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Multi-energy well kinetic modeling of novel PAH formation pathways in flames
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful by-products formed during combustion of hydrocarbons under locally fuel-rich conditions followed by incomplete combustion. PAHs act as precursors during the formation of soot. PAHs and soot are harmful for human health and legislation limits the emission of unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Consequently, other measures are necessary in order to limit the production of PAHs and soot in internal combustion engines applications, entailing a possible decrease of fuel efficiency and higher technical requirements for automotive manufactures. The combustion chemistry of PAHs is not fully understood, which prompts the need of further investigations. The chemical dynamics shown by novel pathways of PAH formation involving vinylacetylene addition to the phenyl radical opens up new horizons for the potential contribution to PAH formation through this class of reactions. In the present work novel pathways of the formation of naphthalene and phenanthrene are investigated for a laminar premixed benzene flame and a laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The purpose is to improve the prediction of the aromatic species concentration in the flames. A pathway chosen due the high potential aromatic yield is assessed through preliminary flame calculations relying on simplifying assumptions concerning reaction rates. Certain isomerisation steps of the pathway occur within a time-scale characteristic of thermal relaxation processes. Therefore, the solution of the energy grained master equation is necessary in order to calculate the phenomenological reaction rates resulting from a non-equilibrium kinetic modeling. Quantum chemical calculations are performed in order to calculate molecular properties of the species involved. These properties are subsequently processed to determine the rate constants of the sequence of multi-energy well reactions. Moreover, the chemical dynamics of the pathway is analyzed and the effect of temperature and pressure on the kinetic parameters is investigated. Despite of the potential yield demonstrated through the preliminary flame calculations, the computed rate constants show that the studied reactions are insignificant for the formation of naphthalene and phenanthrene in the studied flames. An effort is put on evaluating if the non-equilibrium kinetic modeling adopted for the calculation of the kinetic parameters is consistent with the kinetic modeling used in the flame calculations. The current work provides an efficient method to compute rate constants of multi-energy well reactions at different thermodynamic conditions, characteristic of flames and of combustion in commercial devices or in internal combustion engines. Pathways with a slightly different chemical dynamics should be tested applying the current methodology. Moreover, further studies should be aimed at overcoming possible limits of the kinetic modeling of multi-energy well reactions occurring in combustion environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 174 p.
Keyword [en]
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, soot, laminar flame, flame calculation, quantum chemical calculation, non-equilibrium kinetic modeling.
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183558OAI: diva2:912559
Subject / course
Thermal Engineering
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Industrial Engineering and Management
2016-02-09, HPT Library, Brinellvägen 68, Stockholm, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-04-27Bibliographically approved

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