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An investigation of friction graphs ranking ability regarding the galling phenomenon in dry SOFS contact: (Adhesive material transfere and friction)
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
2008 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of this project is to investigate different tool steels in terms of their ability to withstand material transfer buildup, so-called galling, occurring in SMF (sheet metal forming) operations. The ability to withstand galling is vital to optimize cost-effectiveness and increase the work tool’s effective operational time. This investigation studies four different tool steels, including a TiN-coating, with the intention of evaluating the microstructures, chemical composition and hardness effect on galling resistance in dry conditions using a slider-on-flatsurface (SOFS) tribo-tester which measures the coefficient of friction during sliding.

An OP (optical profilometer) was used to measure the size and geometry of lump growth on the tool and damage on the work sheet. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to identify the interacting tribological mechanisms exhibited at different stages during the slide. The SEM figures confirmed three different types of characteristic patterns exhibited in the tracks after tribo- testing which were categorized as mild adhesive, abrasive and severe adhesive damage.

A SEM figure that illustrates a ragged contact surface and an obvious change in the sheet materials plastic behavior is in this report regarded as a sign of severe adhesive contact, the characteristics could possibly be explained by local high temperature and high pressure followed by a sudden pressure drop and creation of hardened welds or solders between the two surfaces which increase the frictional input needed for further advancement. Friction coefficients observed in the initial 100% mild adhesive stage were, μ=0,22-0,26 succeeded by abrasive SEM characteristics often in association with mild adhesive contact and friction values between μ=0,25-0,4 which where sometimes followed by severe adhesive SEM characteristics in 100% of the contact zone with friction values between μ=0,34- 0,9 respectively. The tool material that performed best according to the friction detection criteria was Sv21 closely followed by Sleipner (TiN coated) and Va40 (HRC 63.3). Unfortunately was the friction criteria, a significant raise in friction for defining a sliding length to galling, not adequate for dry conditions due to immediate material transfer succeeded by cyclic changes between partial or 100% abrasive+mild adhesive and severe adhesive contact. The mechanism that change abrasive wear in association with mild adhesive contact, (moderate friction input), to sever adhesive wear, (higher friction input), is dependent on lump shape (lump geometry) and can appear at comparably low speeds 0,04-0,08 [m/s] and low friction energy input (μ=0,34), the magnitude of the change in friction is therefore not always significant and hardly detectable on the friction graph. This was quite unexpected but could be explained by concentration of friction energy rater than the absolute amount. The problem with using friction graphs for galling evaluation was increased even further when a very small lump size and low corresponding rate of material transfer to the tool surface caused a sustainable high raise in friction (μ≈0,3→0,6) on a TiN-coated tool steel called Sleipner.

A hardly detectable or similar friction raise for Sv21 and Va40 showed much larger corresponding lump size and rate of material transfer. This means that friction graphs demonstrate a clear problem with quantifying lump size [m3] and rate of  material transfer [m3/s]. Another phenomenon called stick slip behavior, material transfer and lump growth followed by a sudden decrease in lump size and transfer of material back to the work sheet, is also not possible to detect on a friction graph. Because a drop in friction can easily be a change in contact temperature and lump attack angle due to a growing lump and not a decreasing lump.

 

The conclusion, a friction graph is not suited for galling evaluation and ranking in dry SOFS conditions. A ranking should primarily be based on dimensional OP measurements of the cross section of formed tracks and scratches or preferably by repeated OP measurements of the tool surface during a single test, the last revel the exact lump growth history and true lump growth even in the sliding direction.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008.
Keywords [en]
galling, friction, adhesive contact, mild adhesive, severe adhesive, abrasive, flattening, SOFS, TNO, slider on flat surface, tribology, dry, lubricated, frictional heating, acceleration, plastic zone, contact pressure, pressure, phase transformation, morphology, seizure, scoring, scuffing, cohesive forces, classification, characteristic patterns, lump, sheet damage, på kletning, friction, kontakt tryck, värme, plogning
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2790Local ID: MTK D-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-2789DiVA, id: diva2:37573
Subject / course
Materials Engineering, Master of Science
Presentation
(English)
Uppsok
Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics
Supervisors
Examiners
Projects
civilingenjörsexamenAvailable from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-06 Last updated: 2017-02-08Bibliographically approved

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