Numerical and experimental study of embossing of paperboard: A material characterization of one specific paperboard quality
Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
This master thesis has its main focus within embossing operations and how different factors influence the result. The work was performed at Stora Enso Research Centre in Karlstad, Sweden. Embossing is relatively complex operation to analyze since the paperboard can be exposed of both bending, shear and compression at the same time. The techniques used today for evaluating embossing on paperboard consist of experimental setups. These experimental techniques needed to be complemented in order to simplify the approach for embossing evaluations. The aim of this thesis was to develop a simulation material model, created with Finite Element Method by using Abaqus (2014), which capture the experimental behavior of embossed paperboard. The goals were to understand which material properties that are of high importance in embossing operations, and how sensitive the simulation material model is at small geometry changes of the embossing tool. A three dimensional finite element material model has been created in Abaqus (2014). The analysis was performed as dynamic quasi-static where an implicit solver was used. The simulation material model consisted of a continuum model, which describes the behavior of the plies, and an interface model implemented as cohesive elements, which describes the inelastic delamination between the plies. The continuum model was defined as an anisotropic linear elastic-plastic material model with isotropic linear hardening together with Hill´s yield criterion. The interface model was defined with an anisotropic elastic-plastic traction-separation law and an exponential damage evolution model. The purpose of the experimental tests was to capture the behavior of embossed paperboard and the goal was then to recreate the behavior in the simulation model. The results in this thesis focus on the relationship between the applied force and the displacement. An experimental and numerical study of out-of-plane compression has also been conducted, where the aim was to determine the out-of-plane elastic modulus, EZD. According to embossing results, the embossing results showed an exponential hardening behavior while the numerical results, unfortunately, showed a declining hardening behavior. Despite this, some understanding regarding which parameters that are of utmost importance have been achieved. The material parameters which had the highest influence on embossed paperboards seem to be the out-of-plane shear properties. This thesis also shows that the material model is sensitive of small changes of the tool geometry. The proportion of shear, bending and compression are strongly dependent on if the tool has sharp edges or if the edges are more rounded.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 51 p.
Embossing, Paperboard, Abaqus, FEM, Creasing
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44380OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-44380DiVA: diva2:946360
Subject / course
Engineering: Mechanical Engineering, spec. in Materials Engineering (300 ECTS credits)
Hallbäck, Nils, Docent