Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Geology of the Archeological Hills and Monuments: Examples from Iraq
Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
2016 (English)In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, no 2, 1-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iraq is the cradle of many civilizations; therefore, it is very rich in archeological sites, which are represented in different forms; among them are the archeological hills and monuments. Hundreds of archeological hills and monuments are located in different parts of Iraq, but the majority of the hills are located in the Mesopotamia and Low Mountainous Province; with less abundant in the Jazira Province. The isolated archeological hills are of two different forms: Either are in form of dumping soil to a certain height to build the hill, or has gained their heights due to the presence of multi stories of civilizations. In both cases, the geological setting has played a big role in the formation of the isolated archeological hills. The archeological isolated hills, which are built by soil dumping are usually of conical shape; flat topped and limited sizes; with heights not more than 10 m and base diameter of (20 – 100) m. They can be seen from far distances that attain to few kilometers. Since they are usually built in flat areas and are believed to be used as watching towers. However, those which are present in the Mesopotamia Province are smaller in size; not more than (3 – 5) m in height and about 10 m in base diameter; also with conical shape, they are called as "Ishan". The isolated archeological sites, which are built by multi stories, are either in form of citadels (castles) like Arbeel and Kirkuk castles, or built as a certain form and used for religious purposes; called "Zaqoorah", like Aqarqoof and Ur Zaqooras. Tens of monuments were discovered in different parts of Iraq witnessing different civilizations. Some of the monuments are built and/ or sculptured from rocks. Usually, the nearby exposed rocks were used; however, locally rocks were transported from few tens of kilometers. The most common used rocks are gypsum and limestone; however, very rarely basalt was used too. In certain locations, the geology of the quarried rocks is given too.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 6, no 2, 1-28 p.
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-12853Local ID: bffc131d-7ffc-46bc-8903-d7352b36252eOAI: diva2:985804
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20160114 (nadhir)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1767 kB)2 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1767 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Al-Ansari, NadhirKnutsson, Sven
By organisation
Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
In the same journal
Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 2 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link