The efforts spent on judgments of how to perform sampling are often small compared to other
steps in the analytical procedure. As a result decisions may be based on irrelevant results. If
the sampling is intended to provide information how to reduce and control environmental
pollution, it is important to design the sampling strategy according to scientific principles.
Sampling will be discussed in relation to determinations of organic as well as inorganic
species in different types of polluted matrices, .e.g. water, sediments and air. Examples will
be taken from our own research projects about treatment processes for contaminated
matrices.. Accurate sampling involves a basic planning including objectives, cost
effectiveness versus the budget, variability of contamination leading to statistical
considerations, site accessibility and robustness of the used devices. A strategy for the
sampling, often in a form of a scheme, is needed. The Laqua Protocol developed within our
research projects will be presented. This protocol is flexible and dynamic and can be altered
and optimized based on the demands at the individual sampling site. Sampling of complicated
matrices often creates problems with interfering agents and breakdown of unstable analytes.
In this type of samples the concentrations of analytes are generally several orders of
magnitudes lower than the concentrations of major constituents in the sample. Accordingly
the advantages of an early work-up, preferably in connection with a sampling procedure, is
paid especially attention
2010. 16-23 p.