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Improved Self-Consumption of Photovoltaic Electricity in Buildings: Storage, Curtailment and Grid Simulations
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6745-3635
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The global market for photovoltaics (PV) has increased rapidly: during 2014, 44 times more was installed than in 2004, partly due to a price reduction of 60-70% during the same time period. Economic support schemes that were needed to make PV competitive on the electricity market have gradually decreased and self-consumption of PV electricity is becoming more interesting internationally from an economic perspective.

This licentiate thesis investigates self-consumption of residential PV electricity and how more PV power can be allowed in and injected into a distribution grid. A model was developed for PV panels in various orientations and showed a better relative load matching with east-west-oriented compared to south-oriented PV panels. However, the yearly electricity production for the east-west-system decreased, which resulted in less self-consumed electricity. Alternatives for self-consumption of PV electricity and reduced feed-in power in a community of detached houses were investigated. The self-consumption increased more with shared batteries than with individual batteries with identical total storage capacity. A 50% reduction in feed-in power leads to losses below 10% due to PV power curtailment. Methodologies for overvoltage prevention in a distribution grid with a high share of PV power production were developed. Simulations with a case with 42% of the yearly electricity demand from PV showed promising results for preventing overvoltage using centralized battery storage and PV power curtailment.

These results show potential for increasing the self-consumption of residential PV electricity with storage and to reduce stress on a distribution grid with storage and power curtailment. Increased self-consumption with storage is however not profitable in Sweden today, and 42% of the electricity from PV is far more than the actual contribution of 0.06% to the total electricity production in Sweden in 2014.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper , 2016. , 71 p.
Keyword [en]
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Grid integration, Distributed generation, Energy storage, Curtailment, Power system
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284091OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-284091DiVA: diva2:919798
Presentation
2016-05-20, 2001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-04-14 Last updated: 2016-12-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 142, 80-94 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interest in self-consumption of PV electricity from grid-connected residential systems is increasing among PV system owners and in the scientific community. Self-consumption can be defined as the share of the total PV production directly consumed by the PV system owner. With decreased subsidies for PV electricity in several countries, increased self-consumption could raise the profit of PV systems and lower the stress on the electricity distribution grid. This review paper summarizes existing research on PV self-consumption and options to improve it. Two options for increased self-consumption are included, namely energy storage and load management, also called demand side management (DSM). Most of the papers examine PV-battery systems, sometimes combined with DSM. The results show that it is possible to increase the relative self-consumption by 13-24% points with a battery storage capacity of 0.5-1. kW. h per installed kW PV power and between 2% and 15% points with DSM, both compared to the original rate of self-consumption. The total number of papers is however rather limited and further research and more comparative studies are needed to give a comprehensive view of the technologies and their potential. Behavioral responses to PV self-consumption and the impact on the distribution grid also need to be further studied.

Keyword
Photovoltaics; Self-consumption; Household electricity; Energy storage; Load shifting; Demand side management
National Category
Energy Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246975 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.028 (DOI)000350935100008 ()2-s2.0-84921375090 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Småskalig solel i byggnader - kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardagsliv
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
2. PV system layout for optimized self-consumption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PV system layout for optimized self-consumption
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With decreasing subsidies for PV systems, increased self-consumption of PV electricity could improve the profitability of grid-connected residential PV systems. Self-consumption is in this paper defined as the share of the PV production consumed in a building on an hourly basis. With higher prices for buying than selling electricity, the revenue due to self-consumption is higher than the profit of selling electricity to the grid. The focus of this paper is the potential to increase the self-consumption with alternative PV system layouts, i.e. several different azimuth and tilt angles, called 3DPV. Hourly data from an existing PV system on a detached house outside Västerås, Sweden, combined with meteorological and spot price data of electricity has been used, all from 2011. The results of one-year simulations show increased self-consumption and decreased PV production with 3DPV compared to a south-oriented PV system. The revenue decreases with 3DPV when using historical hourly spot market data. However, there are other benefits with 3DPV such as decreased rated power of the inverter due to lower PV peak production.

National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234181 (URN)
Conference
29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22 - 26 September, 2014
Available from: 2014-10-14 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2017-10-31
3. Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 112, 221-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power is an important aspect to integrate more PV power in the power system. The profit for the PV system owner can increase and the stress on the power grid can be reduced. Previous research in the field has focused on either self-consumption of PV power in individual buildings or PV power curtailment for voltage control. In this paper self-consumption of residential PV power in a community of several single-family houses was investigated using high-resolution irradiance and power consumption data. Cases with individual or shared battery energy storages for the houses were examined. PV power curtailment was investigated as a method to reduce feed-in power to the grid, i.e. peak shaving. Results indicated that the self-consumption ratio increased when using shared instead of individual storage. Reducing the feed-in power from the community by almost 50% only led to maximum 7% yearly production losses due to curtailment and storage losses. The economics for shared storage are slightly better than for individual ones. These results suggest that residential PV-battery systems should use (i) shared energy storage options if local regulations allow it and (ii) PV power curtailment if there are incentives to lower the feed-in power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Energy storage, Battery, Curtailment
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283612 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.06.039 (DOI)000385318700021 ()
Projects
Småskalig solel i byggnader – kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardaglivet
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
4. Preventing overvoltage in a distribution grid with large penetration of photovoltaic power
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preventing overvoltage in a distribution grid with large penetration of photovoltaic power
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems / [ed] Uta Betancourt / Thomas Ackermann, Darmstadt, Germany: Energynautics GmbH, 2016, 113-118 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an important component in the future energy system. High penetration of PV power in a distribution power grid might however lead to overvoltage, i.e. +10% of rated voltage, for end-users. This study compares PV power curtailment and decentralized energy storage for overvoltage prevention in a 400V/10 kV distribution grid with large penetration of PV. LiDAR analysis is used to identify rooftops suitable for PV in a Swedish distribution grid with more than 5000 end-users. Results show that power curtailment allows 22% PV electricity (19 GWh) relative to total consumption on a yearly basis without overvoltage. PV production is reduced with 0.35 GWh due to curtailment. Decentralized energy storage of in total 86 MWh capacity achieves the same result.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Darmstadt, Germany: Energynautics GmbH, 2016
Keyword
Photovoltaics, distributed generation, energy storage, distribution grid, power curtailment, Solel, distribuerad generation, energilagring, elnät
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308821 (URN)9783981654936 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Vienna, Austria, 14-15 November 2016
Projects
Småskalig solel i byggnader - kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardagslivetUtvärdering av tekniska lösningar för att hantera omfattande anslutning av solcellssystem i eldistributionsnät
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1Swedish Energy Agency, P40864-1
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2017-10-25

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