Spatio-temporal variability of lake CH4 fluxes and its influence on annual whole lake emission estimates
2015 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of printText
Lakes are major sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere that contribute significantly to the global budget. Recent studies have shown that diffusive fluxes, ebullition and surface water CH4 concentrations can differ significantly within lakes—spatially and temporally. CH4 fluxes may be affected at longer scales in response to seasons, temperature, lake mixing events, short term weather events like pressure variations, shifting winds and diel cycles. Frequent measurements of fluxes in the same system and integrated assessments of the impacts of the spatio-temporal variability are rare. Thereby, large scale assessments frequently lack information on this variability which can potentially lead to biased estimates. In this study, we analysed the variability of CH4 fluxes and surface water CH4 concentrations across open water areas of lakes in a small catchment in southwest Sweden over two annual cycles. Significant patterns in CH4 concentrations, diffusive fluxes, ebullition and total fluxes were observed in space (between and within lakes) and in time (over diel cycles to years). Differences observed among the lakes can be associated with lake characteristics. The spatial variability within lakes was linked to depth or distance to stream inlets. Temporal variability was observed at diel to seasonal scales and was influenced by weather events. The fluxes increased exponentially with temperature in all three lakes, with stronger temperature dependence with decreasing depth. By comparing subsets of our data with estimates using all data we show that considering the spatio-temporal variability in CH4 fluxes is critical when making whole lake or annual budgets.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Climate Research Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126776DOI: 10.1002/lno.10222OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-126776DiVA: diva2:916940