Train-induced vibrations in tunnels: a review
2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
Banverket is expecting that the number of railway tunnels in densely populated areas will increase over the next 20 years due to the lack of available space on the ground surface. Together with the increased awareness of the residents the need for good prediction of vibration and noise levels in dwellings along the planned tunnels is evident. Consequently, a study of the propagation of vibrations through rock and soil generated by trains operating in tunnels is required in order to make more reliable prognoses. This report constitutes the first stage within a research project aimed at increasing the understanding about ground-borne noise and ground-borne vibrations generated by trains moving in tunnels constructed in rock. In this report, the propagation of vibration through a rock mass is reviewed. The emphasis has been on wave propagation in hard rock, but soil has also been included. Areas, such as the generation of vibration at the train-rail interaction, the response of buildings and humans, national and international recommended noise and vibrations levels, measurement of noise and vibrations, and possible countermeasures are briefly reviewed as well. Finally, suggestions for the continued research within this field are presented. The propagation of waves is influenced by attenuation along the propagation path. The attenuation can either be through geometric spreading, energy loss within the material, or reflection and refraction at boundaries. In a rock mass, where heterogeneities of various scales are present, the attenuation of (train-induced) waves through the ground therefore mainly depends on discontinuities, e.g. joints, faults, cracks, crushed zones, dykes, and boundaries between different rock types or soil. Also the topography - along as well as intersecting tunnels - influences the wave propagation in form of local amplification. An increased amount of joints, faults and boundaries increases the attenuation of the waves. The rock mass is in most cases inhomogeneous due to all heterogeneities present. Despite this fact, the rock mass and soil is always treated as an isotropic, homogeneous material when analyzed with regard to ground-borne noise and ground-borne vibrations. This concerns both numerical and empirical methods. Thus, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of various heterogeneities on the propagation of waves, and thereby vibrations, in non-isotropic ground conditions (e.g. a rock mass) at low frequencies. Future research regarding train-induced vibration should focus on conceptual models used to determine the propagation of low-frequency waves in a rock mass containing various amount of heterogeneities (from isotropic to highly inhomogeneous). Once the behaviour of waves in an inhomogeneous rock mass has been established, conceptual models should be used together with measurements from a few well documented cases. From the results of the analysis, guidelines for analysis of railway tunnels with regard to ground-borne noise and ground-borne vibrations should be established.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008. , 90 p.
Technical report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1536 ; 2008:06
Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering
Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
Research subject Mining and Rock Engineering; Soil Mechanics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-23003Local ID: 537205b0-267a-11dd-9e62-000ea68e967bOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-23003DiVA: diva2:996052
Godkänd; 2008; 20080520 (ysko)2016-09-292016-09-29Bibliographically approved