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An experimental investigation of flow in a Kaplan runner: steady-state and transient
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water turbines are since some years widely used for grid stabilization purposes according to their exceptional load variation capability which gives them the ability to compensate grid fluctuations initiated by the customer’s consumption or intermittent electricity production systems such as wind and solar power. Different renewable power generation technologies can be combined in mini-grids to electrify isolated villages and extend existing grid networks. In these occasions, small hydro units are also a good option to reduce the overall variability of supply to low levels and provide low‑cost, local electrification solutions. Hence, initially designed hydropower turbines for steady operation at on-design operating condition experience many off-design, start/stop and load variations during their life time according to the nowadays on-demand energy market and introduction of intermittent power generation systems to the electricity market.Start/stop and load variations can be harsh for the turbines due to the time dependent forces exerted on different parts of the turbines, especially rotating parts. Off-design performance of hydropower systems may also result in unfavorable and harmful periodic forces on the rotating parts. Therefore, investigations are required to study these working conditions and consider them in design of new hydropower plants and refurbished turbines. This was the motivation for the experimental investigation of a Kaplan turbine during on-design, off-design and transient operations with focus on the turbine’s rotor. The test case was a 1:3.1 scaled model of Porjus U9; a Kaplan turbine. The first paper deals with pressure measurements on the runner blades of the model under steady state operating conditions to find and quantify the sources of pressure fluctuations exerted on the runner at different operating points. The goal was to investigate the turbine’s performance at the best efficiency point with concentration on the performance of the water supply system and compare it to operations at high load and part load for a constant blades angle. The model results are compared with prototype measurements to corroborate the findings. The second paper presents the model investigations during load acceptance and load rejection. The model was investigated with pressure measurement on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbine under different load variations between part load, high load and best efficiency point. The third paper focuses on velocity measurements in the runner blade channels and at the runner outlet under on-design and off-design operating conditions. The velocity measurements are performed with a laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system. The results of the model investigations along two propeller curves are presented to investigate the runner blade angle effects on the turbine’s performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014. , 108 p.
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18104Local ID: 6dd9f428-899a-4ba3-9acf-a2f2dd0ad16bISBN: 978-91-7439-848-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7439-849-6 (electronic)OAI: diva2:991110
Godkänd; 2014; 20140120 (kavami); Tillkännagivande licentiatseminarium 2014-01-27 Nedanstående person kommer att hålla licentiatseminarium för avläggande av teknologie licentiatexamen. Namn: Kaveh Amiri Ämne: Strömningslära/Fluid Mechanics Uppsats: An Experimental Investigation of Flow in a Kaplan Runner: Steady-State and Transient Examinator: Professor Michel Cervantes, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Luleå tekniska universitet Diskutant: Dr. Advisor Hydropower Production Bjarne Børresen, Energi Norge AS Tid: Fredag den 21 februari 2014 kl 09.30 Plats: E246, Luleå tekniska universitetAvailable from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved

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