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Adolescent boys’ health: managing emotions, masculinities and  subjective social status
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The health of adolescent boys is complex and surprisingly little is known about how adolescent boys perceive, conceptualise and experience their health. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis was to explore adolescent boys’ perceptions and experiences of health, emotions, masculinity and subjective social status (SSS).

This thesis consists of a qualitative, a quantitative and a mixed methods study. The qualitative study aimed to explore how adolescent boys understand the concept of health and what they find important for its achievement. Furthermore, the adolescent boys’ views of masculinity, emotion management and their potential effects on wellbeing were explored. For this purpose, individual interviews were conducted with 33 adolescent boys aged 16-17 years. The quantitative study aimed to investigate the associations between pride, shame and health in adolescence. Data were collected through a cross-sectional postal survey with 705 adolescents. The purpose of the mixed methods study was to investigate associations between SSS in school, socioeconomic status (SES) and self-rated health (SRH), and to explore the concept of SSS in school. Cross-sectional data were combined with interview data in which the meaning of SSS was further explored. Individual interviews with 35 adolescents aged 17-18 years were conducted.

In the qualitative study, data were analysed using Grounded Theory. In the quantitative study, statistical analyses (e.g., chi-square test and uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses) were performed. In the mixed method study, a combination of statistical analyses and thematic network analysis was applied.

The results showed that there was a complexity in how the adolescent boys viewed, experienced, dealt with and valued health. On a conceptual level, they perceived health as holistic but when dealing with difficult emotions, they were prone to separate the body from the mind. Thus, the adolescent boys experienced a difference between health as a concept and health as an experience (paper I). Concerning emotional orientation in masculinity, two main categories of masculine conceptions were identified: a gender-normative masculinity and a non-gender-normative masculinity (paper II). Gender-normative masculinity comprised two seemingly opposite emotional masculinity orientations, one towards toughness and the other towards sensitivity, both of which were highly influenced by contextual and situational group norms and demands, despite that their expressions are in contrast to each other. Non-gender-normative masculinity included an orientation towards sincerity, emphasising the personal values of the boys. Emotions were expressed more independently of peer group norms. The findings suggest that different masculinities and the expression of emotions are intricately intertwined and that managing emotions is vital for wellbeing. The present findings also showed that both shame and pride were significantly associated with SRH, and furthermore, that there seems to be a protective effect of experiencing pride for health (paper III). The results also demonstrated that SSS is strongly related to SRH, and high SRH is related to high SSS, and further that the positioning was done in a gendered space (paper IV).

Results from all studies suggest that the emotional and relational aspects, as well as perceived SSS, were strongly related to SRH. Positive emotions, trustful relationships and having a sense of belonging were important factors for health and pride was an important emotion protecting health. Physical health, on the other hand, had a more subordinated value, but the body was experienced as an important tool to achieve health. Even though health was mainly perceived in a holistic manner by the boys, there were boys who were prone to dichotomise the health experience into a mind-body dualism when having to deal with difficult emotions.

In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates that young, masculine health is largely experienced through emotions and relationships between individuals and their contexts affected by gendered practices. Health is to feel and function well in mind and body and to have trusting relationships. The results support theories on health as a social construction of interconnected processes. Having confidence in self-esteem, access to trustful relationships and the courage to resist traditional masculine norms while still reinforcing and maintaining social status are all conducive to good health. Researchers as well as professionals need to consider the complexity of adolescent boys’ health in which norms, values, relationships and gender form its social determinants. Those working with young boys should encourage them to integrate physical, social and emotional aspects of health into an interconnected and holistic experience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 106 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1822
Keyword [en]
Adolescent boys, emotion management, gender, health, masculinity, pride, shame, selfrated health, subjective social status
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125619ISBN: 978-91-7601-523-0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-125619DiVA: diva2:968924
Public defence
2016-10-07, Sal 135, Allmänmedicin NUS, Byggnad 9A, ingång X5, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-16 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2016-09-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. What is Health and What is Important for its Achievement? A Qualitative Study on Adolescent Boys' Perceptions and Experiences of Health.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is Health and What is Important for its Achievement? A Qualitative Study on Adolescent Boys' Perceptions and Experiences of Health.
2016 (English)In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

UNLABELLED: Few qualitative studies have explored adolescent boys' perceptions of health.

AIM: The aim of this study was therefore to explore how adolescent boys understand the concept of health and what they find important for its achievement.

METHODS: Grounded theory was used as a method to analyse interviews with 33 adolescent boys aged 16 to 17 years attending three upper secondary schools in a relatively small town in Sweden.

RESULTS: There was a complexity in how health was perceived, experienced, dealt with, and valued. Although health on a conceptual level was described as 'holistic', health was experienced and dealt with in a more dualistic manner, one in which the boys were prone to differentiate between mind and body. Health was experienced as mainly emotional and relational, whereas the body had a subordinate value. The presence of positive emotions, experiencing self-esteem, balance in life, trustful relationships, and having a sense of belonging were important factors for health while the body was experienced as a tool to achieve health, as energy, and as a condition.

CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that young, masculine health is largely experienced through emotions and relationships and thus support theories on health as a social construction of interconnected processes.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125620 (URN)10.2174/1874434601610010026 (DOI)27347252 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2016-09-13
2. Tough, sensitive and sincere: how adolescent boys manage masculinities and emotions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tough, sensitive and sincere: how adolescent boys manage masculinities and emotions
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2015 (English)In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to explore adolescent boys' views of masculinity and emotion management and their potential effects on well-being. Interviews with 33 adolescent boys aged 16–17 years in Sweden were analysed using grounded theory. We found two main categories of masculine conceptions in adolescent boys: gender-normative masculinity with emphasis on group-based values, and non-gender-normative masculinity based on personal values. Gender-normative masculinity comprised two seemingly opposite emotional masculinity orientations, one towards toughness and the other towards sensitivity, both of which were highly influenced by contextual and situational group norms and demands, despite their expressions contrasting each other. Non-gender-normative masculinity included an orientation towards sincerity emphasising the personal values of the boys; emotions were expressed more independently of peer group norms. Our findings suggest that different masculinities and the expression of emotions are strongly intertwined and that managing emotions is vital for well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keyword
adolescence, boys, emotion management, grounded theory, masculinity, qualitative study, well-being
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-115797 (URN)10.1080/02673843.2015.1106414 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2016-09-13
3. Pride, shame and health among adolescents - a cross-sectional survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pride, shame and health among adolescents - a cross-sectional survey
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125621 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2016-09-13
4. Subjective social status and health in adolescence: a mixed methods study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subjective social status and health in adolescence: a mixed methods study
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(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125623 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-13 Last updated: 2016-09-13

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