Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden
2016 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, 30045Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Background: High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective: To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63-64 degrees N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n = 120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n = 113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results: The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitaminDintake of 7.5 mu g/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p = 0.01). Body mass (p < 0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p = 0.01), total body less head BMC (p = 0.02), fat free mass (p < 0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p = 0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions: Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 60, 30045
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, season, latitude, diet, calcium
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121495DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.30045ISI: 000375881800001PubMedID: 26945233OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-121495DiVA: diva2:938657