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Development of Methods and Guidelines for Upper Extremity Injury in Car Accidents
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The project focus has been development of guidelines and methods for upper

extremity injury reduction in car crashes. The safety of the central body parts

improves which indicates the need to develop methods for avoiding non-life

threatening injuries such as fracture of the arms. The purpose of the project was to

study the injury mechanisms for the upper extremity in car crashes, and the aim has

been to propose methods to reduce the injuries. The project focuses on adult

occupants inside the vehicles front seat, and frontal and side impacts. The procedure

began with understanding and identifying the injury mechanisms. Studies show that

most fractures occur on the forearm (radius and ulna) and on the wrists and hands.

To determine which injury mechanisms that were most frequent, data were collected

from 29 computer simulations with 29 different crash scenarios. The most common

kind of impact was the medial part of the wrist in the central part of the instrument

panel, combined with the impact of the elbow in the center consol. The results of the

simulations created a basis for the method of the component test, with focus on the

injury mechanism i.e. the forward movement of the arms into the instrument panel.

The component test consisted of a test rig, on which was mounted with a measuring

arm of a 50th percentile male dummy. The arm dropped into a block of expanded

polypropylene (EPP-block) for observation and study, and with following variable

parameters: the impact angle of the surface, velocity and position of the wrist. Then

also an instrumented measuring arm from a 5th percentile female dummy was

released into an instrument panel.

The project contributes to knowledge about the injury mechanism of the upper

extremity in car crashes. The most frequent injury mechanism is a forward movement

of the arms resulting in an impact with the interior structure of the car. The most

frequent injured region is the distal part of the upper extremity. The project has

developed and suggested the first step to a test method for the specific injury

mechanism. There is a need of more research on how impact angles and velocity

affect the violence on the arm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 83 p.
Keyword [en]
Biomechanics, Upper Extremity Injury Prevention, Fractures, Car Crash, Car Accidents
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31615OAI: diva2:948193
Subject / course
Available from: 2016-07-11 Created: 2016-07-08 Last updated: 2016-07-11Bibliographically approved

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