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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology.
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7, no UNSP 256Article, review/survey (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

A group of pauci-immune vasculitides, characterized by neutrophil-rich necrotizing inflammation of small vessels and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), is referred to as ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ANCAs against proteinase 3 (PR3) (PR3-ANCA) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) (MPO-ANCA) are found in over 90% of patients with active disease, and these ANCAs are implicated in the pathogenesis of AAV. Dying neutrophils surrounding the walls of small vessels are a histological hallmark of AAV. Traditionally, it has been assumed that these neutrophils die by necrosis, but neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been visualized at the sites of vasculitic lesions. AAV patients also possess elevated levels of NETs in the circulation. ANCAs are capable of inducing NETosis in neutrophils, and their potential to do so has been shown to be affinity dependent and to correlate with disease activity. Neutrophils from AAV patients are also more prone to release NETs spontaneously than neutrophils from healthy blood donors. NETs contain proinflammatory proteins and are thought to contribute to vessel inflammation directly by damaging endothelial cells and by activating the complement system and indirectly by acting as a link between the innate and adaptive immune system through the generation of PR3-and MPO-ANCA. Injection of NET-loaded myeloid dendritic cells into mice results in circulating PR3-and MPO-ANCA and the development of AAV-like disease. NETs have also been shown to be essential in a rodent model of drug-induced vasculitis. NETs induced by propylthiouracil could not be degraded by DNaseI, implying that disordered NETs might be important for the generation of ANCAs. NET degradation was also highlighted in another study showing that AAV patients have reduced DNaseI activity resulting in less NET degradation. With this in mind, it might be that prolonged exposure to proteins in the NETs due to the overproduction of NETs and/or reduced clearance of NETs is important in AAV. However, not all ANCAs are pathogenic and some might possibly also aid in the clearance of NETs. A dual role for ANCAs in relation to circulating NET levels has been proposed because a negative correlation was observed between PR3-ANCA and NET remnants in patients in remission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA , 2016. Vol. 7, no UNSP 256
Keyword [en]
neutrophil extracellular traps; ANCA-associated vasculitis; ANCA; NET; small-vessel vasculitis; NET remnants
National Category
Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130425DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00256ISI: 000379119800001PubMedID: 27446086OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-130425DiVA: diva2:951184
Note

Funding Agencies|Ingrid Asps Foundation; Swedish Society of Nephrology; Swedish Renal Foundation

Available from: 2016-08-07 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2016-08-22

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Söderberg, DanielSegelmark, Mårten
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