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A further cost for the sicker sex?: Evidence for male-biased parasite-induced vulnerability to predation
Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales.;ETH, Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Ctr Adaptat Changing Environm ACE, Zurich, Switzerland.;EAWAG, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Dept Aquat Ecol, Dubendorf, Switzerland..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales..
Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales..
Univ E Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England..
2016 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 8, 2506-2515 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Males are typically the sicker sex. Data from multiple taxa indicate that they are more likely to be infected with parasites, and are less "tolerant," or less able to mitigate the fitness costs of a given infection, than females. One cost of infection for many animals is an increased probability of being captured by a predator. A clear, hitherto untested, prediction is therefore that this parasite-induced vulnerability to predation is more pronounced among males than females. We tested this prediction in the sexually size dimorphic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, in which females are typically larger than males. We either sham or experimentally infected guppies with Gyrodactylus turnbulli, elicited their escape response using an established protocol and measured the distance they covered during 60 ms. To discriminate between the effects of body size and those of other inherent sex differences, we size-matched fish across treatment groups. Infection with G. turnbulli reduced the distance covered during the escape response of small adults by 20.1%, whereas that of large fish was unaffected. This result implies that parasite-induced vulnerability to predation is male-biased in the wild: although there was no difference in escape response between our experimentally size-matched groups of males and females, males are significantly smaller across natural guppy populations. These results are consistent with Bateman's principle for immunity: Natural selection for larger body sizes and longevity in females seems to have resulted in the evolution of increased infection tolerance. We discuss the potential implications of sex-and size-biased parasite-induced vulnerability to predation for the evolutionary ecology of this host-parasite interaction in natural communities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 6, no 8, 2506-2515 p.
Keyword [en]
Bateman's principle for immunity, Gyrodactylus, infection tolerance, parasite-induced vulnerability to predation, Poecilia reticulata, sex-biased parasitism
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URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297919DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2049ISI: 000374568300022PubMedID: 27066240OAI: diva2:944230
Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-28 Last updated: 2016-06-29Bibliographically approved

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