Flotation chemistry of complex sulphide ores: recycling of process water and flotation selectivity
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Recycling of flotation effluents through the ore processing plant is one of the ways of reducing both plant-operating costs and industrial impact onto the local ecosystem. Such waters named acid mine drainage (AMD), if discharged from sulphide flotation are gypsum (CaSO4.H2O) saturated and have a high salinity (on the order of 1000 ppm). As minor species, they commonly contain reduced sulphur compounds (RSC) (sulfoxyanions with sulphur in the oxidation state below (VI) such as SO32-, S2O32-, S2O52-, and S4O62-), cations of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, frothing molecules, residual chemical reagents and products of their degradation. Tailing ponds also host communities of chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms which play an important role in dictating their aqueous and solid phase chemical speciation. Consequently, the key step towards developing scientific approaches of recycling of the tailing waters is elucidation of how, in what extent, and why the tailing water components, taken singly or jointly influence flotation of sulphides. In this work, the influence of main process water components of calcium and sulphate on chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrite flotation has been investigated through Hallimond flotation, zeta-potential and diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy measurements using pure mineral samples as well as bench scale flotation tests using complex sulphide ore. The significance of process water species in flotation has been assessed using deionised water, process water and simulated water containing calcium and sulphate ions in experiments. In addition, the effect of temperature in bench scale flotation tests has also been examined. Hallimond flotation indicated depression of chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite and activation of pyrite in the presence of calcium and sulphate ions with potassium amyl xanthate as collector. Calcium ions have significant influence on zeta-potential characteristics and xanthate adsorption behaviour of chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrite compared to sulphate ions. FTIR studies revealed the presence of surface oxidised sulfoxy species and surface iron and calcium carbonates on chalcopyrite in the presence of process water and water containing calcium ions, surface oxidised sulfoxy and carbonate species on galena in the presence of deionised water, process water and water containing calcium and sulphate ions, hydrated surface oxidised species and surface iron and calcium carbonates on pyrite in the presence of process water and water containing calcium ions all at pH 10.5 in which the surface species influenced xanthate adsorption. The presence of surface oxidised sulfoxy and carbonate species on sphalerite were also revealed at pH 11.5 in the presence of deionised water, process water and water containing calcium and sulphate ions in which surface species does not influence xanthate adsorption. Bench scale flotation using two different complex sulphide ores showed that chalcopyrite recovery is better in process water than tap water and general depression of chalcopyrite at temperatures lower than 22oC in either tap water or process water, activation of chalcopyrite at all temperatures in process water and depression of chalcopyrite when tap water containing calcium and sulphate ions was used at 22oC. It also showed that galena recovery is better in tap water than process water and depression of galena at temperatures lower than 22oC in either tap water or process water. It also showed that sphalerite recovery is better in process water than in tap water better recovery of sphalerite at temperatures lower than 22oC in either tap water or process water.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010. , 58 p.
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Research subject Mineral Processing
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-26634Local ID: f49ac290-f005-11df-8b36-000ea68e967bISBN: 978-91-7439-181-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-26634DiVA: diva2:999801
Godkänd; 2010; 20101114 (fatiku); LICENTIATSEMINARIUM Ämnesområde: Mineralteknik/Mineral Processing Examinator: Professor Kota Hanumantha Rao, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: PhD Jaakko Leppinen, Outotec, Non-Ferrous Solutions, Espoo, Finland Tid: Fredag den 10 december 2010 kl 10.00 Plats: F531 Bergrum, Luleå tekniska universitet2016-09-302016-09-30Bibliographically approved