Strömfördelning i triangulära elektrokroma fönster
Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Current Distribution in Triangular Electrochromic Windows (English)
One of the world’s largest energy user is the building sector, where much of the energy goes to cooling of buildings. There is need for novel technology to reduce this energy usage, and one way is to install electrochromic windows. They have the ability to vary the transmittance of visible and infrared light by the application of a small electrical voltage, and hence to save large amounts of energy and money and to increase indoor comfort by avoiding strong glares from sunlight.
This study concentrates on thin-film electrochromic devices that are based on flexible polyester foils. The conventional design is to make rectangular devices with contacts placed on transparent conductor layers opposite of each other. An electric potential is applied between the contacts, generating an electric field which causes ions to move between films of electrochromic active materials. Since there is an interest on the market for electrochromic windows of other geometries, such as triangular, there is a need to know how to place the contacts in order to obtain a rapid and uniform colouring and bleaching of the device. In order to investigate this, a mathematical model describing the current distribution over the device is a great tool.
The model used in this study takes secondary current distribution into account, which includes ohmic effects and electrode kinetics, but neglects diffusive effects due to the assumption that the electrolyte is homogeneous. It describes the two dimensional ohmic flow through the transparent conductor films, the local current due to electrochemical effects in the electrochromic active materials, and a correlation between the optical properties and the injected charge over time. The model is simulated using FlexPDE, which solves the system of differential equations using a Finite Elements Method (FEM). To adjust model parameters, model simulation results are compared to experimental data from rectangular electrochromic devices. Initially, experiments are done on small are devices on which current distribution effects are small. The model is then further developed and validated using large area rectangular devices with 67 cm between the contacts.
The model is shown to meet the aims of this study, which is to obtain a simulation tool which can predict the trend in the transmittance distribution. The strength of having this model at hands is that it becomes possible to simulate the transmittance behaviour over time for full size electrochromic windows of different geometries, without having to manufacture expensive devices for experiments. It provides a great design tool for optimizing a rapid and uniform colouring and bleaching, and to investigate how to reduce material costs without affecting performance too much. In this study an example which shows the strength of the model is given. The placement of contacts and its effect on the transmittance distribution in triangular electrochromic windows is examined. It shows that the current distribution model enables time-efficient and cheap design of electrochromic windows.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 27 p.
UPTEC F, ISSN 1401-5757 ; 16004
window, electrochromic, current distribution, triangular
elektrokromism, fönster, elektrokroma, strömfördelning, triangulär
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280676OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-280676DiVA: diva2:911781
Master Programme in Engineering Physics
D. Engfeldt, Johnny
Nyberg, TomasNiklasson, Gunnar