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Out-of-pocket expenditures for childbirth in the context of the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer program to promote facility births: who pays and how much? Studies from Madhya Pradesh, India
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2016 (English)In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, 71Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Background: High out-of-pocket expenditures (OOPE) make delivery care difficult to access for a large proportion of India’s population. Given that home deliveries increase the risk of maternal mortality, in 2005 the Indian Government implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program to incentivize poor women to deliver in public health facilities by providing a cash transfer upon discharge. We study the OOPE among JSY beneficiaries and women who deliver at home, and predictors of OOPE in two districts of Madhya Pradesh.

Methods: September 2013 to April 2015 a cross-sectional community-based survey was performed. All recently delivered women were interviewed to elicit delivery costs, socio-demographic characteristics and delivery related information.

Results: Most women (n = 1995, 84 %) delivered in JSY public health facility, the remaining 16 % (n = 386) delivered at home. Women who delivered under JSY program had a higher median, IQR OOPE ($8, 3–18) compared to home ($6, 2–13). Among JSY beneficiaries, poorest women had twice net gain ($20) versus wealthiest ($10) post cash transfer. Informal payments (64 %) and food/baby items (77 %) were the two most common sources of OOPE. OOPE made among JSY beneficiaries was pro-poor: poorer women made proportionally less expenditures compared to wealthier women. In an adjusted model, delivering in a JSY public facility increased odds of incurring expenditures (OR: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.11–2.25) but at the same time to a 16 % (95 % CI: 0.73–0.96) decrease in the amount paid compared to home deliveries.

Conclusions: OOPE is prevalent among JSY beneficiaries as well in home deliveries. In JSY, OOPE varies by income quintile: wealthier quintiles pay more OOPE. However the cash incentive is adequate enough to provide a net gain for all quintiles. OOPE was largely due to indirect costs and not direct medical payments. The program seems to be effective in providing financial protection for the most vulnerable groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 15, 71
Keyword [en]
Out-of-pocket expenditure, Conditional cash transfer, Maternal health, Facility based delivery, India
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-123457DOI: 10.1186/s12939-016-0362-4ISI: 000377570600001PubMedID: 27142657OAI: diva2:949254
Available from: 2016-07-18 Created: 2016-07-04 Last updated: 2016-07-18Bibliographically approved

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Lindholm, Lars
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Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine
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