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An Approach to Business Modeling for Sustainable Personal Road Transport
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. (SustainTrans)
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Between 1950 and 2013 the total amount of Swedish travelling has increased from about 20 billion to about 140 billion passenger kilometers. This included an increase in travelling with private cars from about 3 billion to about 105 billion passenger kilometers, and in bus travelling from about 2.5 billion to about 5 billion passenger kilometers. The European commission has indicated that public transportation (if powered by clean fuels) is a suitable way to reduce environmental and health problems.

 

This thesis focuses on sustainable personal road transport, and aims to develop and test a new approach to examining the economic and socio-ecological sustainability effects of various road vehicles for private travelling and related business models. A special focus is set on comparing various bus systems for public transport and ways (business models) for private people to access cars. The main comparison parameters are the total cost of ownership and carbon dioxide emissions of different energy carriers for buses and cars. The Design Research Methodology is used to guide the research approach. The approach also builds on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, which includes, for example, principles that define any sustainable future and a strategic planning process. The approach first employs Strategic Life Cycle Assessment to give a quick overview of sustainability challenges in each bus life cycle stage from raw materials to end of life. Several analysis tools such as Life Cycle Costing, Life Cycle Analysis, Product Service System, and Business Model Canvas mapping are then iteratively used to ”dig deeper” into identified prioritized challenges. Literature reviews, interviews, and simulations are used as supporting methods.

 

The results from a first theoretical test of the new approach suggest that a shift from diesel buses to electric buses (powered by renewable energy) could significantly lower carbon dioxide emissions, while also significantly lowering the total cost of ownership. The theoretical calculations were followed up by testing of electric buses in real operation in eight Swedish municipalities. The tests verified the theoretical results, and showed that electric buses are better than diesel buses both from a sustainability point of view and a cost point of view, and also that electric bus operation is a practically viable alternative for public transport. The new approach was tested also by comparing a variety of business models for private car travelling. The results indicate, among other things, that only people who travel more than 13.500 kilometers per year would benefit from owning a car.

 

In all, the thesis suggests a simultaneous shift from diesel buses to electric buses in public transport and, for the majority of the car drivers that drive less than 13.500 kilometers per year, switching from car ownership to car use services would be favourable for an affordable transition of the transport sector towards sustainability. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. , 133 p.
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 3
Keyword [en]
Business Modelling, Sustainable Transport
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-11830ISBN: 978-91-7295-327-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-11830DiVA: diva2:922107
Presentation
2016-10-12, J1650, Campus Gräsvik, Karlskrona, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-22 Created: 2016-04-22 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Advancing from efficiency to sustainability in Swedish medium-sized cities: an approach for recommending powertrains and energy carriers for public bus transport systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancing from efficiency to sustainability in Swedish medium-sized cities: an approach for recommending powertrains and energy carriers for public bus transport systems
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

European national, regional, and local authorities have started to take action to make public bus transport services more effective and less polluting. Some see the possibility to move beyond a narrow focus on efficiency or carbon dioxide reductions towards an integrated sustainability perspective. This paper uses this perspective to build and test a new assessment approach that should enhance decisions on bus transport powertrains and energy carriers for Swedish medium-sized cities. The study suggests that a superiority of electric powertrains is revealed if a traditional economic analysis is integrated with a strategic sustainability perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Series
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428 ; vol. 111
Keyword
Electric bus, Life cycle assessment, Greenhouse gas emissions
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6682 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.092 (DOI)000335582500060 ()
Conference
16th Meeting of the EURO Working Group on Transportation, EWGT 2013, Porto, Portugal
Available from: 2014-07-17 Created: 2013-12-15 Last updated: 2016-04-22Bibliographically approved
2. A sensitivity analysis of total cost of ownership for electric public bus transport systems in Swedish medium sized cities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A sensitivity analysis of total cost of ownership for electric public bus transport systems in Swedish medium sized cities
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To reach Swedish national climate change reduction targets, organizations collaborate for a sustainable development to improve energy efficiency, reducing pollution and noise in public bus transport. This follow-up study continues to strengthen the previous study by deepen the economic comparisons of two electric buses with different driving range and different type of chargers. The study aims to emphasize on sensitivity analysis for the total cost of ownership (TCO) to reduce uncertainty by identifying which factors of interest that most likely cause the estimated cost values for the electric bus. The result shows that the percentage change of line distance (km/year), operational years, and investment cost would be the most influential and significant factors on TCO.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sevilla, Spain: Elsevier B.V, 2014
Keyword
Electric bus, Sensitivity analysis, Total cost of ownership, Sustainable development, Climate Change, Emissions
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6430 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2014.10.058 (DOI)000377412600087 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo019C8C0FBA3F7C80C1257DCE0035918C (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo019C8C0FBA3F7C80C1257DCE0035918C (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo019C8C0FBA3F7C80C1257DCE0035918C (OAI)
Conference
Transportation Research Procedia
Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
3. Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016, 2016, Vol. 10, 255-264 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

From a theoretical perspective, Electric buses can be more sustainable and can be cheaper than fossil fuelled buses in city traffic. The authors have not found other studies based on actual urban public transport in Swedish winter climate. Further on, noise measurements from buses for the European market where found old. The aims of this follow-up study was therefore to test and possibly verify in a real-life environment how energy efficient and silent electric buses are, and then conclude on if electric buses are preferable to use in public transport. The Ebusco 2.0 electric bus, fitted with a 311 kWh battery pack, was used and the tests carried out during November 2014 to April 2015 in eight municipalities in the south of Sweden. Six tests took place in urban traffic and two took place in more of a rural traffic setting. The energy use for propulsion was measured via logging of the internal system in the bus and via an external charging meter. The average energy use turned out to be 8 % less (0,96 kWh/km) than assumed in the earlier theoretical study. This rate allows for a 320 km range in public urban traffic. The interior of the bus was kept warm by a diesel heater (biodiesel will probably be used in a future operational traffic situation), which used 0,67 kWh/km in January. This verified that electric buses can be up to 25% cheaper when used in public transport in cities for about eight years. The noise was found to be lower, primarily during acceleration, than for buses with combustion engines in urban bus traffic. According to our surveys, most passengers and drivers appreciated the silent and comfortable ride and preferred electric buses rather than combustion engine buses. Bus operators and passenger transport executives were also positive to start using electric buses for public transport. The operators did however point out that procurement processes need to account for eventual risks regarding this new technology, along with personnel education. The study revealed that it is possible to establish a charging infrastructure for almost all studied bus lines. However, design of a charging infrastructure for each municipality requires further investigations, including electric grid capacity analysis, smart location of charging points, and tailored schedules to allow fast charging. In conclusion, electric buses proved to be a preferable alternative for all stakeholders involved in public bus transport in the studied municipalities. However, in order to electric buses to be a prominent support for sustainable development, they need to be charged either by stand-alone units or via an expansion of the electric grid, and the electricity should be made from new renewable sources.

Series
International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-3778 ; 3
Keyword
Sustainability, Electric Bus, Noise, GreenCharge
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11712 (URN)PISSN:2010-376X, EISSN:2010-3778 (ISBN)
Conference
The 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment, Madrid
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2016-09-23Bibliographically approved
4. Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, 333-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to develop and test a new approach for comparing sustainability effects (mainly approximated through CO2 emissions) and the total cost of ownership of various business models (Regular Purchasing, Car Pooling, Car Leasing, and Taxiing) applied to private cars with different energy carriers (Biogas, Ethanol, Gasoline, Plug-in Hybrid, and Electric). The results indicate that, out of all of the vehicles, electric vehicles are the most competitive—from both an ecological and economic perspective. Moreover, of all of the business models, Car Pooling is the most competitive when driving short to medium distances, reducing CO2 emissions by 20-40% compared with Regular Purchasing. Meanwhile, Car Leasing emits the same amount of CO2 emissions as Regular Purchasing if both are driven the same number of kilometers per year. The results also indicate that, from a cost effectiveness perspective, people who travel less than 2000 km per year should primarily consider using Taxis or similar services, while Car Pooling is most cost effective for those who travel from 2000 to 8500 km. For those who travel between 8500 and 13500 km per year, Car Leasing is the most cost effective, and Regular Purchasing is the best option above 13500 km per year. If most car owners were to accept and adapt to this identified need for a market move towards Car Pooling with Electric Vehicles, necessary transportation could be ensured while significantly reducing the number of cars on the road, whether from Regular Purchasing or Car Leasing, as well as those that run on fossil fuel. This, in turn, would result in less fossil fuel use, fewer emissions, and decreased negative effects on human health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Business modeling; Sustainable transport, Total Cost of Ownership, Electric car, Fossil-fueled car, Life cycle costing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11835 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.045 (DOI)000388775100031 ()
Available from: 2016-04-24 Created: 2016-04-24 Last updated: 2017-09-20Bibliographically approved

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