Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Ecosystem Services and Disservices in an Agriculture–Forest Mosaic: A Study of Forest and Tree Management and Landscape Transformation in Southwestern Ethiopia
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. (Historical Geography and Landscape Studies)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6264-6331
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The intertwined challenges of food insecurity, deforestation, and biodiversity loss remain perennial challenges in Ethiopia, despite increasing policy interventions. This thesis investigates smallholding farmers’ tree- and forest-based livelihoods and management practices, in the context of national development and conservation policies, and examines how these local management practices and policies transform the agriculture–forest mosaic landscapes of southwestern Ethiopia.

The thesis is guided by a political ecology perspective, and focuses on an analytical framework of ecosystem services (ESs) and disservices (EDs). It uses a mixed research design with data from participatory field mapping, a tree ‘inventory’, interviews, focus group discussions, population censuses, and analysis of satellite images and aerial photos.

The thesis presents four papers. Paper I investigates how smallholding farmers in an agriculture–forest mosaic landscape manage trees and forests in relation to a few selected ESs and EDs that they consider particularly beneficial or problematic. The farmers’ management practices were geared towards mitigating tree- and forest-related EDs such as wild mammal crop raiders, while at the same time augmenting ESs such as shaded coffee production, resulting in a restructuring of the agriculture–forest mosaic. Paper II builds further on the EDs introduced in paper I, to assess the effects of crop raids by forest-dwelling wild mammals on farmers’ livelihoods. The EDs of wild mammals and human–wildlife conflict are shown to constitute a problem that goes well beyond a narrow focus on yield loss. The paper illustrates the broader impacts of crop-raiding wild mammals on local agricultural and livelihood development (e.g. the effects on food security and children’s schooling), and how state forest and wildlife control and related conservation policy undermined farmers’ coping strategies. Paper III examines local forest-based livelihood sources and how smallholders’ access to forests is reduced by state transfer of forestland to private companies for coffee investment. This paper highlights how relatively small land areas appropriated for investment in relatively densely inhabited areas can harm the livelihoods of many farmers, and also negatively affect forest conservation. Paper IV investigates the patterns and drivers of forest cover change from 1958 to 2010. Between 1973 and 2010, 25% of the total forest was lost, and forest cover changes varied both spatially and temporally. State development and conservation policies spanning various political economies (feudal, socialist, and ‘free market-oriented’) directly or indirectly affected local ecosystem use, ecosystem management practices, and migration processes. These factors (policies, local practices, and migration) have thus together shaped the spatial patterns of forest cover change in the last 50 years.

The thesis concludes that national development and conservation policies and the associated power relations and inequality have often undermined local livelihood security and forest conservation efforts. It also highlights how a conceptualization of a local ecosystem as a provider of both ESs and EDs can generate an understanding of local practices and decisions that shape development and conservation trajectories in mosaic landscapes. The thesis draws attention to the need to make development and conservation policies relevant and adaptable to local conditions as a means to promote local livelihood and food security, forest and biodiversity conservation, and ESs generated by agricultural mosaic landscapes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University , 2016. , 85 p.
Series
Meddelanden från Kulturgeografiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet, ISSN 0585-3508 ; 151
Keyword [en]
conservation, deforestation, ecosystem disservices, ecosystem services, forest, Ethiopia, land grabbing, livelihood, Oromia, policies, political ecology, trees, tropical landscape mosaic
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128537ISBN: 978-91-7649-350-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-128537DiVA: diva2:915593
Public defence
2016-05-20, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-02-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Balancing Ecosystem Services and Disservices: Smallholder Farmers' Use and Management of Forest and Trees in an Agricultural Landscape in Southwestern Ethiopia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing Ecosystem Services and Disservices: Smallholder Farmers' Use and Management of Forest and Trees in an Agricultural Landscape in Southwestern Ethiopia
2014 (English)In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 1, 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Farmers' practices in the management of agricultural landscapes influence biodiversity with implications for livelihoods, ecosystem service provision, and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we examined how smallholding farmers in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape in southwestern Ethiopia manage trees and forests with regard to a few selected ecosystem services and disservices that they highlighted as beneficial or problematic. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from six villages, located both near and far from forest, using participatory field mapping and semistructured interviews, tree species inventory, focus group discussions, and observation. The study showed that farmers' management practices, i.e., the planting of trees on field boundaries amid their removal from inside arable fields, preservation of trees in semimanaged forest coffee, maintenance of patches of shade coffee fields in the agricultural landscape, and establishment of woodlots with exotic trees result in a restructuring of the forest-agriculture mosaic. In addition, the strategies farmers employed to mitigate crop damage by wild mammals such as baboons and bush pigs, e. g., migration and allocation of migrants on lands along forests, have contributed to a reduction in forest and tree cover in the agricultural landscape. Because farmers' management practices were overall geared toward mitigating the negative impact of disservices and to augment positive services, we conclude that it is important to operationalize ecosystem processes as both services and disservices in studies related to agricultural landscapes.

Keyword
agricultural landscape, biodiversity, ecosystem services and disservices, Ethiopia, farmer practices, forest, Gera, trees
National Category
Biological Sciences Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-103323 (URN)10.5751/ES-06279-190130 (DOI)000333908600042 ()
Note

AuthorCount:4;

Available from: 2014-05-13 Created: 2014-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Crop raiding by wild mammals in Ethiopia: impacts on the livelihoods of smallholders in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crop raiding by wild mammals in Ethiopia: impacts on the livelihoods of smallholders in an agriculture-forest mosaic landscape
2017 (English)In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 51, no 3, 527-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We assessed the impacts of crop raiding by wild mammals on the livelihoods of smallholding farmers in south-western Ethiopia. Data were generated through participatory field mapping, interviews and focus groups. The results indicated that wild mammals, mainly olive baboons Papio anubis and bush pigs Potamochoerus larvatus, were raiding most crops cultivated in villages close to forests. In addition to the loss of crops, farmers incurred indirect costs in having to guard and cultivate plots far from their residences, sometimes at the expense of their children's schooling. Raiding also undermined farmers’ willingness to invest in modern agricultural technologies. Various coping strategies, including guarding crops and adapting existing local institutions, were insufficient to reduce raiding and its indirect impacts on household economies to tolerable levels, and were undermined by existing policies and government institutions. It is essential to recognize wild mammal pests as a critical ecosystem disservice to farmers, and to identify ways to mitigate their direct and indirect costs, to facilitate local agricultural development and livelihood security, and integrate wildlife conservation and local development more fully in agriculture–forest mosaic landscapes.

Keyword
Agriculture, development, ecosystem disservice, Ethiopia, forest, human–wildlife conflict, Oromia, pest
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128717 (URN)10.1017/S0030605316000028 (DOI)000403791000034 ()
Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2017-07-25Bibliographically approved
3. Impacts of medium-scale forestland 'grabbing' on local livelihoods and forest conservation in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of medium-scale forestland 'grabbing' on local livelihoods and forest conservation in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128716 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-06Bibliographically approved
4. Drivers and patterns of forest cover change since the late 1950s in southwest Ethiopia: deforestation, agriculture expansion, and coffee production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers and patterns of forest cover change since the late 1950s in southwest Ethiopia: deforestation, agriculture expansion, and coffee production
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Geography with Emphasis on Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-128719 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-04-06Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Ecosystem Services and Disservices in an Agriculture–Forest Mosaic(1525 kB)732 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 1525 kBChecksum SHA-512
9ef8a4ef91418a56d4bd537f0d059c21987a4975ac02f1c254da4ce356e675c5f3858f7d520f7bb581403f77f94856752e2477bd9c288f418c71e7e752bcecc3
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Ango, Tola Gemechu
By organisation
Department of Human Geography
Human Geography

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 737 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1239 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf