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Secure and Privacy Preserving Vehicular Communication Systems: Identity and Credential Management Infrastructure
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. (Networked Systems Security)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1778-1416
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vehicular Communication (VC) systems can greatly enhance road safety and transportation efficiency. Vehicles are equipped with sensors to sense their surroundings and the internal Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. Hence, vehicles are becoming part of a large-scale network, the so-called Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Deploying such a large-scale VC system cannot materialize unless the VC systems are secure and do not expose their users’ privacy. Vehicles could be compromised or their sensors become faulty, thus disseminating erroneous information across the network. Therefore, participating vehicles should be accountable for their actions. Moreover, user privacy is at stake: vehicles should disseminate spatio-temporal information frequently. Due to openness of the wireless communication, an observer can eavesdrop the communication to infer users’ sensitive information, thus profiling users. The objective is to secure the communication, i.e., prevent malicious or compromised entities from affecting the system operation, and ensure user privacy, i.e., keep users anonymous to any external observer but also for security infrastructure entities and service providers.In this thesis, we focus on the identity and credential management infrastructure for VC systems, taking security, privacy, and efficiency into account. We begin with a detailed investigation and critical survey of the standardization and harmonization efforts. We point out the remaining challenges to be addressed in order to build a Vehicular Public-Key Infrastructure (VPKI). We provide a VPKI design that improves upon existing proposals in terms of security and privacy protection and efficiency. More precisely, our scheme facilitates multi-domain operations in VC systems and enhances user privacy, notably preventing linking of pseudonyms based on timing information and offering increased protection in the presence of honest-but-curious VPKI entities. We further extensively evaluate the performance of the full-blown implementation of our VPKI for a large-scale VC deployment. Our results confirm the efficiency, scalability and robustness of our VPKI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 40 p.
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2016:159
Keyword [en]
Vehicular Communications, Security, Privacy, Access Control, Identity and Credential Management, Vehicular PKI
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193030ISBN: 978-91-7729-134-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-193030DiVA: diva2:974489
Presentation
2016-11-01, Q2, Osquldas Väg 10, Stockholm, 15:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160927

Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-26 Last updated: 2016-10-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. VeSPA: Vehicular security and privacy-preserving architecture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VeSPA: Vehicular security and privacy-preserving architecture
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2013 (English)In: HotWiSec 2013: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Workshop on Hot Topics on Wireless Network Security and Privacy, 2013, 19-23 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicular Communications (VC) are reaching a near deploment phase and will play an important role in improving road safety, driving efficiency and comfort. The industry and the academia have reached a consensus for the need of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), in order to achieve security, identity management, vehicle authentication, as well as preserve vehicle privacy. Moreover, a gamut of proprietary and safety applications, such as location-based services and pay-as-you-drive systems, are going to be offered to the vehicles. The emerging applications are posing new challenges for the existing Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) architectures to support Authentication, Authorization and Accountability (AAA), without exposing vehicle privacy. In this work we present an implementation of a VPKI that is compatible with the VC standards. We propose the use of tickets as cryptographic tokens to provide AAA and also preserve vehicle privacy against adversaries and the VPKI. Finally, we present the efficiency results of our implementation to prove its applicability.

Keyword
Credential management, PKI, Privacy, Security, VANETs
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123090 (URN)10.1145/2463183.2463189 (DOI)2-s2.0-84879543302 (ScopusID)978-145032003-0 (ISBN)
Conference
6th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (WiSec'13), Budapest; Hungary; 19 April 2013 through 19 April 2013
Note

QC 20130819

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
2. Towards deploying a scalable & robust vehicular identity and credential management infrastructure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards deploying a scalable & robust vehicular identity and credential management infrastructure
2014 (English)In: Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2014 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, Vol. -, no -, 33-40 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

- Several years of academic and industrial research efforts have converged to a common understanding on fundamental security building blocks for the upcoming Vehicular Communication (VC) systems. There is a growing consensus towards deploying a Vehicular Public-Key Infrastructure (VPKI) enables pseudonymous authentication, with standardization efforts in that direction. However, there are still significant technical issues that remain unresolved. Existing proposals for instantiating the VPKI either need additional detailed specifications or enhanced security and privacy features. Equally important, there is limited experimental work that establishes the VPKI efficiency and scalability. In this paper, we are concerned with exactly these issues. We leverage the common VPKI approach and contribute an enhanced system with precisely defined, novel features that improve its resilience and the user privacy protection. In particular, we depart from the common assumption that the VPKI entities are fully trusted and we improve user privacy in the face of an honest-but-curious security infrastructure. Moreover, we fully implement our VPKI, in a standard-compliant manner, and we perform an extensive evaluation. Along with stronger protection and richer functionality, our system achieves very significant performance improvement over prior systems - contributing the most advanced VPKI towards deployment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-161908 (URN)10.1109/VNC.2014.7013306 (DOI)
Conference
IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC),3-5 Dec. 2014 , Paderborn
Note

QC 20150319

Available from: 2015-03-18 Created: 2015-03-18 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
3. The Key to Intelligent Transportation: Identity and Credential Management in Vehicular Communication Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Key to Intelligent Transportation: Identity and Credential Management in Vehicular Communication Systems
2015 (English)In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, ISSN 1556-6072, E-ISSN 1556-6080, Vol. 10, no 4, 63-69 p., 1556-6072Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicular Communication (VC) systems will greatly enhance intelligent transportation systems. But their security and the protection of their users’ privacy are a prerequisite for deployment. Efforts in industry and academia brought forth a multitude of diverse proposals. These have now converged to a common view, notably on the design of a security infrastructure, a Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) that shall enable secure conditionally anonymous VC. Standardization efforts and industry readiness to adopt this approach hint to its maturity. However, there are several open questions remaining, and it is paramount to have conclusive answers before deployment. In this article, we distill and critically survey the state of the art for identity and credential management in VC systems, and we sketch a roadmap for addressing a set of critical remaining security and privacy challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Keyword
Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI); Identity Management; Vehicular Communication (VC)
National Category
Computer Systems Telecommunications
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180008 (URN)10.1109/MVT.2015.2479367 (DOI)000366665800010 ()2-s2.0-84961564531 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20160115

Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-05 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluating On-demand Pseudonym Acquisition Policies in Vehicular Communication Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating On-demand Pseudonym Acquisition Policies in Vehicular Communication Systems
2016 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Standardization and harmonization efforts have reached a consensus towards using a special-purpose Vehicular Public-Key Infrastructure (VPKI) in upcoming Vehicular Communication (VC) systems. However, there are still several technical challenges with no conclusive answers; one such an important yet open challenge is the acquisition of shortterm credentials, pseudonym: how should each vehicle interact with the VPKI, e.g., how frequently and for how long? Should each vehicle itself determine the pseudonym lifetime? Answering these questions is far from trivial. Each choice can affect both the user privacy and the system performance and possibly, as a result, its security. In this paper, we make a novel systematic effort to address this multifaceted question. We craft three generally applicable policies and experimentally evaluate the VPKI system performance, leveraging two large-scale mobility datasets. We consider the most promising, in terms of efficiency, pseudonym acquisition policies; we find that within this class of policies, the most promising policy in terms of privacy protection can be supported with moderate overhead. Moreover, in all cases, this work is the first to provide tangible evidence that the state-of-the-art VPKI can serve sizable areas or domain with modest computing resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2016
Keyword
Vehicular Communications, Security, Privacy, Access Control, Identity and Credential Management, Vehicular PKI
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-189863 (URN)10.1145/2938681.2938684 (DOI)978-1-4503-4345-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Workshop on Internet of Vehicles and Vehicles of Internet (IoV-VoI 2016)
Note

QC 20160722

Available from: 2016-07-20 Created: 2016-07-20 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
5. SECMACE: Scalable and Robust Identity and Credential Management Infrastructure in Vehicular Communication Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SECMACE: Scalable and Robust Identity and Credential Management Infrastructure in Vehicular Communication Systems
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several years of academic and industrial research efforts have converged to a common understanding on fundamental security building blocks for the upcoming Vehicular Communication (VC) systems. There is a growing consensus towards deploying a special-purpose identity and credential management infrastructure, i.e., a Vehicular Public-Key Infrastructure (VPKI), enabling pseudonymous authentication, with standardization efforts towards that direction. In spite of the progress made by standardization bodies (IEEE 1609.2 and ETSI) and harmonization efforts (Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC)), significant questions remain unanswered towards deploying a VPKI. The precise understanding of the VPKI, a central building block of secure and privacy-preserving VC systems, is still lacking. This paper contributes to the closing of this gap. We present SECMACE, a VPKI system, which is compatible with the IEEE 1609.2 and ETSI standards specifications. We provide a detailed description of our state-of-the-art VPKI that improves upon existing proposals in terms of security and privacy protection, and efficiency. SECMACE facilitates multi-domain operations in the VC systems and enhances user privacy, notably preventing linking pseudonyms based on timing information and offering increased protection even against honest-but-curious VPKI entities. We propose multiple policies for the vehicle-VPKI interactions based on which and two large mobility traces, we evaluate the full-blown implementation of SECMACE. With very little attention on the VPKI performance thus far, our results reveal that modest computing resources can support a large area of vehicles with very low delays and the most promising policy in terms of privacy protection can be supported with moderate overhead.

Keyword
Vehicular Communications, Security, Privacy, Identity and Credential Management, Vehicular PKI
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193027 (URN)
Note

QC 20160928

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-26 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved

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