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A study on the placement of turbines downstream of a hydroelectric power station
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Human energy related activity has increased the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere by 40 % since the preindustrial area. A leading contributor to this is the burning of fossil fuels in order to extract energy. Due to this, we are today facing many issues following climate change and global warming. The search for renewable energy sources is therefor of outmost importance. The biggest renewable energy source today is hydropower. It is big in newly industrialized countries such as China and Brazil, where in the latter it covers over 70% of the electricity supply. A relatively unexplored area is the implementation of turbines in the downstream of a hydroelectric power station. The risk here is that the turbine[s] will increase the water depth and hence impact the hydraulic head i.e. the potential power of the hydro power station negatively This report explores the potential and optimal placement of a turbine/ turbine fences in the downstream by using the Bernoulli equation. Two different cases are examined. The geometry in the first one is a finite uniform channel whereas in the second one it is a finite divergent channel. The equations for the two different cases will also vary, mainly in the expression of the friction loss. It is shown that the choices of expression for the friction loss and geometry are important for the results as the two cases gave different results. However, the second approach is supposed more accurate and shows that the closer the beginning of the channel the more power can be extracted but this also means an increase in water depth. For some flows and turbine diameters a turbine fence was also placed further on, hence departed from the expected result. This shows the complexity of the problem and the importance of an optimization model.

Abstract [sv]

Atmosfärens koldioxidhalt har ökat med 40% sedan förindustriell tid till följd av mänsklig aktivitet. En ledande orsak till detta är förbränningen av fossila bränslen för att utvinna energi. Detta har lett till global uppvärmning och klimatförändringar. Utvecklingen av förnybara energikällor är därför ytterst viktig. Idag är vattenkraft den största källan för förnybar energi och täcker hela 70% av elektricitetförsörjningen i Brasilien. Ett relativt outforskat område är att implementera turbiner nerströms efter ett vattenkraftverk, risken med detta är att turbinen/turbinerna ökar vattendjupet och således påverkar fallhöjden dvs den potentiella energin från vattenkraftverket negativt. I denna uppsats används Bernoullis ekvation för att undersöka potentialen för metoden samt optimala placeringen av turbinen/turbinerna. Två olika metoder appliceras. Valet av geometri och uttryck för friktionsförlusten visar sig vara mycket viktiga då de två metoderna ger olika resultat. Resultaten från den andra metoden antas mest riktiga, dessa visar att desto närmare kanalens början desto mer energi kan utvinnas, dock betyder detta också ett ökat vattendjup. Det visade sig att turbinerna också placerades ut längre fram i kanalen för vissa volymflöden samt turbindiametrar dvs. avskilde från det förväntade resultatet. Detta visar på problemets komplexitet samt betydelsen av en optimeringsmodell. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
Series
TRITA-IM-KAND 2016:35
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193048OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-193048DiVA, id: diva2:974636
External cooperation
Sweden Nenad Glodic
Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2016-10-18Bibliographically approved

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