The Bacterial (Vibrio alginolyticus) Production of Tetrodotoxin in the Ribbon Worm Lineus longissimus-Just a False Positive?
2016 (English)In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 14, no 4, 63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We test previous claims that the bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus produces tetrodotoxin (TTX) when living in symbiosis with the nemertean Lineus longissimus by a setup with bacteria cultivation for TTX production. Toxicity experiments on the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, demonstrated the presence of a paralytic toxin, but evidence from LC-MS and electrophysiological measurements of voltage-gated sodium channel-dependent nerve conductance in male Wistar rat tissue showed conclusively that this effect did not originate from TTX. However, a compound of similar molecular weight was found, albeit apparently non-toxic, and with different LC retention time and MS/MS fragmentation pattern than those of TTX. We conclude that C. maenas paralysis and death likely emanate from a compound <5 kDa, and via a different mechanism of action than that of TTX. The similarity in mass between TTX and the Vibrio-produced low-molecular-weight, non-toxic compound invokes that thorough analysis is required when assessing TTX production. Based on our findings, we suggest that re-examination of some published claims of TTX production may be warranted.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 14, no 4, 63
LC-MS; mucus; axonal conductance; Vibrio; nemertean; tetrodotoxin
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-289125DOI: 10.3390/md14040063ISI: 000374588000002PubMedID: 27023570OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-289125DiVA: diva2:924743