30 % of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions. The level of impact a food product has on climate depends on various factors such as production method and transportation, where previous research has shown that animal products have the biggest climate impact. Towards the goal of reaching a more sustainable food consumption it has become even more important to map food flows in order to decrease the consumption of food that has bad climate impact. The purpose of this study has been to examine in which amounts different types of food products, with emphasis on animal products, are served at restaurants on KTH campus and to examine the restaurants current work related to sustainable development. The study has been limited to two restaurants, Open Café and Restaurant Nymble, and the information that the study is based on has been obtained from the restaurants through data collections and interviews. 

    Based on the results of the study one can observe that both restaurants work with sustainable food consumption, however they have chosen different priority areas. Open Café has its main focus on KRAVPcertified products, while Restaurant Nymble work mainly with minimizing its food waste. Regarding the lunch courses, both animalP and vegetable products occur in the weekly menus. MeatP fishP and vegetarian dishes are provided, however, Open Café serves vegetarian dishes twice a week and Restaurant Nymble offers a vegetarian alternative everyday. 

    By mapping the animal products used in the lunch dishes, with the help of the tools “Köttguiden” and “Fiskguiden”, it turns out that both participating restaurants use products that are classified as better for the environment as well as products with negative impact. The amount of animal products that are served per lunch course may depend on the restaurants way of thinking related to sustainable development, their serving concept and if nutritional recommendations are used or not.

  • 41.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Beyond impacts: Contextualizing strategic environmental assessment to foster the inclusion of multiple values in strategic planning2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has the potential to improve strategic planning. However, meeting this expectation is a major challenge since SEA practice still constraints itself to assess the impacts of strategic planning initiatives. To advance the role of SEA beyond impact assessment, it has been argued that SEA needs to adapt to strategic planning contexts. Yet, there is a lack of consensus on how SEA should adapt to strategic planning contexts as these are complex, vary considerably and carry high levels of uncertainty. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of SEA by creating knowledge on ways in which it can be contextualized to different strategic planning situations. Three case studies addressing different values and strategic planning contexts were designed from which experiences on SEA conceptualization were drawn. The results show that developing strategic focused SEA frameworks that enhance dialogue, collaboration and knowledge generation on multiple values can address issues such as: the lack of data and objectives in developing planning contexts; gaps in knowledge and uncertainty associated to environmental monitoring in transboundary contexts; and the recognition of the importance of ecosystem services and their needed green qualities in urbanizing contexts. Based on the gained case study experiences, it is argued that SEA contextualization can mean addressing strategic planning intentions, identifying and engaging actors, deriving and prioritizing key values, collaborating to generate knowledge on key issues, and using this knowledge to shape strategic planning. Due to the complexity of the issues involved, contextualizing SEA is considered to be challenging to achieve and requires time and resources. However, based on the SEA case studies, it can be argued that the value added to strategic planning outweighs these requirements. Continuing to study the practice of context adaptable, strategic focused and participatory based SEA processes may contribute to advance SEA’s role beyond impact assessment and enable reaching its expected potentials.

  • 42.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Andersson, Kim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Strategic Environmental Assessment Pre-study of Sonso Lagoon, Colombia.2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, a discussion has been going on in most western countries about the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in planning systems. As a result, SEA has been incorporated in national legislation for the assessment of government plans and programs. Additionally, developing nations have started to consider strategic environmental issues and SEA due to the stimulus that has been given by international environmental conventions like the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. However, until now few investigations have been carried out to assess how the current SEA framework suits developing nations. That is why an SEA pre-study that applies the current SEA process together with Ramsar specifications was developed in a case study for the Sonso Lagoon in Colombia. In this study an account of both the positive and negative experiences that resulted from applying the SEA/Ramsar framework is given, the importance of stakeholder participation throughout the SEA process is stressed, stakeholder inequalities created by social differences in developing nations are discussed, the importance of an interdisciplinary working approach is highlighted, and finally a strategic working methodology is proposed for the Sonso Lagoon.

  • 43.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Network Strategic Environmental Assessment for Capacity Development and Dialogue2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-governmental organisations are playing an increasingly important role in facilitating the inclusion of a diversity of perspectives in the debates and decisions that shape society by acting as platforms for dialogue. However, to enable and maintain dialogues that influence decision making it is acknowledged that these organisations need to focus on developing their key capacities and design appropriate approaches. For these purposes, planning and decision making support processes like strategic environmental assessment can be useful. This paper suggests a network approach for capacity development and dialogue generation for network based non-governmental organisations through the design of a network strategic environmental assessment process. Experiences are drawn from developing the network strategic environmental assessment in Samp Intercontinental Museum Network, a Swedish non-governmental organisation working with the development of museums and their communities. The results were process ownership, participant engagement and iterative dialogues. Even though it is challenging to develop network strategic environmental assessments, it is argued that these processes can benefit network organisations by setting the bases for their capacity development programmes and by operationalising and mainstreaming their higher level concepts, allowing these organisations to reach their goals and contribute to long lasting transformations in society.

  • 44.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Practitioner perspectives on conflicts and measures for green qualities in the Stockholm regionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Reaching compact green cities: A study of the provision of and pressure on cultural ecosystem services in StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Aziz, Md. Tanjil Al
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Potential Utilization of Municipal Organic Solid Waste: Case Study: Dhaka City Corporation Area, Bangladesh2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a concern of high priority for any city authority. Without proper management of this waste great problems may occur for society. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a developing city. The population load and energy demand is increasing day by day. The city authority, Dhaka City Corporation (DCC), is responsible for managing the city’s solid waste.

    In Dhaka city waste is collected from door to door then put into dustbins and finally transported and dumped in the landfill sites. This unplanned waste management system creates environmental problems, such as water pollution and metal contamination, as well as social and health problems, for example skin diseases, headache, vomiting, and increases in mosquitoes, flies, and bad odour. Since the generated waste has more than 50% organic content, it can be a good source for energy generation.

    New technological solutions and a systematic approach can be a great option for management of waste. In Dhaka City Corporation Area this study addresses anaerobic digestion as a new option for energy generation. Among various types of existing technologies based on the climatic factor, waste stream, social and cultural factors, and environmental factors, the anaerobic treatment method is considered the best possible alternative method. The environmental system analysis tool, cost benefit analysis, is used in combination with the technology for determining the suitability of the system.

    By analysing technological treatment methods and environmental system analysis tools, comparisons are conducted between the present situation and a proposed scenario. The comparisons were conducted based on various considerations, such as net present benefit of total life time, net present benefit considering only economic value, net present benefit considering economic value including environmental and social value, and so on. In all cases, values for the proposed project show positive outcomes and for the present scenario they show negative ones. By analysing an environmental system analysis approach of anaerobic digestion of proposed project, it can be considered as a beneficial project for the DCC authority from environmental, social, and economic points of view. 

  • 47.
    Azzi, Elias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Waste Management Systems in Lebanon: The benefits of a waste crisis for improvement of practices2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a public service which, when it fails, can rapidly become overwhelming for communities and authorities. It is also during the deepest crisis that incentives change and new practices emerge. Lebanon went through an 8-months waste crisis after the closure of the country’s main landfill. Facing the incapacity of restoring basic services, the monopolistic centralised system was questioned: civil society, social businesses and municipalities organised, at a smaller scale, their own waste management. The thesis aims were to identify the role of the new waste stakeholders in the broader picture, assess the efficiency and needs of municipal projects and suggest some priorities for the country’s solid waste policies. The use of process-flow diagrams and a contextualised classification of actors were used to describe the Lebanese system. Case studies of recent initiatives were made using an adapted ISWM framework. The investigations have shown that, since the crisis, waste management is organised around three complementary systems, with their own legitimacy, supporters and challenges, but overall lacking of cooperation and mutual recognition. The nascent decentralised waste management tends to achieve better than the traditional central system, especially in terms of landfill space saved, resource management and inclusivity of users. However, it faces issues when tackling final disposal, energy recovery and financing. Any future waste policy should include all waste actors, set clear targets and reject any “one-size-fits-all” solution benefiting private corrupted interests.

  • 48.
    Bakas, Ioannis
    et al.
    CRI.
    Herczeg, Márton
    CRI.
    Vea, Eldbjørg Blikra
    CRI.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL.
    Youhanan, Lena
    IVL.
    Baxter, John
    Østfoldforskning.
    Critical metals in discarded electronics: Mapping recycling potentials from selected waste electronics in the Nordic region2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) traditionally focuses on large quantities of waste materials such as plastics. However, some product groups in the WEEE contain hidden treasures in the form of critical metals. This project assesses the critical metals’ waste handling as part of five selected product groups, in the Nordic region. The environmental and economic benefits from the recycling of these metals currently and in the near future is quite substantial, mainly due to the presence of significant quantities of gold in the selected products. In order to contribute further to the circular economy concept, the Nordic countries should pay attention not only to quantitative but also to qualitative aspects of recycling, in order to capture recyclable materials that, although in small quantities, their recycling brings a high economic and environmental value.

  • 49.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Mustafa, Riham
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Biogas Production in Abu Dhabi: An Evaluation based on Energy and Economy (Comparison of two plant designs)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abu Dhabi, which is the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, is known for its fast and advanced development in a short period of time. The city however generates a large amount of waste on a daily basis and a large amount of this is dumped or landfilled. Landfilling of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and circa 80 % of the OFMSW is landfilled in Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi has shown its commitment to reducing GHG emissions by aiming to generate 7% renewable energy by 2030, improving waste management, and developing a strategy for green economy. In this study the approach evaluated is the waste-to-biogas system which utilizes anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Modules based on the Aikan® and REnescience® plant designs were simulated using SuperPro Designer® where energy and economic values were obtained and used for the evaluations. Excel was used to make a cash-flow analysis for both modules. A SWOT analysis was conducted to compare the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats between both modules.

    Energy Returned on Investment is an approach that calculates the efficiency of a fuel by dividing the energy acquired by the energy required in a process. Both modules give an energy returned on investment (EROI) ratio for biogas of slightly below 2:1, in regards to electricity which is considered relatively low when compared to other fuels. Three methods were used for calculating the profitability of the modules, internal rate of return, pay-back period and net present value (NPV). However the net present value (NPV) was found most reliable and showed an NPV of $500 000 and $3 000 000 for module one and two respectively and calculations show that module one has more risks while module two could result in a bigger risk monetarily. The results show that implementing such a system will have a minimal contribution to the city’s aim of 7 % renewable energy generation. However, it will contribute to the city’s target of reducing GHG emission, improve waste management, and lead to a green economy. 

  • 50.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Tools for reliable and transparent predictions in environmental assessment2007In: Habitat modelling: A tool for managing landscapes? / [ed] Brainerd, S.M., Seiler A. and Kastdalen, L, Norsk Institut for Naturforskning , 2007, 13-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
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