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Building Sustainable Peace: Understanding the Linkages between Social, Political, and Ecological Processes in Post-War Countries
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Post-war countries are among the most difficult policy arenas for international and domestic actors. The challenge is not only to stop violence and prevent violence from rekindling, but moreover to help countries reset their internal relations on a peaceful path. The indirect, long-term effects of wars further exaggerate this challenge. Many of these relate to political and social aspects of post-war countries. Lasting impressions of human rights abuses committed during wars continue to shape the relations among members of societies for decades to come. Both, socio-economic impacts and political impacts challenge the stability of post-war countries for many years. The challenges to public health have been found to be especially severe and affect disproportionately the civilian population of post-war countries. Environmental and climate change exposes post-war populations further to new risks, exaggerating the human costs of war long after active combat has ceased.

These challenges are not new. The problem, however, is that in practice all these elements are simultaneously happening in today’s peacebuilding interventions. Yet, practitioners as well as researchers remain settled in a silo mentality, focusing only on one aspect at a time. As such they are unaware of the unintended consequences that their focus has on other important processes. The four essays that lie at the heart of this dissertation provide new insight into the linkages between the social, political and ecological processes in post-war societies and how the interactions of different groups of actors are shaping the prospects for peace.

The argument drawn out in this dissertation is that to build peace we need to acknowledge and understand this long-term interplay of social, political, and ecological processes in post-war countries. It will be crucial to understand the potential and dynamics of natural resources and environmental issues in this context. As the essays in this dissertation show, the interactions of these processes divisively shape the post-war landscape. It is therefore essential to build a peace that is ecologically sensitive, while equally socially and politically relevant and desirable. I call this sustainable peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University , 2016. , 45 p.
Series
Report / Department of Peace and Conflict Research, ISSN 0566-8808 ; 110
Keyword [en]
Sustainable peace, peacebuilding, post-war reconstruction, non-state actors, state actors, legitimacy, environmental peacebuilding, environmental security, sustainable development
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298280ISBN: 978-91-506-2584-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-298280DiVA: diva2:945418
Public defence
2016-09-10, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-08-19 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2016-08-19
List of papers
1. Actors in Environmental Peacebuilding: A case study of ownership frames in the UNEP’s environmental peacebuilding policy framework
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Actors in Environmental Peacebuilding: A case study of ownership frames in the UNEP’s environmental peacebuilding policy framework
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In contrast to international peacebuilding interventions, global environmental governance is characterized by the inclusiveness of international and domestic non-state actors. Consequently, it may be expected that the UNEP policy framework on environmental peacebuilding would promote a strong for of non-state actors. This article examines the roles of various actors in this policy framework. It analyzes policy frames pertinent to questions of ownership that are embedded in key UNEP reports on environmental peacebuilding. I consider ownership here as an indicator of which actors design, manage and implement environmental peacebuilding policies. The findings suggest that UNEP, which I consider an international state actor, prefers international ownership (as opposed to domestic state or domestic non-state ownership) in their strategy for the sustainable management of natural resources in post-war settings. However, contrary to expectations, the reports showed a notable absence of international non-state actors. This is surprising in light of the global environmental governance discourse, which stresses the importance of involving international non-state in environmental governance. This article discusses characteristics of the reports that may explain the absence in this framework of international non-state actors, as well as domestic state and domestic non-state actors. 

Keyword
Environmental Peacebuilding, Peacebuilding, UNEP, Policy frames, Ownership
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298273 (URN)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2016-07-01
2. The Liberal Trap: Peacemaking and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan After 9/11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Liberal Trap: Peacemaking and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan After 9/11
2013 (English)In: Mediation and liberal peacebuilding: Peace from the ashes of war? / [ed] Mikael Eriksson and Roland Kostić, London: Routledge, 2013, 57-75 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

By studying the negotiation of the Bonn Agreement for Afghanistan and its implementation, this paper argues that adding a reconciliation or transitional justice agenda to external statebuilding efforts does not resolve the problem of top-down imposition and regulation. Examination of the pre-negotiation phase showed that the Afghan parties were controlled and regulated from the outset by the external actors, led by US diplomats. The external agenda was heavily driven by Western security and statebuilding concerns, but in order to uphold an image of an intervention as normatively liberal, the concepts of national reconciliation and human rights were included in the Agreement. As shown in the study of the implementation phase, these concepts became a source of tension between Western statebuilders and the Western transitional justice community. The investigation reveals that each is seeking to impose their own agenda on the elected Afghan government, and are neglecting locally driven solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2013
Series
, Routledge studies in intervention and statebuilding
Keyword
peacebuilding, Afghanistan, negotiations, transitional justice
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194364 (URN)0-415-63835-6 (ISBN)0-415-63835-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-02-13 Created: 2013-02-13 Last updated: 2014-06-19Bibliographically approved
3. Water for peace? Post-conflict water resource management in Kosovo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water for peace? Post-conflict water resource management in Kosovo
2016 (English)In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Water resource management (WRM) has increasingly come to be considered within the realm of peacebuilding. Through investigating the case of water resource management in Kosovo after 1999, this study argues that the international community has treated post-conflict water resource management as a primarily technical issue, to the neglect of its complex political nature. This has impeded the peacebuilding process in three ways. First, it consolidated the physical separation of actors through allowing separate water governance structures. Second, it avoided conflictive issues instead of actively engaging in conflict resolution. Third, it incapacitated locals by placing ownership in the hands of external actors. To redress this tripartite dilemma, this study stresses the need for research that provides deeper theoretical and empirical understanding of the political mechanisms that connect WRM to post-conflict reconstruction efforts. 

Keyword
Environmental peacebuilding, functionalism, Kosovo, peacebuilding, post-conflict reconstruction, UNMIK, water resource management
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science Globalization Studies
Research subject
Political Science; Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-295433 (URN)10.1177/0010836716652428 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2016-06-16Bibliographically approved
4. Empowering peace: service provision and state legitimacy in Nepal’s peace-building process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empowering peace: service provision and state legitimacy in Nepal’s peace-building process
2016 (English)In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 16, no 1, 53-73 p., 10.1080/14678802.2016.1136138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is growing demand for an understanding of peace beyond the absence of violence. As such research focuses increasingly on the issue of state legitimacy as a tool to assess and understand peace processes. In this paper the relationship between service provision and state legitimacy is studied to assess whether the provision of services like electricity to rural communities of war-torn countries through state actors contributes to the consolidation of the post-war political system. The qualitative analysis of two localities in post-war Nepal highlights that service provision in the form of electricity through micro-hydropower yields tremendously positive socio-economic effects for rural communities. However, socio-economic development in combination with interactions among villagers has strengthened local autonomy through emphasising alternative local governance structures. This highlights that the relationship between service provision and state legitimacy is more complex than previous research anticipates. The absence of a positive effect on state legitimacy raises the question of whether in its current case-specific form service provision is conducive to the broader peace-building efforts in post-war Nepal, because it stresses the divide between state and society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keyword
Service provision, state legitimacy, peace-building, Nepal
National Category
Social Sciences Political Science Sociology Globalization Studies Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280203 (URN)10.1080/14678802.2016.1136138 (DOI)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2016-03-09

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