Small-scale combustion of agricultural biomass fuels
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The ambitious targets of the European Union in increasing the use of renewable energies to 20% of Europe’s energy needs, call for urgent changes, including in the biomass sector. The share of solid biomass for heating purposes could be further increased by replacing oil- and gas-fired furnaces with biomass boilers and by expanding the spectrum of biomass raw materials for small-scale combustion systems. The interest in using non-woody biomass fuels for heat production has been increasing in Europe due to two main factors. First, the market for fossil fuels is unstable and their prices are continuously rising. Second, the increase competition for woody biomass between the heating sector and other industries, have increased the price of wood. As a result, the interest for alternative biomass fuels is growing rapidly, covering woody materials of low quality, energy crops and forest residues.The present work aims at investigating the technical feasibility of using non-woody biomass fuels in existing small-scale combustion appliances developed for burning wood. Therefore, combustion tests with different non-woody biomass fuels and in different combustion appliances were performed in standard laboratory conditions and in households under real life conditions (field tests). The laboratory tests were performed using eight different fuels (straw, Miscanthus, maize, vineyard pruning, hay, wheat bran and Sorghum) while in the field tests straw, Miscanthus and maize were burned. The gaseous and particle emissions, the slag tendency and the efficiency of the combustion systems operated with non-woody biomass fuels were analysed and when possible compared with the legal requirements defined in FPrEN 303-5. The limitations of the investigated combustion appliances when operated with non-woody biomass fuels were analysed and discussed.Non-woody biomass fuels could be used for heat production in existing combustion appliances as long as the systems are adapted for burning high ash content fuels. Among the investigated fuels, Miscanthus, vineyard pruning and hay could be burnt in most of the tested combustion appliances while fulfilling the legal European requirements (defined in FprEN303-5) in terms of emissions and efficiency. The non-woody biomass fuels showed problems with ash accumulation and slag formation and could only be burned without unwanted shutdowns in combustion appliances adapted to manage high ash content fuels. Straw, wheat bran and maize were the most problematic fuels regarding slagging. The combustion appliances require appropriate technological developments to manage the strong variability in terms of chemical and thermal properties of the non-woody biomass fuels. The results of the laboratory tests were generally in agreement with the field test results.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012. , 146 p.
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Research subject Energy Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18748Local ID: a2575f13-37dc-477c-a90c-200075710294ISBN: 978-91-7439-529-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-18748DiVA: diva2:991759
Godkänd; 2012; 20121113 (joakim); LICENTIATSEMINARIUM Ämne: Energiteknik/Energy Engineering Examinator: Professor Marcus Öhman, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Ph.D, Ass. Senior Lecturer Markus Broström, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Umeå universitet Tid: Tisdag den 18 december 2012 kl 10.00 Plats: E246, Luleå tekniska universitet2016-09-292016-09-292016-11-01Bibliographically approved