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The prevalence of stroke and depression and factors associated with depression in elderly people with and without stroke
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
2016 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 16, 174Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Few studies have investigated factors associated with depression among elderly people with and without stroke concurrently, using identical settings, procedures and study variables. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of stroke and depression and to compare the factors associated with depression in people with and without stroke. Methods: A postal mail survey was sent to 65-, 70-, 75- and 80-year-olds in northern Sweden and Finland in 2010 (n = 6098). Stroke was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Have you had a stroke?" Depression was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Are you depressed?" or having a Geriatric Depression Scale-4 score >= 2. Dependence in personal activities of daily living was defined as not showering without human assistance. Associations were tested with log-binomial regression. Results: The overall stroke prevalence was 7.0 +/- 0.3 % and increased from 4.7 +/- 0.4 % among 65-year-olds to 11.6 +/- 1.0 % among 80-year-olds (p < 0.001). The overall depression prevalence was 12.8 +/- 0.4 % and increased from 11.0 +/- 0.6 % among 65-year-olds to 18.1 +/- 1.2 % among 80-year-olds (p < 0.001). Depression was more common among people with stroke (Prevalence Ratio 1.77, 95 % Confidence Interval 1.48-2.12). In the non-stroke group, depression was independently associated with diabetes, dependence in instrumental activities of daily living, living alone, not having someone to talk to, poor finances, pain problems and having a life crisis in the preceding year. In the group with stroke, depression was independently associated with dependence in personal activities of daily living and having a life crisis the preceding year. Conclusions: Depression in people without stroke appeared to be independently associated with a broader range of external factors than depression in people with stroke.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2016. Vol. 16, 174
Keyword [en]
Stroke, Depression, Epidemiology
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120387DOI: 10.1186/s12877-016-0347-6ISI: 000385302100002PubMedID: 27717324OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-120387DiVA: diva2:928722
Note

Originally published in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-11-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stroke and depression in very old age
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stroke and depression in very old age
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Stroke och depression i mycket hög ålder
Abstract [en]

Background The prevalence and incidence of stroke are known to increase with age, which, combined with demographic change, means that very old patients with stroke are a growing patient group. Risk factors for incident stroke among very old people have not been widely investigated. The impact of depression on mortality in very old people who have had a stroke also remains unclear. 

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the risk factors for incident stroke, the epidemiology of stroke and depression, and the consequences of having had a stroke regarding the risk of depression and mortality among very old people.

Methods A randomly selected half of 85-, all 90-, and all ≥95-year-olds in certain municipalities in Västerbotten County, Sweden, and Pohjanmaa County, Finland were targeted in a population-based cohort study from 2000-2012. The 65-, 70-, 75-, and 80-year-olds in all the rural and random samples from the urban municipalities in the same counties were furthermore targeted in a survey in 2010.

In the cohort study patients were assessed in their homes, by means of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and other assessment scales, as well as blood pressure measurements, several physical tests, and a review of medical diagnoses appearing in the medical charts. Incident stroke data were collected from medical charts guided by hospital registry records, cause of death records, and reassessments after 5 years. Depression was defined as a GDS-15 score ≥5. A clinical definition of all depressive disorders, based on assessment scale scores and review of medical charts was also used. A specialist in geriatric medicine evaluated the diagnoses. The survey included yes/no questions about stroke and depression status, and the 4-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Associations with mortality and incident stroke were tested using Cox proportional-hazard models. 

Results In the ≥85-year-olds examined in 2005-2007 (n=601), the stroke prevalence was 21.5%, the prevalence of all depressive disorders was 37.8% and stroke was independently associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio 1.644, p=0.038). The prevalence of depression according to GDS-15 scores was 43.2% in people with stroke compared with 25.0% in people without stroke (p=0.001). However, in ≥85-year-olds examined in Sweden from 2000-2012 (n=955), from all past data collections in the study, depression was not independently associated with incident stroke. 

In ≥65-year-olds who responded to a survey in 2010 (n=6098), the stroke prevalence rose with age from 4.7% among the 65- to 11.6% among the 80-year-olds (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression rose from 11.0% among the 65- to 18.1% among the 80-year-olds (p<0.001). In the group with stroke, depression was independently associated with dependence in personal activities of daily living and having a life crisis the preceding year, while in the non-stroke group, depression was independently associated with several additional demographic, social and health factors.

In ≥85-year-olds examined in 2005-2007 with valid GDS-15 tests (n=452), having had a stroke was associated with increased 5-year mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.03]. Having had a stroke and depression was associated with increased 5-year mortality compared with having only stroke (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.15-3.13), having only depression (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.03-2.45), and compared with having neither stroke nor depression (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.69-3.69). Having only stroke without a depression did not increase mortality compared with having neither stroke nor depression.

In ≥85-year-olds examined in Sweden from 2000-2012 (n=955), from all past data collections in the study, the stroke incidence was 33.8/1000 person-years during a mean follow-up period of about three years. In a comprehensive multivariate model, atrial fibrillation (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07–3.19) and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP; HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.30 per 10-mmHg increase) were associated with incident stroke overall. In additional multivariate models, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg (HR 2.45, 95% CI 1.47–4.08) and SBP ≥160 mmHg (v. <140 mmHg; HR 2.80, 95% CI 1.53–5.14) were associated with incident stroke.

Conclusion The prevalence of both stroke and depression increased with age, and rates were especially high among very old people. Having had a stroke was independently associated with a higher prevalence of depression among very old people, however, depression was not independently associated with a higher incidence of stroke. Having had a stroke was associated with increased all-cause mortality among very old people, but only among those who were also depressed. High SBP (≥160 mmHg), DBP (≥90 mmHg) and atrial fibrillation were the only consistent independent risk factors for incident stroke among very old people.

Abstract [sv]

I västvärlden inklusive Sverige så ökar gruppen av människor som uppnår åldern 80 år eller äldre. Människorna som uppnår denna mycket höga ålder har en hög förekomst av kardiovaskulära riskfaktorer, har ofta flera samtidiga sjukdomar och ofta funktionsnedsättningar. Medicinska behandlingsåtgärder är ofta mindre effektiva och förknippade med biverkningar i åldersgruppen.

Stroke är en sjukdom som beror på skada av hjärnvävnad till följd av minskad blodtillhörsel till delar av hjärnan. Det är känt att såväl förekomsten av och insjuknandet i stroke ökar med stigande ålder. Den som drabbas av stroke löper risk att få en bestående funktionsnedsättning och att dö i förtid. En vanlig komplikation efter att ha drabbats av stroke är nedstämdhet eller depression.

Vetenskapliga studier om stroke har tidigare negligerat mycket gamla människor, vilket i takt med den pågående demografiska utvecklingen framstått som allt mer orimligt. Det är ej helt klarlagt vilka riskfaktorer som leder till att insjukna med stroke i mycket hög ålder. Överdödligheten förknippad med att drabbas av depression efter stroke är också oklar i åldersgruppen. Det är också oklart vad som skiljer depression efter stroke från depression bland den övriga befolkningen av åldrade människor.

Den populations-baserade kohortstudien GErontologisk Regional DAtabas (GERDA) inleddes år 2000 för att kartlägga faktorer förknippade med gott åldrande bland mycket gamla människor. Hälften av 85-åringarna, alla 90-åringar och alla ≥95-åringar i utvalda kommuner i Västerbotten erbjöds att delta i studien. Därefter har återbesök hos tidigare deltagare i sina nya åldersgrupper och rekrytering av nya deltagare genomförts vart femte år. Studien utvidgades med utvalda kommuner i Österbotten, Finland vid den första femårsuppföljningen. Datainsamlingen i studien bestod av demografiska frågor, skattningsskalor, blodtrycksmätning och kognitiva test genomförda vid ett hembesök i deltagarens hem, samt genomgång av journalhandlingar. År 2010 skickades även en enkät ut till 65-, 70-, 75- och 80-åringar i alla kommuner i Västerbotten och Österbotten. Enkäten innehöll frågor om demografi, hälsa, sjukdomar och intressen.

Bland deltagarna i kohortstudien bestämdes förekomsten av tidigare stroke baserat på genomgång av journaluppgifter och uppgifter från hembesöken. Förekomsten av depression bestämdes baserat på poängsättning från en validerad skattningsskala för depression, samt baserat på en sammanvägning av journaluppgifter och skattningsskalor. En specialist i geriatrik fattade det slutliga beslutet om diagnoser. Insjuknande i stroke bestämdes baserat på journalgenomgång av individer med stroke-relaterade diagnoskoder i sjukhusregistret, i dödsorsaksregistret eller uppgift om stroke vid femårsuppföljningen i studien. Bland deltagarna i enkätstudien bestämdes förekomsten av tidigare stroke baserat på självrapportering, och förekomsten av depression bestämdes baserat på en sammanvägning av självrapportering och en skattningsskala för depression. 

Förekomsten av stroke i enkätstudien steg med ålder, från 4.7% bland 65-åringar till 11.6% bland 80-åringar. Förekomsten av stroke var omkring 20% bland ≥85-åringar, med minimal variation mellan 85-, 90- och ≥95-åringar. Förekomsten av depression var högre bland dem med stroke jämfört med de övriga deltagarna, både gällande den sammavägda diagnosen och baserat endast på poängsättning. Stroke och sömnproblem var oberoende associerade med depression.

Bland ≥65-åringar i enkätstudien var funktionsnedsättning och genomgången livskris associerade med depression hos dem med en tidigare stroke. Bland deltagare utan stroke var ett antal ytterligare externa faktorer, inklusive subjektiv upplevelse av dålig ekonomi och att inte ha någon att anförtro sig till, associerade med depression.

Både stroke och depression var associerade med ökad dödlighet bland ≥85-åringar. De med stroke utan depression hade en dödlighet i linje med normalbefolkningen utan stroke eller depression. Förekomsten av samtidig stroke och depression var associerad med högre dödlighet än normalbefolkningen, jämfört med dem med enbart stroke eller enbart depression.

Högt systoliskt blodtryck (≥160 mmHg), högt diastoliskt blodtryck (≥90 mmHg) och förmaksflimmer var oberoende riskfaktorer för att insjukna i stroke bland ≥85-åringarna. Sambandet mellan blodtryck och strokerisk försvagades ej hos människor med kognitiv eller funktionell nedsättning. Tidigare stroke, hjärtsvikt, kognitiv nedsättning, näringsbrist, depressiva symtom och låg gånghastighet var också associerade med att insjukna i stroke, men ej oberoende av varandra.

Sammanfattningsvis så stiger förekomsten av stroke med åldern och är särskilt hög bland mycket gamla människor. Depression är betydligt vanligare hos mycket gamla människor med stroke, även justerat för störningsfaktorer. Depression är främst associerat med funktions-nedsättning hos människor med stroke, men med ett större antal externa faktorer hos människor utan stroke. Mycket gamla människor med stroke har särskilt hög dödlighet om de samtidigt är deprimerade, men en dödlighet i linje med normalbefolkningen om de inte är deprimerade. Högt systoliskt och diastoliskt blodtryck samt förmaksflimmer är viktiga och behandlingsbara orsaker till att drabbas av stroke i mycket hög ålder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. 56 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1800
Keyword
stroke, depression, very old, oldest old, epidemiology, mortality, risk factors, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, geriatric depression scale
National Category
Geriatrics
Research subject
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120388 (URN)978-91-7601-460-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-10, Vårdvetarhusets Aula, Lasarettsbacken 7, 907 46 Umeå, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-11-04Bibliographically approved

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