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Solid Solubility and Magnetism upon Mn Incorporation in the Bulk Ternary Carbides Cr2AlC and Cr2GaC
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
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2015 (English)In: Materials Research Letters, ISSN 2166-3831, Vol. 3, no 1, 16-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Abstract [en]

Herein, we report on the bulk synthesis of (Cr1-xMnx)(2)AlC and (Cr1-yMny)(2)GaC MAX phases. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy performed locally on MAX phase grains, revealed x and y to be 0.06 (3 at%) and 0.3 (15 at%), respectively. The introduction of Mn into the structure did not result in appreciable changes in the c-lattice constants. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements suggest that bulk (Cr0.7Mn0.3)(2)GaC may be magnetic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015. Vol. 3, no 1, 16-22 p.
Keyword [en]
MAX Phases, Solid Solution, Bulk Synthesis, Magnetism
National Category
Physical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127069DOI: 10.1080/21663831.2014.944676ISI: 000372215500003OAI: diva2:919355

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript,

At the time for thesis presentation manuscript was named: Solid solubility and magnetism upon Mn incorporation in bulk Cr2AlC and Cr2GaC MAX phases

Funding Agencies|European Research Council under the European Communitys Seventh Framework Programme [258509]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2012-4425, 642-2013-8020]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg (KAW) Academy Fellowship Program; SSF synergy grant FUNCASE Functional Carbides and Advanced Surface Engineering

Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis and Characterization of New MAX Phase Alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Characterization of New MAX Phase Alloys
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This Thesis explores synthesis and characterization of new MAX phase alloys (M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C or N), based on incorporation of M and X elements previously not considered. My primary focus is on M = Mn for attaining magnetic properties, and on X = O for potential tuning of the transport properties. A recent theoretical study predicted (Cr1-xMnx)2AlC MAX phase to be a stable magnetic nanolaminate. I aimed at realizing this material and through a combinatorial approach based on magnetron sputtering from elemental targets, the first experimental evidence of Mn incorporation (x = 0.16) in a MAX phase is presented. The corresponding MAX phase was also synthesized using cathodic arc film deposition (x = 0.20) and bulk synthesis methods (x = 0.06). The primary characterization techniques were X-ray diffraction and high-resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and/or electron energy loss spectroscopy, to obtain a precise local quantification of the MAX phase composition and to perform lattice resolved imaging. For epitaxial film growth of (Cr1-xMnx)2AlC, evidence is presented for the formation of (Cr1-yMny)5Al8, exhibiting a bcc structure with an interplanar spacing matching exactly half a unit cell of the hexagonal MAX phase. Consequently, routinely performed X-ray diffraction symmetric θ-2θ measurements result in peak positions that are identical for the two phases. As (Cr1-yMny)5Al8 is shown to display a magnetic response, its presence needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating the magnetic properties of the MAX phase. Methods  to distinguish between (Cr1-yMny)5Al8 and (Cr1-xMnx)2AlC are also suggested. As different A-element in the MAX phase is theoretically predicted to influence phase stability, attainable level of Mn  incorporation, as well as magnetic properties, thin films of (Cr0.75Mn0.25)2GeC and bulk (Cr0.7Mn0.3)2GaC have also been synthesized. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements display a magnetic response for all these materials, identifying (Cr,Mn)2AlC, (Cr,Mn)2GeC, and (Cr,Mn)2GaC as the first magnetic MAX phases. The results presented in this Thesis show that A = Al displays the highest magnetic transition temperature (well above room temperature) and A = Ga allows the highest Mn content. The attainable O incorporation in Ti2Al(C1-xOx)MAX phase was explored by arc deposition of Ti2AlC1-y thin films under high vacuum conditions, and solid-state reactions following deposition of understoichiometric TiCz on Al2O3. Ti2Al(C1-xOx)thin films with up to 13 at.% O (x = 0.52) were synthesized, and O was shown to occupy the C lattice site. The obtained O concentration is enough to allow future experimental investigations of the previously suggested (from theory) substantial change in anisotropic electronic properties with increasing O content. The experimental results obtained in this Thesis expand the MAX phase definition and the materials characteristics into new research areas, towards further fundamental understanding and functionalization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 58 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1573
National Category
Natural Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104829 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-104829 (DOI)978-91-7519-407-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-20, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2014-02-27 Created: 2014-02-27 Last updated: 2016-12-28Bibliographically approved

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