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Template-Based Design Analysis: An Alternative Approach for the Engineering Designer to Perform Computer-Based Design Analysis
Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Design (MTEK), Tillämpad konstruktion (Digitala verktyg). Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6438-2621
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current trend in industry to encourage engineering designers to take an active part in the analysis of their own design solutions is apparent in many companies today, domestically as well as abroad.

From a research project with the objective to develop a computer-based design system for the design of lightweight grippers, one of the major difficulties was to overcome the system users’ lack of knowledge and experience in the design of lightweight structures and Computer-Based Design Analysis (CBDA). CBDA here refers to the use of analysis tools such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and computer-based structural optimization. In order to handle these difficulties, the author introduced the use of templates. In the given context, a template refers to an especially preformatted code, which contains the implemented information/knowledge necessary to perform a specific task on an operational level. It should be noted that the use of templates as a means of support in performing a specific design or analysis task is not a new phenomenon in industrial practice. Inspired by the opportunities provided by the template approach, the main objective set out for the thesis project was to facilitate the active participation of the engineering designers in performing CBDA singlehandedly, or in any other organizational setting, by utilizing a Template-Based Design Analysis (TBDA) approach, as an integrated part of their activities within the engineering design process.

The evolutionary research approach for the development of the TBDA approach is based on surveys in Swedish as well as international industry, literature surveys, the development of a Generic Design Analysis (GDA) process model (facilitating integration of the activities between CBDA and engineering design) and a number of demonstrator projects to deepen the insights into TBDA. Note that as the TBDA approach is intended for use in industrial practice, the approach is independent of specific engineering design and product development processes utilized in industry.

The conclusion of the thesis work clearly supports the claim that TBDA is not only a competitive approach to current alternatives in supporting the engineering designers performing CBDA, but also of a complementary nature providing functionality not included in the alternative approaches currently used in industrial practice.

Abstract [sv]

Vid framtagning av nya produkter måste man utgå ifrån de behov som den blivande kunden ställer i form av krav och önskemål på produkten för att den ska vara intressant att inhandla och använda. För att säkerställa att den blivande produkten har de egenskaper som efterfrågas, används idag omfattande simuleringar av den blivande produktens egenskaper. Simuleringar består i avancerade beräkningar med hjälp av dator. Genom att utföra dessa tidigt i utvecklingsarbetet, så kan man väsentligen korta ned tiden för utveckling och konstruktion av produkten. Detta uppnås framför allt genom att minska behovet av att bygga och prova prototyper. Beräkningar i utvecklings- och konstruktionsarbetet spelar därför idag en väsentlig roll för att ta fram konkurrenskraftiga produkter på ett snabbt och effektivt sätt.

I denna avhandling har ett nytt tillvägagångssätt tagits fram för att låta konstruktörer själva beräkna sina konstruktionsförslag. Hittills har merparten av alla beräkningar av detta slag genomförts av beräkningsingenjörer. Nu kan man genom att tillämpa den i avhandlingen framtagna tillvägagångssättet att med hjälp av digitala mallar (program för att lösa speciella uppgifter i konstruktionsarbetet) och det föreslagna tillvägagångssättet MallBaserad KonstruktionsAnalys (MBKA) tillåta att konstruktörer, som vanligtvis inte är specialister på beräkningar, självständigt kan utföra sådana analyser. Mallarnas roll är alltså att överbrygga brister i kompetens och erfarenheter av konstruktionsberäkningar.

Redan idag finns konkurrerande sätt att tillåta konstruktörer att delta i beräkningsarbetet, men då oftast med direkt stöd av en beräkningsingenjör och med tillgång till riktlinjer. Dessa kräver att konstruktören har en viss grundkompetens för att kunna följa och tillämpa dessa. MBKA ställer inte dessa krav på kompetens och insikter, vilket gör att den kan betraktas inte bara som en konkurrent till existerande tillvägagångssätt utan också erbjuda ett helt unikt och nytt stöd genom att inte kräva kunskaper och insikter om konstruktionsberäkningar.

Av de reaktioner som erhållits i intervjuer i svensk industri, så ter sig framtiden för MBKA som mycket lovande. Många företag funderar redan idag på att införa tillvägagångssättet. Innan så kan ske, måste dock MBKA utvecklas ytterligare, vilket är målet för den fortsatta forskningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Division of Machine Design, Department of Design Sciences Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University , 2016. , 73 p.
Keyword [en]
Computer-Based Design Analysis, Engineering Design process, Template, and Template-Based Design Analysis
Keyword [sv]
Datorbaserad konstruktionsanalys, Konstruktionsprocess, undersökning, beräkningsstöd samt minskade ledtider, MallBaserad KonstruktionsAnalys
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30820Libris ID: 19377182ISBN: 978-91-7623-729-8 ISBN: 978-91-7623-730-4 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-30820DiVA: diva2:925141
Public defence
2016-04-28, Stora Hörsalen, Ingvar Kamprad Designcentrum, Sölvegatan 26, Lund, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

ISRN LUTMDN/TMKT-15/1032-SE

Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-04-29 Last updated: 2016-05-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Interaction between Computer-Based Design Analysis Activities and the Engineering Design Process – An Industrial Survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction between Computer-Based Design Analysis Activities and the Engineering Design Process – An Industrial Survey
2014 (English)In: DS 77: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2014 13th International Design Conference / [ed] Dorian Marjanović, Mario Štorga, Neven Pavković & Nenad Bojčetić, Zagreb: University of Zagreb , 2014, Vol. 2, 1283-1296 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the large majority of product development projects, computer-based design analyses are performed to assess the feasibility of potential technical solutions. As a first step to bring about a deeper understanding of the interactions between the engineering design and the design analysis activities, a survey has been performed in industry. The results of the survey cover: the use of design analysis within product development, the interactions of engineering design along the design analysis process, and the treatment of uncertainties and errors connected to the design analysis activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Zagreb: University of Zagreb, 2014
Series
International DESIGN Conference, ISSN 1847-9073 ; Vol. DS 77, Issue 3
Keyword
computer-based design analysis, engineering design process, industrial survey
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25178 (URN)2-s2.0-84958056118 (Scopus ID)
Conference
13th International Design Conference - Design 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 19-22 May, 2014
Note

Presented 20140520

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2017-03-28Bibliographically approved
2. Integration of the computer-based design analysis activity in the engineering design process – A literature survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of the computer-based design analysis activity in the engineering design process – A literature survey
2014 (English)In: Tools and methods of competitive engineering: proceedings of the tenth International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering - TMCE 2014, May 19-23, Budapest, Hungary, Vol. 2 / [ed] Imre Horváth & Zoltán Rusák, Delft: Delft University of Technology , 2014, 1181-1194 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Computer-based design analysis is nowadays a common activity in most development projects. Used for design evaluation, verification, validation, or as a support for design exploration, it fulfils an important support function for the engineering designer, thus making it essential to have an operationally efficient and effective integration between both the engineering design and design analysis activities in the overall development project. In this area, most works are focusing on software (mainly CAD/CAE) integration, but not on the integration between computer-based design analysis and engineering design at the process level or on the collaboration between the engineering designer and the design analyst. This paper presents a review of the literature on that specific topic, namely the integration of the computer-based design analysis activity in the engineering design process. Different research topics are identified and elaborated upon: integration in general process models; recommendations for the different analysis steps; analysis early in the engineering design process; integration of design analysis in the engineering designer's work; alternative usages of design analysis in the engineering design process; and others, such as recommending guidelines instead of process models, quality assurance aspects, education, and implementation issues. Some neglected aspects were also identified. Among others, there is a lack of research into the so-called technology development (development of design analysis procedures and guidelines), and a need for emphasis on uncertainties, both coupled with the design analysis activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Delft: Delft University of Technology, 2014
Keyword
Engineering design process, computer-based design analysis, design and analysis integration, literature survey
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-25179 (URN)978-94-6186-177-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering - TMCE'14, Budapest, Hungary, May 19-23, 2014
Note

Presented 2014-05-20

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-29 Last updated: 2017-03-28Bibliographically approved
3. The Engineering Designer in the Role of a Design Analyst – An Industrial Survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Engineering Designer in the Role of a Design Analyst – An Industrial Survey
2015 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, design analysts are solely responsible for all computer-based design analysis (CBDA). CBDA refers to quantitative design analyses utilizing computational tools in the engineering design and development of technical solutions. There are currently limited insights into and knowledge of tools and methods needed to facilitate the use of CBDA by engineering designers. In order to gather information on this aspect of CBDA, an industry survey has been performed. 77 persons completed the survey (16% affiliated to NAFEMS) open for twelve weeks during October-December, 2014. Around 35% answered that within their companies CBDA is used by engineering designers, and 28% of those who are not currently doing so expect to do so in the future. Linear static analysis is the most frequent type of analysis performed by engineering designers. The benefits put forward by the respondents in favor of involving engineering designers in CBDA are: it allows early evaluation of concept candidates, shortens lead time, frees resources for the analysis department, and reduces costs. 26% of the respondents answered that there is resistance from the analysis department against allowing engineering designers to perform CBDA, 19% within the engineering design department are also against this involvement and 26% answered that there has been no problem associated with this involvement. Even though the engineering designer performs CBDA on his/her own, supervision (56%) and quality assurance of the analysis results (59%) is the responsibility of the design analysts. This is also the case regarding the development of tools and methods to be used by the engineering designers as well as instruction and training of the engineering designers.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27853 (URN)
Conference
NWC15 – NAFEMS World Congress 2015, San Diego, California, USA, 21-24 June, 2015
Available from: 2015-02-17 Created: 2015-02-17 Last updated: 2016-05-20Bibliographically approved
4. A process model for enhanced integration between computer-based design analysis and engineering design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A process model for enhanced integration between computer-based design analysis and engineering design
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Engineering DesignArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The findings from a survey in industry and from an extensive literature survey revealed the need for the development of an integrated process model for computer-based design analysis (CBDA) facilitating the interactions in the engineering design process in mechanical engineering on an operational level. CBDA is here confined to the utilization of advanced computational methods and tools from computer aided engineering (CAE), such as computational structural mechanics (CSM), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and multi-body systems (MBS). In order to facilitate integration to the multitude of engineering design process models in industrial practice, including overall processes such as product innovation and product development, the process model needs to be adaptive and generic. Generic should here be interpreted as not being dependent on any specific type of product, engineering design process, or on any specific type of product innovation and/or product development process models utilized by an enterprise. Resulting from synthesis processes based on the findings from surveys and experiences gained from design analysis projects in industrial practice, the generic design analysis process (GDA) model was developed. The application of the GDA process model is exemplified by four examples, which have been utilized for validation of the process model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keyword
generic design analysis process model, computer-based design analysis, engineering design, integration, workflow
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30882 (URN)
Note

Rejected but invited to resubmit as manuscript with decision.

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-01-10
5. Development of a computer-aided fixture design system for lightweight grippers in the automotive industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a computer-aided fixture design system for lightweight grippers in the automotive industry
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Design Engineering, ISSN 1751-5874, Vol. 6, no 3, 237-261 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The need for dedicated fixtures for flexible manufacturing systems is increasing, as dedicated fixtures are lighter, more compact and, more accurate than flexible fixtures. The main challenges are that parts and processes are more and more complex, which requires designing novel or complex dedicated fixtures, and that, for one given flexible fixture to be replaced, several variants of such dedicated fixtures must be designed to hold a variety of individual parts, without imposing increased costs and delays. The systematic fixture design method and computer-aided design fixture system (CAFDS) developed and applied for the presented industrial case—novel design of lightweight (carbon fibre composite) robot grippers—is a possible approach to address these issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Genève: InderScience Publishers, 2016
Keyword
CAFD, computer-aided fixture design, fixture design, dedicated fixtures, grippers, end-of-arm tools, automated assembly, automotive industry, FMS, flexible manufacturing systems, robotic cell, KBE, knowledge-based engineering, concurrent engineering
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-30852 (URN)10.1504/IJDE.2016.079032 (DOI)
External cooperation:
Funder
VINNOVA, 2006-00129
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2016-09-12Bibliographically approved
6. Integration of Computer Aided Design Analysis into the Engineering Design Process for use by Engineering Designers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Computer Aided Design Analysis into the Engineering Design Process for use by Engineering Designers
2013 (English)In: ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition: Volume 12: Systems and Design, New York: ASME Press, 2013, Vol. 12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When developing products, engineering designers often face the problem that their candidate for a technical solution, ranging from a concept to a detailed design, needs to be analyzed by a design analyst before it is approved or rejected and the engineering designer can continue his/her activities within the product development process. If engineering designers have to send every solution candidate to a design analyst, a lot of time and money is lost. To avoid this, some Swedish companies have started to allow their engineering designers to use the analysis capabilities imbedded in modern CAD/CAE software.

          In the literature on product development and on computer based design analysis (CBDA) both processes are fairly well described. However, this cannot be said about the interaction between the two processes. This is a growing issue as it represents core knowledge for developing efficient and effective integration concepts, which in turn can be developed into likewise efficient and effective approaches on how to assist the engineering designer to perform parts of the CBDA process on his/her own. Note that when we refer to CBDA here, this is confined to the use of FEM in the development of products, primarily based on working principles originating from the area of Mechanical Engineering.

          Since we have been working on a process model for the integration between engineering design and design analysis, this has inspired us to utilize findings from these efforts to propose a conceptual model for a design analysis process driven by the engineering designer to be integrated into the product development process.

          The proposed design analysis process model is based on the use of predefined analysis methods or templates. Templates are also utilized for QA (Quality Assurance) and monitoring of the analysis activities. Responsible for the development of the analysis methods and the templates are expert design analysts, who develop these tools within a technology development process. Before allowing the engineering designers access to them, these tools need to be approved by relevant bodies within the industrial enterprise and/or by external sources such as those responsible for certification and risk management.

          In this paper we present the development of the proposed integrated design analysis process model and an industrial case study, which incorporates a non-linear design analysis activity, utilizing the FEM-program Abaqus within the CAD-software Catia V5 and its imbedded optimization module.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ASME Press, 2013
Keyword
Computer Aided Design Analysis, Design analysis, Knowledge Based Engineering, Product Development
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-24097 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2013-62130 (DOI)000360320700002 ()2-s2.0-84903489088 (Scopus ID)978-0-7918-5641-3 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2013), November 15-21, 2013, San Diego, California, USA
Note

Paper No. IMECE2013-62130

Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-04-10Bibliographically approved
7. Using Templates To Support The Engineering Designer Performing Computer-Based Design Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Templates To Support The Engineering Designer Performing Computer-Based Design Analysis
2015 (English)In: ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition: November 13-19, 2015, Houston, Texas, USA, New York: ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 11, V011T14A002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In their quest for a more efficient and effective utilization of the resources allocated to engineering design projects, and thus to the overall product development project from which the current design task(s) originate, an increasing number of companies allow engineering designers to perform Computer-Based Design Analysis (CBDA) on their own – CBDA is here confined to quantitative analyses using finite element-based structural and thermal analyses, Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Multi-Body Systems. Since all of these tools require a certain level of expertise in order to be successfully utilized in industrial practice, the types of analyses performed by the engineering designers are confined to simple, straightforward ones.

In striving for an increase of the individual engineering designer’s possibilities to actively participate in CBDA in industrial practice, an online survey has been carried out and reported in [1]. The main objective set out for this survey was to give an overview of the current situation in the global industry regarding CBDA-tasks being performed by engineering designers, what positive effects it might present to the industry and how it should be implemented for best result. Resulting from this survey, one new support, Template Based Design Analysis (TBDA), singled out as very promising for future development. TBDA is a support to be used in engineering design analyses based on the utilization of the advanced features provided by high-end Computer Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software in supporting, guiding as well as monitoring the design analysis performed by the engineering designer. It was also found that TBDA was gradually being introduced in some industrial companies.

Since TBDA is still in its infancy, substantial development needs to be invested in it to make it the full-blown support needed in industrial practice. To be able to contribute to the development of TBDA, it is essential to acquire knowledge about how companies, both national and international, are planning to introduce and utilize TBDA in industrial practice.

To that end a new online survey has been carried out, focusing on the introduction and benefits associated with TBDA. Out of a total of 64 respondents, 41 of the these were selected from the previous survey [1] and 23 came from companies known to the authors to utilize CBDA on a regular basis; these 23 were invited to participate in the interviews and as a first step, before carrying out the interviews, all of them were requested to answer the survey. 42 of them, from 17 countries, completed the online-survey. In addition to this survey, 5 Swedish companies, all utilizing CBDA on a regular basis, were participating in qualitative interviews. The main objective was to get an in-depth view on the use of engineering designers performing CBDA as well as an indication on the validity of the responses obtained in the online survey by comparing the results from the interviews and the companies response to the online survey – all companies interviewed answered the online survey in advance before the interviews were carried out.

The introduction of TBDA in an industrial setting has resulted in many advantages, such as shorter lead times, opportunities to generate more concept candidates, and increased collaboration between the engineering designers and the design analysts, all of them contributing to more mature technical solutions. Three different automation levels of TBDA have also been identified and accounted for as well as being exemplified. In the companies in which TBDA has not been implemented, some of the reasons for not doing so are high costs, company policy, and the lack of knowledge and experience on the part of the engineering designer. This paper presents the results both from the new online survey as well as from the interviews. © 2015 by ASME

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ASME Press, 2015
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29087 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2015-50584 (DOI)000377419900002 ()2-s2.0-84982976366 (Scopus ID)978-0-7918-5754-0 (ISBN)
Conference
IMECE 2015, International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 13-19, 2015, Houston, Texas, USA
Note

Paper No. IMECE2015-50584

Available from: 2015-08-04 Created: 2015-08-04 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved

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