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Essays in International Trade: Measurement, Product Quality, Input-Output Modelling and Tax Evasion
Örebro University, Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6606-4854
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four independent essays that deal with several measurement aspects within the field of international trade. The measurement problems addressed are related to measuring the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports or measuring tax evasion

Essay 1, The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement. Evidence from Swedish Data, deals with various measurement problems related to calculations of the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports. This builds on the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek extension to the Heckscher-Ohlin trade theory.

Essay 2, Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade. A New Computational Framework, builds on the same theoretical background, but introduces a quality-adjustment in the calculations of the human capital content of trade in exports relative to imports, which builds on the idea underlying vertical intra-industry trade (VIIT). Quality adjustment is performed, first, by assuming that a product sold at a higher price has a higher quality than the same product sold at a lower price and, second, by assuming that a highquality product implies a higher content of skilled labour than a low-quality product.

Essay 3, Estimation of commodity-by-commodity input–output matrices, focuses on a new method in constructing symmetric input-output tables (SIOTs), which has been termed the Bohlin and Widell model, using data contained within supply- and use-tables (SUTs). One key contribution is that it makes it possible to estimate SIOTs in cases when the underlying SUTs are rectangular. The method also addresses the problem of negative coefficients, a long-standing issue encountered in the derivation of SIOTs.

Essay 4, Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports, focuses on estimating the amount of tax evasion in trade between Kenya and Tanzania. The study is empirically focused, and the measurement errors in reported trade flows between both countries are correlated with tax rates, to determine whether the measurement error increases with the tax rate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university , 2016. , 27 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Economics, ISSN 1651-8896 ; 34
Keyword [en]
Factor content of trade, human capital, vertical intra-industry trade, product quality, Input–output modelling, CTA, ITA, Tax Evasion, Africa
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52678ISBN: 978-91-7529-167-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-52678DiVA: diva2:975075
Public defence
2016-11-23, Örebro universitet, Forumhuset, Hörsal F, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-11-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement: Evidence from Swedish Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Human Capital Content of Trade and its Measurement: Evidence from Swedish Data
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53334 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved
2. Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade: A New Computational Framework
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product Quality Adjustment and the Human Capital Content of Trade: A New Computational Framework
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53335 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved
3. Estimation of Commodity-by-Commodity Input–Output Matrices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of Commodity-by-Commodity Input–Output Matrices
2006 (English)In: Economic Systems Research, ISSN 0953-5314, E-ISSN 1469-5758, Vol. 18, no 2, 205-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we derive a method for the estimation of symmetric input–output tables (SIOTs), which makes it possible to use the commodity technology assumption even when use- and make tables are rectangular. The method also solves the problem of negative coefficients. In the empirical part we derive annual SIOTs in order to evaluate the differences between SIOTs calculated with different methods and the change in technical coefficients over time. Our results, based on data for Sweden, show that the impact of using different technology assumptions is rather large. However, in a factor content of trade application the impact of different technology assumptions does not seem to be very important. Also the size of the changes in the technical coefficients over time is found to be quite large, indicating the importance of calculating SIOTs annually.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2006
Keyword
Input–output model, commodity technology, product technology, factor content of trade
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12177 (URN)10.1080/09535310600653164 (DOI)2-s2.0-33745302399 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2010-10-14 Created: 2010-10-12 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
4. Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tax evasion in Kenya and Tanzania: Evidence from missing imports
2014 (English)In: Economic Modelling, ISSN 0264-9993, E-ISSN 1873-6122, Vol. 39, 151-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we estimate the amount of tax evasion in customs authorities in both Kenya and Tanzania by calculating measurement errors in reported trade flows between the two countries and correlate those errors with tax rates. We find that the measurement error is correlated with the tax rates in Tanzania.We also introduced a third country into our analysis, the United Kingdom, and tax evasion seems to be more severe in trade flows between Kenya and Tanzania compared to trade flows between the United Kingdom and Kenya/Tanzania. Finally we also find that the tax evasion coefficient is lower in the Kenya–United Kingdom case compared to the Tanzanian– United Kingdom case which suggests that tax evasion is more severe in the Tanzanian customs authority.

Keyword
Tax evasion, Kenya, Tanzania
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34936 (URN)10.1016/j.econmod.2014.02.021 (DOI)000336467200015 ()2-s2.0-84896468803 (ScopusID)
Projects
Sida/Sarec
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2014-05-05 Created: 2014-05-05 Last updated: 2016-10-31Bibliographically approved

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Widell, Lars M
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Orebro University School of Business, Örebro University, Sweden
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