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Body mass but not vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral content and density in young school children in northern Sweden
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. (Arcum)
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
2016 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, 30045Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Abstract [en]

Background: High latitude of residence where sun exposure is limited affects vitamin D status. Although vitamin D levels have been associated with poor bone health, cut-off values for optimising bone health are yet to be decided. Objective: To assess vitamin D intake and status among young school children living at latitude 63-64 degrees N, in northern Sweden and to examine the association between vitamin D status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: In a cross-sectional study, diet was assessed by a 4-day food diary and a food frequency questionnaire in 8- to 9-year-old children (n = 120). Energy, vitamin D, and calcium intakes were calculated. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25[OH]D) levels were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (n = 113). BMC and BMD were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Height and weight were measured by standard procedures and BMI z-score was calculated using WHO AnthroPlus programme. Results: The majority of children, 91%, did not reach the recommended vitaminDintake of 7.5 mu g/day and 50% had insufficient S-25[OH]D levels defined as <50 nmol/l. The highest concentrations of S-25[OH]D were observed during the summer months (p = 0.01). Body mass (p < 0.01) but not S-25[OH]D was associated with measures of BMC and BMD. Furthermore, boys had higher total BMC (p = 0.01), total body less head BMC (p = 0.02), fat free mass (p < 0.01), and a higher degree of physical activity (p = 0.01) compared to girls. Conclusions: Body mass was related to BMC and BMD measures in a population of prepubertal school children living at high latitudes in Sweden. Despite insufficient S-25[OH]D levels and low vitamin D intake, this did not appear to affect bone parameters. Prospective studies with repeated assessment of vitamin D status are needed to examine cut-off values for optimising bone health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 60, 30045
Keyword [en]
dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, season, latitude, diet, calcium
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121495DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.30045ISI: 000375881800001PubMedID: 26945233OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-121495DiVA: diva2:938657
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-02 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved

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