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Virus Fate and Transport in Groundwater: Organic matter, uncertainty, and cold climate
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water managers must balance the need for clean and safe drinking water with ever-increasing amounts of waste-water. A technique for treating and storing surface water called “managed aquifer recharge” (MAR) is frequently used to help maintain this balance. When MAR is used to produce drinking water, water managers must ensure that disease-causing microbial contaminants are removed from the water prior to its distribution. This thesis examined the processes responsible for removing a specific class of microbial contaminants called “enteric viruses” during MAR. Viruses are naturally removed in groundwater through adsorption and inactivation mechanisms. This thesis investigated how these virus removal mechanisms were affected by ionic strength (IS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the age of the sand used in a MAR infiltration basin. This was done using batch and flow-through column experiments designed to mimic conditions characteristic of a basin infiltration MAR scheme in Uppsala, Sweden. Bacteriophage MS2 was used as a proxy for enteric viruses. All of the experiments were conducted at 4°C. Experimental data were modeled to describe the fate and transport of viruses in the infiltrated groundwater. Conventional least-squares optimization and generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) were compared as model fitting-approaches in order to determine how data uncertainty affects parameter estimates and model predictions. Results showed that the sand used in the infiltration basins accumulates adsorbed organic matter as it is exposed to infiltrating surface waters. This reduced the amount of MS2 that was removed due to adsorption and inactivation. Results from GLUE indicated that MS2 is more likely to inactivate in a time-dependent manner when in the presence of sand with high concentrations of organic matter. Both model fitting techniques indicated that virus attachment rates were significantly lower for sand with high organic carbon content. Neither methodology was capable of adequately capturing the kinetics of virus adsorption. Uncertainties in the experimental data had a large effect on the conclusions that could be drawn from fitted models. This study showed that the presence of natural organic matter reduces the value of the infiltration basin as a microbial barrier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 71 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1426
Keyword [en]
managed aquifer recharge, organic matter, virus, numerical modeling, uncertainty
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Hydrology; Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302832ISBN: 978-91-554-9688-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-302832DiVA: diva2:967991
Public defence
2016-10-28, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-09-11 Last updated: 2016-10-11
List of papers
1. Chemical and environmental factors affecting adsorption and inactivation mechanisms of virus in groundwater: A literature review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical and environmental factors affecting adsorption and inactivation mechanisms of virus in groundwater: A literature review
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Hydrology; Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302154 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-08-30 Last updated: 2016-09-11
2. Reduced removal of an enteric virus during managed aquifer recharge due to organic coatings on infiltration basin sand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced removal of an enteric virus during managed aquifer recharge due to organic coatings on infiltration basin sand
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Hydrology; Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301516 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2016-09-11
3. The effects of sand and organic matter on virus inactivation at low temperatures: Comparing models of constant and time-dependent inactivation while considering the uncertainty of measured virus concentrations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of sand and organic matter on virus inactivation at low temperatures: Comparing models of constant and time-dependent inactivation while considering the uncertainty of measured virus concentrations
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Hydrology; Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301506 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2016-09-11
4. Fate and transport of virus in infiltration basins and the importance of data uncertainty in modeling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate and transport of virus in infiltration basins and the importance of data uncertainty in modeling
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Hydrology; Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301507 (URN)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2016-09-11

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Citation style
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