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An Evaluation of Interactors' Gaze-to-Object Mapping Performance in 3D Virtual Environments
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
En utvärdering av Interaktörers förmåga att koppla blicken till objekt i virtuella 3D-miljöer (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Affordable and relatively accurate eye trackers are becoming more accessible for the mainstream user, consequently opening up new opportunities for utilizing eye gaze in interactive real-time applications.

When extending gaze data from an eye tracker into real-time rendered 3D virtual environments, there are often techniques applied to correlate the gaze point to a 3D object. Techniques which can be referred to gaze-to-object mapping (GTOM) methods. One featured GTOM method, region-bound Interactors, provided by the eye tracking company Tobii AB, was extended in this thesis by utilizing a custom G-buffer in order to extract accurate shapes of individual objects in screen space. This adapted method was compared against two methods based on ray casting in a controlled 3D test environment consisting of three types of scenarios with varying conditions.

Data was collected from a user study with 31 participants to assess if the Interactors method could be viable in 3D virtual environments. The extended method showed some promising result in relation to the other methods, but further work needs to be done to establish whether the method in question is practical for GTOM in 3D.

Abstract [sv]

Relativt precisa eyetrackers med ett lågt pris blir allt mer tillgängliga för den vanlige användaren. Således öppnas nya möjligheter upp för att använda ögonspårning i interaktiva realtidsapplikationer.

När man förlänger ögats blickpunkt in till virtuella realtidsrenderade 3D-miljöer, används ofta metoder för att kunna korrelera blicken till ett 3D-objekt. Dessa metoder kan benämnas som så kallade gaze-to-object mapping-metoder (GTOM). En GTOM-metod, regionsbundna Interactors, som tillhandahålls av eyetracking-företaget Tobii AB, kompletterades under detta examensarbete med en specifik G-buffer för att kunna extrahera exakta former av enskilda objekt på skärmen. Denna metod jämfördes med två metoder som var baserade på strålföljning i en kontrollerad testmiljö i 3D som bestod av tre typer av olika scenarier med varierande förhållanden.

Information samlades in från en användarstudie med 31 deltagare för att kunna bedöma om Interactors-metoden är lämplig för GTOM i virtuella 3D-miljöer. Den utökade metoden uppvisade en del lovande resultat i förhållande till de andra två metoderna, men ytterligare forskning måste utföras för att kunna fastställa om huruvida den aktuella metoden är praktisk för GTOM i 3D.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
Keyword [en]
eye tracking, gaze-to-object mapping, 3D virtual environments, video games
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-192297OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-192297DiVA: diva2:967519
External cooperation
Tobii AB
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Computer Science and Technology
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2016-09-13 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2016-09-13Bibliographically approved

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