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Laboratory X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging: Methods and Comparisons
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

X-ray phase-contrast imaging has seen rapid development in recent decades due to its superior performance in imaging low-absorption objects, compared to traditional attenuation x-ray imaging. Having higher demand on coherence, x-ray phase-contrast imaging is performed mostly at synchrotrons. With the development of different imaging techniques, and the development of laboratory sources and x-ray optics, x-ray phase-contrast imaging can now be implemented on laboratory systems, which is promising and practical for broader range of applications.

The subject of this thesis is the implementation, development and comparison of different laboratory phase-contrast methods using a liquid-metal-jet source. The three x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods included in this thesis are the propagation-, grating-, and speckle-based techniques. The grating-based method has been implemented on a laboratory system with a liquid-metal-jet source, which yields several times higher brightness than a standard solid-anode microfocus source. This allows shorter exposure time or a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of the grating-based method has been experimentally and numerically compared with the propagation-based method, and the dose required to observe an object as a function of the object’s diameter has been investigated with simulations. The result indicates a lower dose requirement for the propagation-based method in this system but a potential advantage for the grating-based method to detect relatively large samples using a monochromatic beam.

The speckle-based method, both the speckle-tracking and speckle-scanning techniques, has been implemented on a laboratory system for the first time, showing its adaptability to radiation of low temporal coherence. Tomography has been performed and shows the potential applications of this method on quantitative analysis on both absorption and phase information of materials. As a basis for further optimization and comparisons to other methods, the noise properties of the differential phase contrast of the speckle-based method have been studied and an analytical expression for the noise variance introduced, showing a similarity to the grating-based method.

Abstract [sv]

Faskontrastavbildning med röntgenstrålning är en teknik som har utvecklats kraftigt de senaste årtiondena, eftersom den fungerar bättre än traditionella, absorptionsbaserade röntgenundersökningar för objekt med låg absorption. Den har dock höga krav på koherens, vilket gjort att den huvudsakligen används vid stora synkrotron-anläggningar. Tack vare utveckligen av nya avbildningstekniker, laboratoriekällor och röntgenoptik kan numera faskontrast användas även med laboratoriesystem, vilket är lovande då tekniken kan användas vid ett större antal olika tillämpningsområden

Denna avhandling syftar till att tillämpa, utveckla och jämföra olika faskontrastmetoder i laboratoriemiljö, med en metallstråleröntgenkälla. De tre faskontrastmetoderna som behandlas i denna avhandling är propogation, gitter och speckelbaserad faskontrast. Den gitterbaserade metoden har implementerats i ett laboratoriesystem med en metallstrålekälla som ger flera gånger högre radians än en vanlig, fast mikrofokuskälla. Den högre radians en möjliggör kortare exponeringstider eller högre signal-brusförhållande. Den gitterbaserade tekniken har jämförts experimentellt och numeriskt med den propageringsbaserade metoden. Den strålningsdos som krävs för observera ett objekt, som funktion av dess diameter, har jämförts för de båda teknikerna, den här gången via simuleringar. Resultaten visar på en lägre strålningsdos för den propagationsbaserade tekniken i detta fall, men även att det finns en potentiell fördel för den gitterbaserade tekniken för något större objekt med monokromatisk röntgenstrålning.

Speckelbaserade tekniker, nämare bestämt den som bygger på att spåra speckel och den som bygger på att scanna diffusorn, har för första gången implementerats i laboratoriemiljö. Därmed har visats att de fungerar även för strålning med låg tidskoherens. Tekniken har även använts för tomografi och visar möjliga tillämpningar inom kvantitativ analys av material. För att förenkla framtida optimeringar och jämförelser av tekniken med andra metoder, har brusegenskaperna för den speckelbaserade metoden studerats och visat sig likna den gitterbaserade metoden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 64 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2016:63
Keyword [en]
X-ray imaging, Phase-contrast, Liquid-metal-jet source, Propagation-based imaging, Grating-based imaging, Speckle-based imaging
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192593ISBN: 978-91-7729-116-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-192593DiVA: diva2:971259
Public defence
2016-10-14, FD5, Roslagstullsbacken 21, STOCKHOLM, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160921

Available from: 2016-09-21 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. X-ray grating interferometry with a liquid-metal-jet source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray grating interferometry with a liquid-metal-jet source
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2013 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 9, 091105- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A liquid-metal-jet X-ray tube is used in an X-ray phase-contrast microscope based on a Talbot type grating interferometer. With a focal spot size in the range of a few microns and a photon flux of similar to 10(12) photons/s x sr, the brightness of such a source is approximately one order of magnitude higher than for a conventional microfocus source. For comparison, a standard microfocus source was used with the same grating interferometer, showing significantly increased visibility for the liquid-metal-jet arrangement. Together with the increased flux, this results in improved signal-to-noise ratio.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129628 (URN)10.1063/1.4819766 (DOI)000323846900005 ()2-s2.0-84884176871 (ScopusID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20131003

Available from: 2013-10-03 Created: 2013-10-03 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison of two x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods with a microfocus source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of two x-ray phase-contrast imaging methods with a microfocus source
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2013 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 25, 30183-30195 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a comparison for high-resolution imaging with a laboratory source between grating-based (GBI) and propagation-based (PBI) x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The comparison is done through simulations and experiments using a liquid-metal-jet x-ray microfocus source. Radiation doses required for detection in projection images are simulated as a function of the diameter of a cylindrical sample. Using monochromatic radiation, simulations show a lower dose requirement for PBI for small object features and a lower dose for GBI for larger object features. Using polychromatic radiation, such as that from a laboratory microfocus source, experiments and simulations show a lower dose requirement for PBI for a large range of feature sizes. Tested on a biological sample, GBI shows higher noise levels than PBI, but its advantage of quantitative refractive index reconstruction for multi-material samples becomes apparent.

Keyword
Computed-Tomography, Grating Interferometer, Noise, Propagation, Performance, Retrieval, Signal, Jet, CT
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-139423 (URN)10.1364/OE.21.030183 (DOI)000328575700007 ()2-s2.0-84890505484 (ScopusID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20140113

Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2016-09-15Bibliographically approved
3. Speckle-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging with a Laboratory Source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speckle-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging with a Laboratory Source
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2014 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 112, no 25, 253903- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the observation and application of near-field speckles with a laboratory x-ray source. The detection of speckles is possible thanks to the enhanced brilliance properties of the used liquid-metal-jet source, and opens the way to a range of new applications in laboratory-based coherent x-ray imaging. Here, we use the speckle pattern for multimodal imaging of demonstrator objects. Moreover, we introduce algorithms for phase and dark-field imaging using speckle tracking, and we show that they yield superior results with respect to existing methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society, 2014
Keyword
Scattering, Information, Tomography, Retrieval
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-148281 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.253903 (DOI)000338284900009 ()2-s2.0-84903522889 (ScopusID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, StG 240142 279753
Note

QC 20140807

Available from: 2014-08-07 Created: 2014-08-05 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
4. Speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a laboratory source and the scanning technique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a laboratory source and the scanning technique
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2015 (English)In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 40, no 12, 2822-2825 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The speckle-based scanning method for x-ray phase-contrast imaging is implemented with a liquid-metal-jet source. Using the two-dimensional scanning technique, the phase shift introduced by the object is retrieved in both transverse orientations, and the limitations on spatial resolution inherent to the speckle-tracking technique are avoided. This method opens up possibilities of new high-resolution multimodal applications for lab-based phasecontrast x-ray imaging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optics Info Base, Optical Society of America, 2015
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-170677 (URN)10.1364/OL.40.002822 (DOI)000356234300038 ()26076271 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20150707

Available from: 2015-07-07 Created: 2015-07-03 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
5. X-ray microtomography using correlation of near-field speckles for material characterization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray microtomography using correlation of near-field speckles for material characterization
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 41, 12569-12573 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nondestructive microscale investigation of objects is an invaluable tool in life and materials sciences. Currently, such investigation is mainly performed with X-ray laboratory systems, which are based on absorption-contrast imaging and cannot access the information carried by the phase of the X-ray waves. The phase signal is, nevertheless, of great value in X-ray imaging as it is complementary to the absorption information and in general more sensitive to visualize features with small density differences. Synchrotron facilities, which deliver a beam of high brilliance and high coherence, provide the ideal condition to develop such advanced phase-sensitive methods, but their access is limited. Here we show how a small modification of a laboratory setup yields simultaneously quantitative and 3D absorption and phase images of the object. This single-shot method is based on correlation of X-ray near-field speckles and represents a significant broadening of the capabilities of laboratory- based X-ray tomography.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2015
Keyword
Microtomography, Near-field speckles, Phase-contrast imaging, Refractive index measurement, X-ray imaging, chemical analysis, Conference Paper, correlation analysis, image analysis, micro-computed tomography, priority journal, refraction index
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-181135 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1502828112 (DOI)2-s2.0-84944200781 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20160216

Available from: 2016-02-16 Created: 2016-01-29 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
6. Noise analysis of speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise analysis of speckle-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192591 (URN)
Note

QC 20160921

Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
7. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging for non-destructivequality inspections of paperboards
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase-contrast X-ray imaging for non-destructivequality inspections of paperboards
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192592 (URN)
Note

QC 20160921

Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved

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