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Flow Over Large-Scale Naturally Rough Surfaces
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The fluid mechanical field of rough surface flows has been developed ever since the first experiments by Haagen (1854) and Darcy (1857). Although old, the area still holds merit and a surprising amount of information have to this day yet to be fully understood, which surely is a proof of its complexity. Many equations and CFD tools still rely on old, albeit reliable, concepts for simplifying the flow to be able to handle the effects of surface roughness. This notion is, however, likely to change within a not so unforeseeable future. The advancement of computer power has opened the door for more advanced CFD tools such as Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES). It can be argued that once a given flow situation has been fully accessible by numerical simulations, it is likely to be fully understood within a few years 1 . However, DNS is still limited to small scales of roughness and relatively low Reynolds number which is in contrast with given hydropower conditions today. The hydropower industry annually supplies Sweden with about 45% of its electricity production, and tunnels of various types are regularly used for conveying water to or from turbines within hydropower stations. The tunnels are a vital part of the system and their survival is of the essence. Depending on the manner of excavation, the walls of the tunnels regularly exhibit a roughness, this roughness may range from a few mm to m, which is true especially if the tunnel have been subjected to damage. For natural roughness e.g. hydropower tunnels, there is no clear way to distinguish between rough surface flows and flow past obstacles. Yet, to be able to distinguish between the two cases has proven to be important. This work is aimed to increase the understanding of how the wall roughness affects the flow, and how to treat it numerically. Paper A employs the use of pressure sensors to evaluate local deviations in pressure as well as head loss due to the surface roughness. Paper B is aimed at using PIV to evaluate the flow using averaging techniques and characteristic length scales. Paper C Further investigates the data from the PIV and pressure measurements and Evaluates the possibility to use basic but versatile turbulence models to evaluate the flow in such tunnels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå, 2016.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-136ISBN: 978-91-7583-659-1 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-660-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-136DiVA: diva2:971093
Presentation
2016-09-23, E632, Luleå, 09:00
Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2017-10-19Bibliographically approved

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