Panama ́ Viejo, founded in 1519 by the Spanish explorer Pedrarias Da ́vila, was the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific Ocean, and became a city, by royal decree, in 1521. Shortly after its creation, the city became an important base for trade with Spain. In 1671, the English pirate Henry Morgan waged an attack on Panama ́ Viejo, which resulted in a fire that destroyed the entire city. A new settlement built a few miles west, called Casco Antiguo or San Felipe, is now the historic district of modern Panama City. The Pb isotopic compositions of the glazes on the surface of sixteenth to seventeenth century majolica pottery sherds from Panama Viejo and Casco Antiguo (both in Panama), and Lima (Peru) were determined via non-destructive laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS (LA-MC-ICP-MS). The contrast in Pb isotopic compositions in the glazes on ceramics recovered in different locations demonstrate that early majolica pottery production during this period used Pb obtained from the Andes. However, the Pb used in later majolica production in Panama is of Spanish origin. After Panama ́ Viejo was burned to the ground, Panamanian majolica production ended.
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016.