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Sn/Be Sequentially co-doped Hematite Photoanodes for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation: Effect of Be2+ as co-dopant
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Republic of Korea.
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2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 23183Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

For ex-situ co-doping methods, sintering at high temperatures enables rapid diffusion of Sn4+ and Be2+ dopants into hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) lattices, without altering the nanorod morphology or damaging their crystallinity. Sn/Be co-doping results in a remarkable enhancement in photocurrent (1.7 mA/cm(2)) compared to pristine alpha-Fe2O3 (0.7 mA/cm(2)), and Sn4+ mono-doped alpha-Fe2O3 photoanodes (1.0 mA/cm(2)). From first-principles calculations, we found that Sn4+ doping induced a shallow donor level below the conduction band minimum, which does not contribute to increase electrical conductivity and photocurrent because of its localized nature. Additionally, Sn4+-doping induce local micro-strain and a decreased Fe-O bond ordering. When Be2+ was co-doped with Sn4+-doped alpha-Fe2O3 photoanodes, the conduction band recovered its original state, without localized impurities peaks, also a reduction in micro-strain and increased Fe-O bond ordering is observed. Also the sequence in which the ex-situ co-doping is carried out is very crucial, as Be/Sn co-doping sequence induces many under-coordinated O atoms resulting in a higher micro-strain and lower charge separation efficiency resulting undesired electron recombination. Here, we perform a detailed systematic characterization using XRD, FESEM, XPS and comprehensive electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies, along with sophisticated synchrotron diffraction studies and extended X-ray absorption fine structure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 6, 23183
National Category
Nano Technology Physical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119278DOI: 10.1038/srep23183ISI: 000372609600001PubMedID: 27005757OAI: diva2:932862
Available from: 2016-06-02 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-06-02Bibliographically approved

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