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Frequency Optimization of Vibratory Rollers and Plates for Compaction of Granular Soil
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7361-0729
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers are commonly used for compaction of embankments and landfills. This task is time consuming and constitutes a significant part of most large construction and infrastructure projects. By improving the compaction efficiency, the construction industry would reduce costs and environmental impact.

This research project studies the influence of the vibration frequency of the drum, which is normally a fixed roller property, and whether resonance can be utilized to improve the compaction efficiency. The influence of frequency on roller compaction has not before been studied but the concept of resonance compaction has previously been applied successfully in deep compaction of fills and natural deposits.

In order to examine the influence of vibration frequency on the compaction of granular soil, small-scale compaction tests of sand were conducted under varying conditions with a vertically oscillating plate. Subsequently, full-scale tests were conducted using a vibratory soil compaction roller and a test bed of crushed gravel. The results showed that resonance can be utilized in soil compaction by vibratory rollers and plates and that the optimum compaction frequency from an energy perspective is at, or slightly above, the coupled compactor-soil resonant frequency. Since rollers operate far above resonance, the compaction frequency can be significantly reduced, resulting in a considerable reduction in fuel consumption, environmental impact and machine wear.

The thesis also presents an iterative equivalent-linear method to calculate the frequency response of a vibrating foundation, such as a compacting plate or the drum of a roller. The method seems promising for predicting the resonant frequency of the roller-soil system and can be used to determine the optimum compaction frequency without site- and roller-specific measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 40 p.
Series
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1022
Keyword [en]
compaction, vibratory roller, frequency, resonance, vibration, sand, gravel, soil dynamics
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187352ISBN: 978-91-7729-042-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-187352DiVA: diva2:929931
Public defence
2016-08-26, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160613

Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2016-06-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Small-Scale Testing of Frequency-Dependent Compaction of Sand Using a Vertically Vibrating Plate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small-Scale Testing of Frequency-Dependent Compaction of Sand Using a Vertically Vibrating Plate
2013 (English)In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 36, no 3, 394-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vibratory rollers generally operate at a fixed vibration frequency. It is hypothesized that the compaction of soil could be made more efficient if the frequency could be adapted to specific project conditions. In order to study the applicability to surface compaction, the frequency dependence of compacting dry sand with a vertically vibrating plate was investigated experimentally in 85 small-scale tests. Tests were performed in a test box simulating the free-field condition and with concrete underlying the sand bed. The results show that there is a distinct frequency dependence, implying a significantly improved compaction effect close to the compactor soil resonant frequency. It is suggested that particle velocity is the governing amplitude parameter for vibratory soil compaction, rather than displacement or acceleration. As the soil is compacted, it is also displaced, resulting in surface heave. A larger vibration amplitude implies greater displacement relative to the compacted volume. It was also observed that the compaction and strain-dependent reduction of soil stiffness are closely related.

Keyword
compaction, resonant frequency, strain softening, vibration, particle velocity
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-123420 (URN)10.1520/GTJ20120183 (DOI)000318261800010 ()2-s2.0-84878101469 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20130610

Available from: 2013-06-10 Created: 2013-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Frequency Variable Surface Compaction of Sand Using Rotating Mass Oscillators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency Variable Surface Compaction of Sand Using Rotating Mass Oscillators
2015 (English)In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, E-ISSN 1945-7545, Vol. 38, no 2, 198-207 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of vibration frequency was studied in 110 small-scale compaction tests conducted using a vertically oscillating plate. The underlying soil was dry sand, or sand close to the optimum water content. The results showed that there is a resonant amplification, providing a slightly higher degree of compaction. Frequency has a major influence on soil compaction. An iterative method for calculating the dynamic response of the plate, incorporating strain-dependent properties of the soil, is also presented. The calculated frequency response agrees fairly well with measured quantities.

Keyword
compaction, resonance, strain softening, frequency response, vibratory roller
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-138877 (URN)10.1520/GTJ20130193 (DOI)000355852800002 ()
Note

QC 20150626. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Dynamic response of vertically oscillating foundations at large strain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic response of vertically oscillating foundations at large strain
2014 (English)In: Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics - Proceedings of the 14th Int. Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics, IACMAG 2014 / [ed] Oka, Murakami, Uzuoka & Kimoto, CRC Press, 2014, 643-647 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A method for calculating the dynamic response of a vertically oscillating foundation on soil with strain-dependent properties is developed. Strain-dependent stiffness and damping are incorporated by an iterative procedure, presenting the response in frequency domain. The calculated dynamic displacement amplitudes are compared to small-scale tests using a vertically oscillating plate. The calculated dynamic quantities agree well with measured amplitudes over a wide frequency range.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press, 2014
Keyword
Dynamic response, Iterative methods, Soil testing, Dynamic displacements, Frequency domains, Large strains, Oscillating plates, Small-scale tests, Stiffness and damping, Strain-dependent, Wide frequency range
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-157738 (URN)10.1201/b17435-111 (DOI)000380614500100 ()2-s2.0-84907306492 (Scopus ID)978-113800148-0 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
14th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Recent Advances in Geomechanics, IACMAG 2014; Kyoto; Japan; 22 September 2014 through 25 September 2014
Note

QC 20141217

Available from: 2014-12-13 Created: 2014-12-13 Last updated: 2016-09-05Bibliographically approved
4. Soil compaction by vibratory roller with variable frequency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soil compaction by vibratory roller with variable frequency
2016 (English)In: Geotechnique, ISSN 0016-8505, E-ISSN 1751-7656Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Full-scale tests were conducted to study the influence of the operating frequency of a vibratory roller on the compaction of crushed gravel in a controlled environment. Tests were performed at both fixed and variable frequencies. The average densification of the soil was represented by settlement of the ground surface, and depth-dependent density variation before and after compaction was determined by horizontal nuclear density gauge measurements. The resonant frequency was approximately 17 Hz and frequencies in the range 15–35 Hz were tested. The optimum compaction frequency was determined to be around 18 Hz; that is, slightly above resonance, as compared with the standard operating frequency of the roller, 31 Hz. Lower compaction frequency significantly reduces the required engine power and thus fuel consumption and environmental impact, while increasing the lifespan of the roller. Furthermore, the soil closest to the ground surface is loosened at high frequency. This can be avoided with a lower compaction frequency and the need for subsequent static passes can thereby possibly be eliminated.

National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187310 (URN)10.1680/jgeot.16.P.051 (DOI)2-s2.0-85011866960 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160614

Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-19 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
5. Influence of force ratio and frequency on vibratory surface compaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of force ratio and frequency on vibratory surface compaction
2016 (English)In: Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development / [ed] Phung Duc Long, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-187311 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, Hanoi, 24th-25th Nov 2016, Vietnam
Note

QC 20160614

Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-19 Last updated: 2017-08-28Bibliographically approved

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