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Adaptive Normalisation of Programme Loudness in Audiovisual Broadcasts
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Adaptiv normalisering av loudness i audiovisuella sändningar (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Loudness is a subjective measure of how loud an audio signal is perceived. Due to commercial pressures loudness has been exploited in broadcasts to attract and reach viewers and listeners. By means of signal processing it is possible to increase the loudness of an audio signal and still meet the contemporary legislated signal levelling requirements. With an aspiration to achieve equal average loudness between all broadcasting programmes the European Broadcasting Union have issued a standard that proposes methods to quantify loudness. This thesis applies those loudness quantities and proposes an online algorithm that adaptively normalises the loudness of audiovisual broadcasts without affecting the dynamics within programmes. The main application of the algorithm is to normalise the audio in broadcasting and distributing equipment with real-time requirements. The results were derived from simulations in Matlab using commercial broadcasts. The results showed that for certain types of broadcasts the algorithm managed to reduce the variation in average programme loudness with minor effects on dynamics within programmes.

Abstract [sv]

Loudness är ett subjektivt mått på hur högljudd en ljudsignal uppfattas. Till följd av kommersiellt tryck har loudness utnyttjats i sändningar för att locka och nå tittare. Genom signalbehandling är det möjligt att öka loudness-nivån på en ljudsignal och fortfarande uppfylla dagens lagstadgade signalnivåkrav. Med strävan att uppnå en lika medel-loudness-nivå mellan alla program har Europeiska radio- och TV-unionen publicerat en standard som föreslår metoder för att kvantifiera loudness. Denna rapport tillämpar dessa metoder och föreslår en algoritm som adaptivt normaliserar loudness-nivån i audiovisuella sändningar utan att påverka dynamiken inuti program. Huvudtillämpningen för algoritmen är att normalisera ljudsignalen i sändnings- och distributionsutrustning med realtidskrav. Resultaten erhölls från simuleringar i Matlab där kommersiella sändningar användes. Resultaten visade att för vissa typer av sändningar lyckades algoritmen minska variationen i medel-loudness-nivå med smärre påverkan på dynamik inuti program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 82 p.
Keyword [en]
Loudness, Normalisation, EBU R128, Audio, Broadcasting
National Category
Communication Systems
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128795ISRN: LiTH-ISY-EX--16/4947--SEOAI: diva2:932719
External cooperation
WISI Norden AB
Subject / course
Communication Systems
2016-05-27, Systemet, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-05-31 Last updated: 2016-06-07Bibliographically approved

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